Switch Case andLooping   http://eglobiotraining.com
Programming    We first define the word “programming”, it is acomputer language programmers use to developapplications, sc...
As an individual, I have learned that programming is avery broad because it composes many scripts, applicationsand can be ...
The distinction between data and procedures is not thatclear cut. In many programming languages, procedures canbe passed a...
At first, programming is confusing because you have somuch to understand about codes that will enable to run aprogram. Pro...
You have to consider languages to run or write yourown program, most demanded language in programming isthe DEV C++ (a ful...
Switch Case   Switch case statements are a substitute for long if  statements that compare a variable to several  "integra...
basic format for using switch case:switch ( <variable> ) {case this-value:        Code to execute if <variable> == this-va...
The condition of a switch  statement is a value. The case says  that if it has the value of whatever  is after that case t...
The break is used to break out ofthe case statements. An importantthing to note about the switchstatement is that the case...
Break is a keyword that breaks  out of the code block, usually  surrounded by braces, which it is in.  In this case, break...
The default case is optional, but it is  wise to include it as it handles any  unexpected cases. Switch statements  serves...
This shows how would you use a Switch in a Program#include <iostream>using namespace std;void playgame(){    cout << "Play...
That program will compile, but cannot be run  until the undefined functions are given  bodies, but it serves as a model (a...
Looping   Loops are used to repeat a block of  code. Being able to have your program  repeatedly execute a block of code i...
(They may be executing a small  number of tasks, but in principle, to  produce a list of messages only  requires repeating...
One Caveat: before going further, you  should understand the concept of C++s  true and false, because it will be  necessar...
FORFor ( variable initialization; condition; variable update ) {   Code to execute while the condition is true} http://egl...
The variable initialization allows you to either declare a variableand give it a value or give a value to an already exist...
Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){   // The loop goes whil...
WHILEThe basic structure:      While ( condition ) { Code to execute while the      condition is true } The true represent...
Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So we can see cout and endlint main(){   int x = 0; // Dont forget to d...
DO..WHILEThe Structure:      do {      } while ( condition ) ;  http://eglobiotraining.com
The condition is tested at the end of  the block instead of the beginning, so the  block will be executed at least once. I...
A do.. while loop is basically a reversed whileloop. A while loop says "Loop while the condition istrue, and execute this ...
Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){   int x;    x = 0;    do {        // "Hello, world!" is printed...
Programs that have testedhttp://eglobiotraining.com
LOOPING STATEMENT 1#include <iostream>int main(){   using namespace std;     // nSelection must be declared outside do/whi...
LOOPING STAEMENT 2#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){   int nSelection;   double var1, var2;  do  {       ...
LOOPING STATEMENT 3 if (nSelection == 2)        {          cout << "Please enter the first whole number ";          cin >>...
LOOPING STATEMENT 3#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){   int nSelection;   double var1, var2;   while (1) ...
LOOPING STATEMENT 4 else if (nSelection == 2)      {          cout << "Please enter    the first whole number ";          ...
LOOPING STATEMENT 5#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){  // The loop...
LOOPING STATEMENT 6#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){  int x;    x = 0;    do {      // "Hello, world!" is...
LOOPING STATEMENT 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){int n;cout << "Enter the starting number > ";cin >> ...
SWITCH CASE 1  SWITCH CASE  #include <iostream>  using namespace std;  int main ()  {      int score;      cout << "What w...
SWITCH CASE 2      else if (score <= 50)        {            cout << "nYou score aint great mate..";        }        else ...
SWITCH CASE 3 else    {        cout << "nYou cant score higher than 100!!! Cheater!!!!";    }    cin.ignore();    cin.get(...
SWITCH CASE 4  #include <iostream>  using namespace std;  int main(){  cout << "Enter a number between 1 and 5!" << endl; ...
SWITCH CASE 5#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){int price_before_discount, RM, dozen, total_price;cout<< "H...
SWITCH CASE 6#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>int main(void) {  int n;  printf("Please enter a number: ");  scanf("%d"...
SWITCH CASE 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(void){  char grade;  cout << "Enter your grade: ";  cin >> gr...
An output                             program using Dev C++http://eglobiotraining.com
In this looping statement, I used “while” looping, and I chooseto show MDAS just as an example for the program torun. If l...
I have came up with this by just starting to write thiscode: #include <iostream> and then enter thesucceeding codes, compi...
I noticed that sometimes if the program does not run, it isbecause some braces are not included and I accidentallyput brac...
When I learned that programming is very sensitive and at the same time very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I ma...
