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Writing to make a difference- while staying out of trouble

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Motivation for writing, the structure of academic arguments, and how to avoid plagiarism.

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Writing to make a difference- while staying out of trouble

  1. 1. Wri$ng  to  Make  A  Difference…   While  Staying  Out  of  Trouble   1   Prof. Kim Nicholas Earth Systems Science, LUMES, Lund University 26 August 2016
  2. 2. Rearview  Mirror:     Thoughts  from  Yesterday   •  Self-­‐awareness:  clarify  your  own  rules  at  the   start,  consider  you  might  be  wrong   •  Eye  contact,  body  language   •  Ask  ques$ons,  listen  carefully     •  Flexible,  adaptable,  humor,  fair   •  Give  space  for  others  to  express  their  views   2  
  3. 3. Outline  for  today   1.  Why  write?     2.  Making  academic  arguments   3.  Plagiarism  and  how  to  avoid  it   3  
  4. 4. Outline  for  today   1.  Why  write?     2.  Making  academic  arguments   3.  Plagiarism  and  how  to  avoid  it   4  
  5. 5. Why  do  we  write?   5  
  6. 6. Blogs.abc.net.au   6  
  7. 7. Blogs.abc.net.au   ?   7  
  8. 8. Making  the  thinking  of  wri/ng  visible… 8   Process  of  wri$ng  “Peer  Wri$ng  Tutors  Help   Interna$onal,  Interdisciplinary  Students  to   Stake  their  Claim”  (Nicholas,  Brady,  and   Rylander,  2015)      
  9. 9. 9   Maybe  we  should  call  it  academic  revising…   Kim’s  masters  thesis  revisions   Photo:  Flickr  user  Amanky    
  10. 10. 10   …  and  revising,  and  revising…     Photo:  Flickr  user  natalij  
  11. 11. Outline  for  today   1.  Why  write?     2.  Making  academic  arguments   3.  Plagiarism  and  how  to  avoid  it   11  
  12. 12. 12   Here’s  a  claim:  Herb  spirals  are  nice  to  build!     Greenhouse  Educa$onal  Ecosystem,  Lund.  Photo:  KAN  
  13. 13. Here’s  lots  of  evidence  for  building  a  herb  spiral!     13   Photo:  Wikimedia  Commons    
  14. 14. But  WHY  should  we  build  the  spiral   like  that?     14  
  15. 15. Reasons  let  you  understand  the  logic   and  transfer  it  to  new  situa$ons   15   Image:  hgp://www.zagorska.com/zagorska-­‐oasis-­‐blog/build-­‐your-­‐own-­‐herb-­‐spiral/  
  16. 16. Reasons  let  you  understand  the  logic   and  transfer  it  to  new  situa$ons   16   Image:  hgp://www.zagorska.com/zagorska-­‐oasis-­‐blog/build-­‐your-­‐own-­‐herb-­‐spiral/   Be  sure  you     understand     context!    
  17. 17. What  does  academic  wri$ng  do?   Rylander,  2014,  p.  3   •  Make  an  argument!     17  
  18. 18. What  does  academic  wri$ng  do?   Rylander,  2014,  p.  3   •  Make  an  argument!     WikiHow,  “How  to  win  a  fist  fight.”     18  
  19. 19. What  does  academic  wri$ng  do?   Rylander,  2014,  p.  3   •  Make  an  argument!     WikiHow,  “How  to  win  a  fist  fight.”     19  
  20. 20. What’s  an  academic  argument   an argument appropriately  engaging  with  sources  involves  constructing  your  own  argument.  “Argument”  in   ay life often means conflict, but in the academic world it more often means a well-supported at is convincingly presented in writing or a presentation. Almost every type of text written at a ity has some type of argument, an idea or claim that you want to convince your readers is Craft of Research, Booth et. al. (2008) define five elements of an argument: claims, reasons, ce, counterargument, and warrants. In this introduction,  we’ll focus on the first three, which olutely essential elements of an argument, with brief explanations of the last two. Here’s  how   et. al. (2008) formulate the relationship between claims, reasons, and evidence. in claim of a paper is the sentence or short section of the text that articulates an assertion uld be true or false (i.e., not a fact). That is, someone could disagree with you and write the te paper. If  you’re  working  with  a  problem  or  a  question  in  your  text,  then  your  main  claim  will   solution or the answer. In order to convince the reader that your solution or answer is the ne,  you’ll  have  to  present  various  reasons  that  your  claim  is  true (these reasons are also known CLAIM http:// awelu. srv.lu.s e/acad emic- REASON(S) EVIDENCEbecause of based on Rylander,  2014,  p.  3   •  “A  well-­‐supported  idea  that  is   convincingly  presented  in  wri/ng  or  in   a  presenta/on.”     20  
