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  1. 1. Kimberlyanne Morales
  2. 2. What is Tourettesyndrome? A disorder characterized by recurring and involuntary movements or sounds called tics. There are two types of tics: motor and vocal. Motor tics are uncontrolled body movements and vocal tics are outbursts of sound. In 1886, a French physician named Gilles de la Tourrete discovered Tourette syndrome.
  3. 3. Other Names TS Tourettes syndrome Gilles de la Tourettes Syndrome (GTS)
  4. 4. Mode of Inheritance Scientists believe that tics may result from changes in brain chemicals called neurotransmitters that are responsible for producing and controlling voluntary movements. Mutations involving the SLITRK1 gene on chromosome 13 have been identified in a small number of people with Tourette syndrome. Mutations have been reported in so few people with this condition that the association of the SLITRK1 gene has not been confirmed. Tourette’s may not even be a hereditary condition.
  5. 5. May Also Cause Deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) Anxiety Depression Mood swings Sleep problems
  6. 6. Rate of Incidence Precise incidence is unsure, but it approximately affects 1 to 10 in 1,000 children. It affects populations and ethnic groups globally. More common in males than in females.
  7. 7. Symptoms Tics can be simple or complex. Symptoms of simple motor tics: eye blinking, facial expressions expressing disgust, shoulder shrugging, and head jerking. Symptoms of simple vocal tics: repetitive throat- clearing, sniffing, or grunting sounds. Symptoms of complex motor tics: facial grimacing preceded by head jerking and a shoulder shrug, sniffing or touching objects, jumping, bending, twisting, and punching a person’s face. Symptoms of complex vocal tics: coprolalia (saying profane words) and echolalia (repetition of words or phrases of other people).
  8. 8. Progression Tics usually appear in childhood. Experience peak tic severity before the mid-teen years with improvement in the late teen years and early adulthood. Disorder is generally lifelong. Not life threatening; normal life expectancy.
  9. 9. Treatment Most people do not need medication for tic suppression. If the person is suffering from severe TS, there are medications to help such as Neuroleptics (used to treat psychotic and non-psychotic disorders). i.e. blocks receptors such as dopamine. Other medications such as clonidine and guanfacine (used for treating hypertension). There is no medication that will eradicate all the symptoms.
  10. 10. Detection Diagnosis is made after verifying that the patient has had both motor and vocal tics for at least 1 year. Existence of other neurological or psychiatric conditions can also help doctors arrive at a diagnosis. There are no blood, laboratory, or imaging tests needed for diagnosis. In rare cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and certain blood tests may be used to rule out other conditions that might be confused with TS.
  11. 11. Bibliography/References "Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet." : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Web. 19 Apr. 2012. < urette.htm>. "" MedicineNet. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. < cle.htm>. Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. < 1744/>.