Gaming…<br />Education<br />or<br />Entertainment?<br />
Interactive media environments in education have been praised and criticized by educators, students and developers alike. ...
What are your ideas of computer games in the classroom?<br />
Visual Literacy <br />To ‘read’ media:images,pictures & text through<br />mobile phones    -   brochures    -    magazines...
...digital technologies are shaping our society and the way we learn and communicate...<br />
Interactive media environments <br />= <br />Computer Games<br />Computer Games are the highest earning entertainment medi...
How do computer games foster learning?<br />
Computer Games, MMO’s and their integration into education has been a public debate for many years.<br />(Duke & Greenblat...
<ul><li>  How can games educate?
  Is there a divide between games    </li></ul>meant to educate and games meant to entertain? <br /><ul><li>  How can game...
  Can these game genres coexist?
  Is it possible to merge entertainment and edutainment; Can there be a hybrid?
  Does educational content take away all the fun? </li></li></ul><li>Is it time to rethink these ideas about education, en...
Edutainment &gt; Thinly veiled attempts to make students &quot;learn&quot; facts or skills that have been traditional goal...
In computer games the activities the user performs playing are identical to those required to learn. <br />(Norman, 1993)....
Computer Games enable new forms of knowledge interaction previously unavailable within the normal curriculum.<br />
How can games and literacy be linked?<br />
“When people learn to play computer games, they are learning a new literacy,” Gee (2003)<br />
Computer games encourage literacy through the interaction and understanding of signs, images and texts also known as Semio...
“Narrative is not an inherent feature of computer games, but something merely implemented in a game virtually. The actual ...
For computer games to be inherently effective in facilitating literacy and critical thinking &quot;…the learner must see a...
Visual Literacy:<br />Texts are not understood purely verbally, but are understood in terms of embodied experiences<br />“...
Computer games  &gt; media devices enable players to interact meaningfully with each other.  <br />Encouraging:<br />metac...
Computer games facilitate 21st Century literacy skills as well as traditional literacy skills.<br />
Any questionsor ideas?<br />
How can computer games help enhance student’s skills in other important areas of curriculum?<br />
Computer  games represent a new technology which creates a potential learning environment that shares little with traditio...
Gee (2003) and Steinkuehler (2004) state that instructional potential of games can only be realized through awareness to t...
Hadfield and Jopling (2008) note that schools need to encourage learning, which is:<br /><ul><li>Deep
Authentic
Motivational</li></li></ul><li>“When kids play video games they experience a much more powerful form of learning than when...
Tangential Learning &gt; Self Educate if exposed to something they are highly engaged in<br />As Winston Churchill once st...
Will computer games created to teach educational aspects engage learners in the same fashion as commercial computer games?...
How can educators implement the use of computer games within their classroom?<br />
Computer games should be used as support material rather than the main tool in the learning<br />Can commercial games be u...
&quot;It is already apparent that contemporary students have limited attention spans, have a more visual learning style th...
Integrating Computer Games into a lesson:<br />Ensure:<br /> Educator and Students are clear about the learning objectives...
Factors to consider:<br /><ul><li>  The technical resources of the school
  Institutional and professional factors
  The extent to which games can be broken up </li></ul>and appropriated to meet specific needs<br /><ul><li>  The individu...
How can educators incorporate commercial computer games into a learning experience within a literacy context?<br />
Examples:<br />Violence in Games - Use of Specific aspect of a game.<br />Essential Learning&apos;s:<br />Ways of working-...
Experiment with operational processes and use the basic capabilities of a range of ICT devices.</li></li></ul><li>When des...
Time for encouraging reflection and review of games-based activities needs to be systematically built into lesson plans, w...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Gaming in Education