  21. 21. What’s  a  claim?   Photo:  Douglas  Newton,  Ohio  State  U   •  A  statement  that  could  be  true  or   false  (it’s  possible  to  disagree)   •  The  solu$on  to  a  problem   •  The  answer  to  a  ques$on   •  Contributes  to  and  advances  a   conversa$on  (“I  Say”  in  response   to  “They  Say”)     (some$mes  called  a  “thesis   statement”)    Rylander,  2014,  p.  3   21  
  22. 22. An  excellent  claim   “The  major  claim  of  the  paper  is  stated  clearly  at  the   outset  of  the  paper,  and  is  complex,  insighCul,   interes/ng,  and  original,  while  being  specific  enough   to  be  answerable.  The  claim  advances  our   understanding,  rather  than  repea$ng  what  others   have  found.  The  claim  responds  to  a  real  and   important  ques/on,  tension  or  problem.”     Nicholas,  2014,  PCA  Rubric,  p.  1   22  
  23. 23. How  to  make  claims   KIM   23   First Draft: Intention Final Draft “In this essay I will discuss how vulnerable Sweden is to the decline in the number and diversity of wild bumblebees, with also including a comparison with the rest of the EU.” “This essay intends to argue that bumblebees and their pollination services are not of a great economical importance to Sweden.”
  24. 24. How  to  make  claims   KIM   24   First Draft: Intention Final Draft “In this essay I will discuss how vulnerable Sweden is to the decline in the number and diversity of wild bumblebees, with also including a comparison with the rest of the EU.” “This essay intends to argue that bumblebees and their pollination services are not of a great economical importance to Sweden.” “From my previous studies we were taught not to take a stance, we were only allowed to discuss and analyze, but always being objective. I therefore find it very hard to present a standpoint on a [specific] topic.” Student:
  25. 25. How  to  make  claims   KIM   25   First Draft: Intention Final Draft “In this essay I will discuss how vulnerable Sweden is to the decline in the number and diversity of wild bumblebees, with also including a comparison with the rest of the EU.” “This essay intends to argue that bumblebees and their pollination services are not of a great economical importance to Sweden.” “From my previous studies we were taught not to take a stance, we were only allowed to discuss and analyze, but always being objective. I therefore find it very hard to present a standpoint on a [specific] topic.” “Now to make what we are writing significant and so that ultimately we can produce a thesis that contributes to scientific knowledge, rather than summarises it, we have been asked to write with an opinion.” Student: Tutor:
  26. 26. How  to  make  claims   KIM   26   First Draft: Intention Final Draft: Claim “In this essay I will discuss how vulnerable Sweden is to the decline in the number and diversity of wild bumblebees, with also including a comparison with the rest of the EU.” “This essay intends to argue that bumblebees and their pollination services are not of a great economical importance to Sweden.” “From my previous studies we were taught not to take a stance, we were only allowed to discuss and analyze, but always being objective. I therefore find it very hard to present a standpoint on a [specific] topic.” “Now to make what we are writing significant and so that ultimately we can produce a thesis that contributes to scientific knowledge, rather than summarises it, we have been asked to write with an opinion.” Student: Tutor:
  27. 27. Claim  in  the  $tle!     27  
  28. 28. What  were  some  claims  from  your   PCA  papers?   28  
