Key research findings from Prof. Kimberly Nicholas' project on sustainable land systems in Europe, particularly analyzing payments under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Slide 4: We developed an objective, quantitative method to align monitoring and evaluation of local or national policies with the SDGs based on existing indicators, which can support evidence-based policy to help achieve the SDGs. (Scown & Nicholas 2020) Slide 5: Despite European ambition to be a world leader in the SDGs and sustainable agriculture, current indicators for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) are not well-aligned with the SDGs, with disproportionate focus on three of the 17 goals, and four goals entirely missing. (Scown & Nicholas 2020) Slide 6: 2. We identified 32 consensus variables recognized as key to sustainable agricultural land systems in current European research, policy, and practice, including social drivers like policies, environmental farm management choices such as tillage, and both social and environmental outcomes. These 32 variables should be in focus to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in practice. (Scown et al., 2019) Slide 7: Current CAP poorly aligned with objectives & SDGs; poorly measured Slide 8: Over €26 billion of EU agricultural subsidies (40% of total budget) were misspent in 2015: increasing income inequality, paying polluters, and directing rural development funds to cities (Scown et al. 2020). Slide 9 Many CAP payments went to the most polluting agriculture, instead of supporting environmentally-friendly farming. Slide 10 Viable income support is the largest goal of the CAP. We found that more than €24 billion in 2015 went to regions where average farm incomes are already above the EU median income, indicating that further income support is not needed. Meanwhile, CAP payments to the poorest 40% of regions are not sufficient to make farm income reach the EU median. The majority of this misspent income support went to the most climate-polluting and least biodiversity-friendly farmland, thus counteracting the CAP’s environmental goals. A further €2.5 billion intended for rural development was paid to primarily urban areas. (Scown et al. 2020) Slide 11 7. We translated, aligned, and made spatially explicit data reported by Member States, so that 16 million individual farm payments across Europe under the CAP can for the first time be analyzed by location and purpose. (Nicholas et al. 2021) Slide 12 Our methods, code, and data are published open access. Please use! (Workflow from Nicholas et al., 2021) Slide 13 Conclusions: Need shared agenda for sustainable food systems Need to use existing indicators across all SDGs to set up and evaluate policy effects We conclude that the CAP needs fundamental reform to achieve its goals, most importantly, making income support needs-based and environmental payments results-based.