3,086 views

Published on

Gaming in Education

  1. 1. Gaming…<br />Education<br />or<br />Entertainment?<br />
  2. 2. Interactive media environments in education have been praised and criticized by educators, students and developers alike. But recent research is causing us to reconsider the roles of literacy, technology, fun, and commercial games in an educational context. This presentation will provide an overview of interactive media environments, some of the contemporary and former research as well as some ways to incorporate interactive media into the classroom.<br />
  3. 3. What are your ideas of computer games in the classroom?<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Visual Literacy <br />To ‘read’ media:images,pictures & text through<br />mobile phones - brochures - magazines<br />televisions - computers - internet <br />&<br />interactive media <br />environments <br />
  6. 6. ...digital technologies are shaping our society and the way we learn and communicate...<br />
  7. 7. Interactive media environments <br />= <br />Computer Games<br />Computer Games are the highest earning entertainment medium in the world.<br />Therefore becoming the most influential ‘text’ in contemporary societies.<br />
  8. 8. How do computer games foster learning?<br />
  9. 9. Computer Games, MMO’s and their integration into education has been a public debate for many years.<br />(Duke & Greenblat, 1981; Dempsey et.al., 1993)<br />
  10. 10. <ul><li> How can games educate?
  11. 11. Is there a divide between games </li></ul>meant to educate and games meant to entertain? <br /><ul><li> How can games facilitate literacy and learning?
  12. 12. Can these game genres coexist?
  13. 13. Is it possible to merge entertainment and edutainment; Can there be a hybrid?
  14. 14. Does educational content take away all the fun? </li></li></ul><li>Is it time to rethink these ideas about education, entertainment and the student learning experience?<br />
  15. 15. Edutainment &gt; Thinly veiled attempts to make students &quot;learn&quot; facts or skills that have been traditional goals of education through outdated computer games.<br />Entertainment &gt; Engaging and attractive graphicenvironments that arescaffolded with goals that are appropriately difficult for players. <br />
  16. 16. In computer games the activities the user performs playing are identical to those required to learn. <br />(Norman, 1993). <br />They share some of the same goals: interactivity, challenges, guided discovery, relevance, meaning and provide feedback.<br />(Hedberg and Harper, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Norman, 1993). <br />
  17. 17. Computer Games enable new forms of knowledge interaction previously unavailable within the normal curriculum.<br />
  18. 18. How can games and literacy be linked?<br />
  19. 19. “When people learn to play computer games, they are learning a new literacy,” Gee (2003)<br />
  20. 20. Computer games encourage literacy through the interaction and understanding of signs, images and texts also known as Semiosis.<br />Semiotic processes are a fundamental act of human cognition and are the way in which we usually make sense of the world.<br />In games, these semiotic processes become a narrative for the player.<br />
  21. 21. “Narrative is not an inherent feature of computer games, but something merely implemented in a game virtually. The actual construction of the narrative is always done by the player by taking the signs on the interface and interpreting them further&quot;. (Kuchlich, 2004) <br />
  22. 22. For computer games to be inherently effective in facilitating literacy and critical thinking &quot;…the learner must see and appreciate the semiotic domain as a design space...as ways of thinking, acting and interacting...” Gee (2003) <br />
  23. 23. Visual Literacy:<br />Texts are not understood purely verbally, but are understood in terms of embodied experiences<br />“Game environments situate meaning in multimodal space through embodied experiences to solve problems and reflect…” (Gee, 2003)<br />
  24. 24. Computer games &gt; media devices enable players to interact meaningfully with each other. <br />Encouraging:<br />metacognition<br />communication <br />collaboration <br />comprehension. <br />
  25. 25. Computer games facilitate 21st Century literacy skills as well as traditional literacy skills.<br />
  26. 26. Any questionsor ideas?<br />
  27. 27. How can computer games help enhance student’s skills in other important areas of curriculum?<br />
  28. 28. Computer games represent a new technology which creates a potential learning environment that shares little with traditional schooling, but much with how learning, thinkingand understanding works. (Gee, 2005, p. 81)<br />
  29. 29. Gee (2003) and Steinkuehler (2004) state that instructional potential of games can only be realized through awareness to the fact that learning is a social practice. <br />Gee (2003) states “good video-games teach users to solve problems and reflect on the intricacies of the design of imagined worlds and the design of both real and imagined social relationships and identities in the modern world”<br />MMOs are complex communities characterized by a &quot;full range of social and material practices&quot; (Steinkuehler, 2004, p. 9<br />
  30. 30. Hadfield and Jopling (2008) note that schools need to encourage learning, which is:<br /><ul><li>Deep
  31. 31. Authentic
  32. 32. Motivational</li></li></ul><li>“When kids play video games they experience a much more powerful form of learning than when they’re in the classroom...The secret of a video game as a teaching machine isn’t its immersive 3-D graphics, but its underlying architecture. Each level dances around the outer limits of the player’s abilities, seeking at every point to be hard enough to be just doable.” (Gee, 2003)<br />
  33. 33. Tangential Learning &gt; Self Educate if exposed to something they are highly engaged in<br />As Winston Churchill once stated, “I am always ready to learn although I do not always like being taught.&quot;<br />
  34. 34. Will computer games created to teach educational aspects engage learners in the same fashion as commercial computer games?<br />
  35. 35. How can educators implement the use of computer games within their classroom?<br />
  36. 36. Computer games should be used as support material rather than the main tool in the learning<br />Can commercial games be used within the teaching and learning process?<br />