  29. 29. Reasons   e Craft of Research, Booth et. al. (2008) define five elements of an argument: claims, reasons, nce, counterargument, and warrants. In this introduction,  we’ll focus on the first three, which bsolutely essential elements of an argument, with brief explanations of the last two. Here’s  how h et. al. (2008) formulate the relationship between claims, reasons, and evidence. main claim of a paper is the sentence or short section of the text that articulates an assertion could be true or false (i.e., not a fact). That is, someone could disagree with you and write the site paper. If  you’re  working  with  a  problem  or  a  question  in  your  text,  then  your  main  claim  wi e solution or the answer. In order to convince the reader that your solution or answer is the one,  you’ll  have  to  present  various  reasons  that  your  claim  is  true (these reasons are also know ub-claims”),  and  then  present  evidence  for  those  reasons. How many sub-claims you need and much  evidence  depends  on  the  topic  and  what  you  judge  your  readers’  expectations  to  be.   CLAIM http:// awelu. srv.lu.s e/acad emic- integrit y/plagi arism/ REASON(S) EVIDENCEbecause of based on •  Claims  don’t  exist  in  a  vacuum   •  You  need  a  relevant  mo/va/on  to  support  your   claim,  and  answer  “why  is  your  claim  right?”   •  Hint:  “Because  I  feel  or  think  so”  is  not  a  good   enough  reason  to  convince  others!       Rylander,  2014,  p.  3-­‐4   29  
  30. 30. What  were  some  reasons  from  your   PCA  papers?     How  do  we  know  that  your  claim  COULD  be   true?     30  
  31. 31. Evidence   e Craft of Research, Booth et. al. (2008) define five elements of an argument: claims, reasons, nce, counterargument, and warrants. In this introduction,  we’ll focus on the first three, which bsolutely essential elements of an argument, with brief explanations of the last two. Here’s  how h et. al. (2008) formulate the relationship between claims, reasons, and evidence. main claim of a paper is the sentence or short section of the text that articulates an assertion could be true or false (i.e., not a fact). That is, someone could disagree with you and write the site paper. If  you’re  working  with  a  problem  or  a  question  in  your  text,  then  your  main  claim  wi e solution or the answer. In order to convince the reader that your solution or answer is the one,  you’ll  have  to  present  various  reasons  that  your  claim  is  true (these reasons are also know ub-claims”),  and  then  present  evidence  for  those  reasons. How many sub-claims you need and much  evidence  depends  on  the  topic  and  what  you  judge  your  readers’  expectations  to  be.   CLAIM http:// awelu. srv.lu.s e/acad emic- integrit y/plagi arism/ REASON(S) EVIDENCEbecause of based on •  DATA!  (also  called  “empirical  material”)   •  Two  sources  of  data:     •  Original  research  (your  own  observa$ons  and   analysis)   •  Secondary  research  (using  the  direct   observa$ons  and  analysis  of  others)     Rylander,  2014,  p.  3-­‐4   31  
  32. 32. What  evidence  did  you  use  to  support   your  claim  in  your  PCA?     •  How  do  we  know  that  your  claim  IS  true?     32  
  33. 33. Using  Others’  Work   •  We  absolutely  need  the  work  of  others  to  engage  in   the  conversa$on  and  contribute  to  academic  wri$ng   and  develop  independent  and  cri/cal  thinking  skills     •  It  is  absolutely  essen$al  to  use  and  give  credit  to  the   ideas  of  others  fairly     •  Failing  to  do  so  is  plagiarism     •  Fortunately,  approaching  your  work  in  the  right  way   will  both  make  your  wri$ng  stronger,  and  ensure  you   avoid  plagiarism.     33  
  34. 34. Outline  for  today   1.  Why  write?     2.  Making  academic  arguments   3.  Plagiarism  and  how  to  avoid  it   34  
  35. 35. What  is   plagiarism?     Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   35  
  36. 36. 2012  policy  says…   “Plagiarism  is  a  lack  of  independence  in  the   design  and/or  wording  of  academic  work   presented  by  a  student  compared  to  the   level  of  independence  required  by  the   educa$onal  context.”   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   36  
  37. 37. 2012  policy  says…   “Deceilul  plagiarism  is  a  lack  of   independence  combined  with  an  intent  on   the  part  of  the  student  to  present  the  work   of  others  as  his  or  her  own.”   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   37  
  38. 38. Why  does   plagiarism   maRer?   38  
  39. 39. 39  
  40. 40. 40   Is this cheating/plagiarism? Yes May be No 1. Submitting someone else’s work as one’s own 2. Submitting an essay a friend has written with the friend’s permission to use it as one’s own 3. Copying a text word for word and acknowledging where the text is from without using quotation marks 4. Paraphrasing a text and acknowledging where the text is from without using quotation marks 5. Paraphrasing a text by copying and pasting, then changing some words and including a reference 7. Referring to sources in a book or article without having read the original sources oneself 8. Omitting results that disagree with the results one is aiming for 10. Recycling what one has written in previous essays or papers 11. Allowing a course mate to read and (possibly) copy one’s own text 12. Not handing in an assignment on time and falsely claiming that the delay is due to illness 13. Draw conclusions and make statements without making any references 14. Copying a chart or a diagram from a website without properly acknowledging its source 15. Using a commonly known fact without citing a source 16. Using someone else’s ideas, rewriting them and including a reference Adapted from Hult, Å., Hult, H. (2003) Att fuska och plagiera - ett sätt att leva eller ett sätt att överleva? (To cheat and plagiarise – a way of life or a way of survival?) Report nr 6, p.33, Linköping University, Centre for Learning and Teaching”. Available at: http://www.liu.se/cul/filarkiv-cul/1.94087/CULrapportnr62003.pdf
  41. 41. How  does   plagiarism   happen?     41  
  42. 42. How  does  plagiarism  happen?     •  Inten$onal  deceit  (paying  others,  using  en$re  essays  or   sec$ons  of  other’s  work)     •  Much  more  common:  uninten$onal     –  Transcribing  original  text  as  notes  and  forgemng  they  are  not   your  words   –  Working  too  much  on  a  sentence  level  and  rephrasing  text   too  literally   –  Struggling  with  developing  your  own  argument,  and  using  an   argument  from  other  sources  without  proper  agribu$on     –  Struggling  with  language  and  over-­‐relying  on  other’s  words   –  Not  giving  credit  where  credit  is  due  with  proper  cita$ons   42  
  43. 43. How  to  avoid  plagiarism     1.  Read  to  understand  the  source   2.  Incorporate  sources  fairly     1.  Develop  good  prac$ce  in  summarizing  and  paraphrasing     2.  Fairly  agribute  ideas  to  their  source   3.  Understand  and  follow  APA  cita$on  to  clearly  indicate   origin  of  ideas   43  
  44. 44. read   •  iden$fy  claims  in  others’  texts  and  their   strengths  and  weaknesses       •  evaluate  others’  argumenta$on     •  decipher  the  conversa$on  others  engage  in     •  assess  wri$ng  norms  in  your  field       to  understand  the  source   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   44  
  45. 45. incorporate     sources   • Summarize   • Paraphrase   • Quote   • Reference   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   45  
  46. 46. incorporate     sources   • Summarize   • Paraphrase   • Quote   • Reference   Focuses  on  main   ideas  in  the  text   as  a  whole   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   46  
  47. 47. Tip!   Plagiarism  is  ooen  easily  detectable  by   shios  in  language  quality.  It’s  beger  to  use   your  own  words  with  gramma$cal  mistakes   than  take  text  without  mistakes  as  your   own.  Plagiarism  is  a  much  worse  offense   than  poor  grammar.           Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   47  
  48. 48. Good  wri$ng  is  simple  wri$ng.       Don’t  use  big  words  to  try  to   sound  smart.       Use  simple  words  well  to  show   you  understand  big  ideas.       48  
  49. 49. incorporate     sources   • Summarize   • Paraphrase   • Quote   • Reference   Rewording  of  a   sentence-­‐level   detail  in  a  source’s   text   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   49  
  50. 50. Tip!   A  proper  paraphrase  uses  less  than  20%  of   source’s  language.  More  than  20%  and  you   approach  patchwri$ng  territory.           Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   50  
  51. 51. Image:  hgp://www.hacker9.com/why-­‐you-­‐should-­‐never-­‐copy-­‐paste-­‐your-­‐passwords.html   51  
  52. 52. Image:  hgp://www.hacker9.com/why-­‐you-­‐should-­‐never-­‐copy-­‐paste-­‐your-­‐passwords.html   Never  copy  +  paste   52  
  53. 53. incorporate     sources   • Summarize   • Paraphrase   • Quote   • Reference   Source’s  exact   words  in  quota/on   marks.     Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   53  