  37. 37. &quot;It is already apparent that contemporary students have limited attention spans, have a more visual learning style than their predecessors, and need to be entertained in the classroom” (Affisco, 1994) <br />
  38. 38. Integrating Computer Games into a lesson:<br />Ensure:<br /> Educator and Students are clear about the learning objectives and how the game will assist in achieving these learning objectives.<br />
  39. 39. Factors to consider:<br /><ul><li> The technical resources of the school
  40. 40. Institutional and professional factors
  41. 41. The extent to which games can be broken up </li></ul>and appropriated to meet specific needs<br /><ul><li> The individual educators personal experience </li></ul>of games play<br /><ul><li> The inclusion of cultural expectations of </li></ul>children’s attitudes to and expertise in <br />playing computer games.<br />
  42. 42. How can educators incorporate commercial computer games into a learning experience within a literacy context?<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Examples:<br />Violence in Games - Use of Specific aspect of a game.<br />Essential Learning&apos;s:<br />Ways of working-<br /><ul><li>Reflect on and identify the impacts of products and processes on people and their communities.</li></ul>Knowledge and Understanding -<br /><ul><li>Different ideas for designs and products are developed to meet needs and wants of people, their communities and environments.</li></li></ul><li>2. Ancient Civilisations – Daily use of game to facilitate learning.<br />Essential Learning&apos;s:<br />Knowledge and Understanding -<br /><ul><li>Identify the inquiry focus and match appropriate ICTs and possible digital information sources and ways of gathering data and information.
  45. 45. Experiment with operational processes and use the basic capabilities of a range of ICT devices.</li></li></ul><li>When designing learning experiences to incorporate commercial computer games educators should consider the following points:<br /><ul><li>Allow sufficient time for both them and their students to become familiar with the game – this may be more time than initially expected.
  46. 46. Time for encouraging reflection and review of games-based activities needs to be systematically built into lesson plans, with contingency set aside for technical issues that may emerge during games play.
  47. 47. Working with ‘digital native’ student groups may be beneficial in developing new approaches to teaching and learning. </li></li></ul><li>Commercial computer games can be a powerful tool when used appropriately and in the right context within learning experiences.<br />&quot;Games bring together the rarely associated elements of play, laughter, and learning which bring joy to learning. Why not make learning in our schools joyful?” (Powers, 1994)<br />
  48. 48. Today’s average student is immensely different from students of the past years simply by the environment and the culture in which they have been raised. <br />8 Intrinsic Needs of Students of the Digital Age. These are the ability to:-Work in responsive information environments-Communicate-Share personal experiences and identities-Form and participate in communities-Ask questions-Illustrate accomplishments-Invest themselves -Safely make mistakes<br />(Norman, 1993)<br />
  49. 49. Students of the digital age call for a new way of learning: a more interactive learning style. <br />&quot;Simulation and gaming offers our best chance of reaching these students” (Affisco,)<br />
  50. 50. What Computer Games must be is not all they can be <br />
  51. 51. References:<br />Affisco, J.F. (1994). My experiences with simulation/gaming. Simulation and Gaming, 25,166-171. <br />Churchill, W. (n.d) Quote. Retrieved August 10th, 2009, from:http://www.quotationspage.com/quote/23615.html<br />Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, New York, USA: Harper and Row.<br />Dempsey, J., Lucassen, B., Gilley, W., & Rasmussen, K. (1993). Since Malone&apos;s theory of intrinsically motivating instruction: What&apos;s the score in the gaming literature? Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 22(2), 173-183.<br />QSA (n.d) Essential Learning&apos;s. Retrieved August 10th, 2009, from: http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/learning/7261.html<br />Gee, J. P. (2003). What Video-games have to Teach us about Learning and Literacy. New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.<br /> <br />Gee, J. P. (2004). Learning about Learning from a Video Game: Rise of Nations, retrieved March 16, 2006, from, http://distlearn.man.ac.uk/download/RiseOfNations.pdf.<br />Herz, J.C. (1997). Joystick nation: How videogames ate our quarters, won our hearts, and rewired our minds. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.<br />Hedberg, J. & Harper.B, (1996) &quot;Interactive Educational Technologies: Effective Design and Application in the Classroom,&quot; 3rd International Interactive Multimedia Symposium, pg 160-168.<br />
  52. 52. Hedberg, J. & Harper.B, (1996) &quot;Interactive Educational Technologies: Effective Design and Application in the Classroom,&quot; 3rd International Interactive Multimedia Symposium, pg 160-168.<br />Johnson, (2005) Everything bad is good for you: How today&apos;s popular culture is actually making us smarter. Allen Lane, London. <br />Kucklich, J. (2004) Neverendingstories: Perspectives of computer game philology. In Proceedings of the Challenge of Computer Games. Retrieved August 10th, from: http://www.uni.lodz.pl/kmk/a_03.htm. <br />Mann, C., & Stewart, F. (2000). Internet Communication and Qualitative Research: A Handbook for<br />Researching On-line, London: Sage.<br />Norman , D. (1993)Things that Make Us Smart: Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine. New York: Addison-Wesley, <br />Peng, W. (2004). Is playing games all bad? Positive effects of computer and video games in learning. Paper presented at 54th Annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans, USA,pg 27-31.<br /> <br />Steinkuehler, C. A. (2004). Learning in massively multiplayer online games. In Kafai, Y. B., Sandoval, W. A., <br /> <br />Saegesser, Francois (1981). Simulation-Gaming in the Classroom. Some Obstacles and Advantages. Simulation & Games, Vol. 12, No. 3: 281-294.<br />Powers, R. B. (1994). How should I spend my $25 million lottery winnings?.5. Simulation and Gaming. 25, 226-235.<br /> <br />

×