  54. 54. Tip!   Summarize  and  paraphrase   more  than  quote  directly.       Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   54  
  55. 55. incorporate     sources   • Summarize   • Paraphrase   • Quote   • Reference   Acknowledgment  of   source  use  both  in-­‐ text  and  in  a   reference  list   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   55  
  56. 56. Clear  &  fair  agribu$on   Human  impact  on  the  environment  can  be   represented  as  the  combina$on  of  the  effects  of   four  factors:  popula$on,  affluence,  consump$on,   and  technology.  Popula$on  is  no  longer  the   dominant  driver  of  impact;  instead,  changes  in   affluence  and  consump$on  are  driving  impacts   from  biodiversity  loss  in  developing  countries,  to   tremendously  inefficient  use  of  land  and  resources   for  agriculture.  (Cassidy,  et  al.,  2013;  Lenzen,  et  al.,   2012;  Waggoner  &  Ausubel,  2002).       Kim’s  summary  of  connec0ons  between  readings  in  class  
  57. 57. It’s  not  clear  which  author  made  which  claim   Human  impact  on  the  environment  can  be   represented  as  the  combina$on  of  the  effects  of   four  factors:  popula$on,  affluence,  consump$on,   and  technology.  Popula$on  is  no  longer  the   dominant  driver  of  impact;  instead,  changes  in   affluence  and  consump$on  are  driving  impacts   from  biodiversity  loss  in  developing  countries,  to   tremendously  inefficient  use  of  land  and  resources   for  agriculture.  (Cassidy,  et  al.,  2013;  Lenzen,  et  al.,   2012;  Waggoner  &  Ausubel,  2002).       Kim’s  summary  of  connec0ons  between  readings  in  class  so  far.    57  
  58. 58. It’s  not  clear  which  author  made  which  claim   Human  impact  on  the  environment  can  be   represented  as  the  combina$on  of  the  effects  of   four  factors:  popula$on,  affluence,  consump$on,   and  technology.  Popula$on  is  no  longer  the   dominant  driver  of  impact;  instead,  changes  in   affluence  and  consump$on  are  driving  impacts   from  biodiversity  loss  in  developing  countries,  to   tremendously  inefficient  use  of  land  and  resources   for  agriculture.  (Cassidy,  et  al.,  2013;  Lenzen,  et  al.,   2012;  Waggoner  &  Ausubel,  2002).       Kim’s  summary  of  connec0ons  between  readings  in  class  so  far.    58  
  59. 59. Human  impact  on  the  environment  can  be   represented  as  the  combina$on  of  the  effects  of   four  factors:  popula$on,  affluence,  consump$on,   and  technology  (Waggoner  &  Ausubel,  2002).   Popula$on  is  no  longer  the  dominant  driver  of   impact;  instead,  changes  in  affluence  and   consump$on  are  driving  impacts  from  biodiversity   loss  in  developing  countries  (Lenzen,  et  al.,  2012),   to  tremendously  inefficient  use  of  land  and   resources  for  agriculture  (Cassidy,  et  al.,  2013).       Kim’s  summary  of  connec0ons  between  readings  in  class  so  far.     Put  authors  directly  next  to  their  claims   within  or  at  the  end  of  each  sentence.   59  
  60. 60. Human  impact  on  the  environment  can  be   represented  as  the  combina$on  of  the  effects  of   four  factors:  popula$on,  affluence,  consump$on,   and  technology  (Waggoner  &  Ausubel,  2002).   Popula$on  is  no  longer  the  dominant  driver  of   impact;  instead,  changes  in  affluence  and   consump$on  are  driving  impacts  from  biodiversity   loss  in  developing  countries  (Lenzen,  et  al.,  2012),   to  tremendously  inefficient  use  of  land  and   resources  for  agriculture  (Cassidy,  et  al.,  2013).       Kim’s  summary  of  connec0ons  between  readings  in  class  so  far.     Put  authors  directly  next  to  their  claims   within  or  at  the  end  of  each  sentence.   60  
  61. 61. 61   hgp://www.kimnicholas.com/blog/academic-­‐source-­‐use-­‐checklist  
  62. 62. EndNote  is  your  friend   62  
  63. 63. Tip!   When  taking  notes,  don’t  focus  on  the   text’s  sentence  level.   Slide  modified  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre   63  
  64. 64. Wri$ng  exercise  to  avoid  plagairism   64  
  65. 65. The  original  passage:   Students  frequently  overuse  direct  quota$on  in   taking  notes,  and  as  a  result  they  overuse   quota$ons  in  the  final  [research]  paper.  Probably   only  about  10%  of  your  final  manuscript  should   appear  as  directly  quoted  mager.  Therefore,  you   should  strive  to  limit  the  amount  of  exact   transcribing  of  source  materials  while  taking  notes.     -­‐Lester,  James  D.  Wri$ng  Research  Papers.  2nd  ed.   (1976):  46-­‐47.   Exercise  from  Purdue  Online  Wri$ng  Lab:  hgp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/01/   65  
  66. 66. A  legi/mate  summary  (OK!)   •  Students  should  take  just  a  few  notes  in  direct   quota$on  from  sources  to  help  minimize  the   amount  of  quoted  material  in  a  research   paper  (Lester,    1976,  p.  46-­‐47).     66  
  67. 67. A  legi/mate  paraphrase  (OK!)   A  legi/mate  paraphrase:   •  In  research  papers  students  ooen  quote   excessively,  failing  to  keep  quoted  material   down  to  a  desirable  level.  Since  the  problem   usually  originates  during  note  taking,  it  is   essen$al  to  minimize  the  material  recorded   verba$m  (Lester,  1976,  p.  46-­‐47).   67  
  68. 68. This  is  Plagiarism!   The  original  passage:   Students  frequently  overuse  direct  quota$on  in  taking  notes,  and  as  a   result  they  overuse  quota$ons  in  the  final  [research]  paper.  Probably   only  about  10%  of  your  final  manuscript  should  appear  as  directly   quoted  mager.  Therefore,  you  should  strive  to  limit  the  amount  of   exact  transcribing  of  source  materials  while  taking  notes.       A  plagiarized  version:   Students  ooen  use  too  many  direct  quota$ons  when  they  take  notes,   resul$ng  in  too  many  of  them  in  the  final  research  paper.  In  fact,   probably  only  about  10%  of  the  final  copy  should  consist  of  directly   quoted  material.  So  it  is  important  to  limit  the  amount  of  source   material  copied  while  taking  notes.     68  
  69. 69. How  Urkund  Detects  Plagairism   69  
  70. 70. Plagiarism  is  treated  as  a  serious  crime   70  
  71. 71. hgp://blog.fieldoo.com/2014/02/want-­‐to-­‐be-­‐the-­‐next-­‐ronaldo-­‐prac$ce-­‐10000-­‐hours/  71   Wri$ng  is  a  skill  developed  through  prac$ce  
  72. 72. 73  
  73. 73. Resources   The  Harvard  Guide  to  Source  Use   hgp://usingsources.fas.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do     Recognizing  and  Avoiding  Plagiarism  Quiz   Cornell  University,  College  of  Arts  and  Sciences   hgps://plagiarism.arts.cornell.edu/tutorial/ exercises/ques$ons.cfm   They  Say/I  Say:     The  Moves  That  MaRer  in  Persuasive  Wri/ng   By  Gerald  Graff  and  Cathy  Birkenstein   AWELU   hgp:// awelu.srv.lu.se/   74  
  74. 74. APA  Guides  for  proper  cita$on   •  In-­‐text  cita$ons   hgp://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/01/wri$ng-­‐in-­‐ text-­‐cita$ons-­‐in-­‐apa-­‐style.html   •  You  will  find  a  quick  overview  guide  showing  correct   formamng  and  use  of  the  APA  style  here:   hgp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/     •  Ci$ng  figures  &  tables     hgp://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/tables-­‐and-­‐figures/     •  You  may  also  watch  a  short  video  tutorial  explaining   the  use  of  APA  cita$on  here:   hgp://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-­‐ tutorial.aspx     75  
  75. 75. From  Jamieson,  S.  and  R.M.  Howard  (2013).  “Sentence-­‐Mining:  Uncovering  the  Amount  of  Reading  and  Reading   Comprehension  in  College  Writers’  Researched  Wri$ng.”  The  New  Digital  Scholar:  exploring  and  enriching  the  research  and   wri0ng  prac0ces  of  NextGen  students.  New  Jersey:  American  Society  for  Informa$on  Science  and  Technology.  P.  109-­‐131   Paraphrase   Patchwri/ng   76   Slide  from  Ladaea  Rylander,  LU  Academic  Support  Centre  
  76. 76. Resources  for  Prac$ce   •  hgp://www.lub.lu.se/en/student/academic-­‐ conduct/urkund.html     •  Academic  Support  Centre  at  Lund  University   hFp://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/current-­‐students/ academic-­‐support-­‐centre     •  Academic  Wri0ng  in  English  at  Lund  University   (AWELU  for  short):  hgp://awelu.srv.lu.se/     •  Purdue  Online  Wri$ng  Lab   hgp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/sec$on/1/     77  

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