So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces are needed programming is very specific that whatever you have e...
Because of so many experiences I had before this program run, I found programming is also interesting for the more you are...
In this switch case missing out a break statement causescontrol to fall through to the next case label. Switches canalways...
Unlike if-then and if-then-else statements,the switch statement can have a number of possible executionpaths, A switch wor...
The switch statement evaluates its expression, thenexecutes all statements that follow the matching case label.http://eglo...
The switch statement can include any numberof case instances, but no two case constants within thesame switch statement ca...
Submitted to: Prof. Erwin GlobioSubmitted by:Francisco, Kimberly  BM10203      http://eglobiotraining.com
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Switch case and looping kim

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Switch case and looping kim

  1. 1. Switch Case andLooping http://eglobiotraining.com
  2. 2. Programming We first define the word “programming”, it is acomputer language programmers use to developapplications, scripts, or other set of instructions for acomputer to execute. programming is instructing a computer to do somethingfor you with the help of a programming language. The roleof a programming language can be described in two ways: Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform Tasks Conceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas about things and processes. http://eglobiotraining.com
  3. 3. As an individual, I have learned that programming is avery broad because it composes many scripts, applicationsand can be used to run a program that has been part of theprogramming language. A programming language should both provide means todescribe primitive data and procedures and means tocombine and abstract those into more complex ones. http://eglobiotraining.com
  4. 4. The distinction between data and procedures is not thatclear cut. In many programming languages, procedures canbe passed as data (to be applied to ``real data) andsometimes processed like ``ordinary data. Conversely``ordinary data can be turned into procedures by anevaluation mechanism. http://eglobiotraining.com
  5. 5. At first, programming is confusing because you have somuch to understand about codes that will enable to run aprogram. Programming has applications and programdevelopment, the best example for this is the Internetbowser… Programming is a creative process done byprogrammers to instruct a computer on how to do a task.Programming languages let you use them in different ways,e.g adding numbers, etc… or storing data on disk for laterretrieval. http://eglobiotraining.com
  6. 6. You have to consider languages to run or write yourown program, most demanded language in programming isthe DEV C++ (a full-featured Integrated DevelopmentEnvironment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programming languagesin the world. Also known as "C with Classes".New to programming or thinking about it? It might surpriseyou to know that there are many programmers whoprogram just for fun and it can lead to a job. http://eglobiotraining.com
  7. 7. Switch Case Switch case statements are a substitute for long if statements that compare a variable to several "integral" values ("integral" values are simply values that can be expressed as an integer, such as the value of a char).http://eglobiotraining.com
  8. 8. basic format for using switch case:switch ( <variable> ) {case this-value: Code to execute if <variable> == this-value break;case that-value: Code to execute if <variable> == that-value break;...default: Code to execute if <variable> does not equal the valuefollowing any of the cases break;}The value of the variable given into switch is compared to thevalue following each of the cases, and when one value matchesthe value of the variable, the computer continues executing theprogram from that point. http://eglobiotraining.com
  9. 9. The condition of a switch statement is a value. The case says that if it has the value of whatever is after that case then do whatever follows the colon.http://eglobiotraining.com
  10. 10. The break is used to break out ofthe case statements. An importantthing to note about the switchstatement is that the case values mayonly be constant integral expressions.http://eglobiotraining.com
  11. 11. Break is a keyword that breaks out of the code block, usually surrounded by braces, which it is in. In this case, break prevents the program from falling through and executing the code in all the other case statements.http://eglobiotraining.com
  12. 12. The default case is optional, but it is wise to include it as it handles any unexpected cases. Switch statements serves as a simple way to write long if statements when the requirements are met. Often it can be used to process input from a user.http://eglobiotraining.com
  13. 13. This shows how would you use a Switch in a Program#include <iostream>using namespace std;void playgame(){ cout << "Play game called";}void loadgame()} cout << "Load game called";void playmultiplayer(){ cout << "Play multiplayer game called";}int main(){ int input; cout<<"1. Play gamen"; cout<<"2. Load gamen"; cout<<"3. Play multiplayern"; cout<<"4. Exitn"; cout<<"Selection: "; cin>> input; switch ( input ) { case 1: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playgame(); break; case 2: // Note the colon, not a semicolon loadgame(); break; case 3: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playmultiplayer(); break; case 4: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Thank you for playing!n"; break; default: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Error, bad input, quittingn"; break; http://eglobiotraining.com } cin.get();}
  14. 14. That program will compile, but cannot be run until the undefined functions are given bodies, but it serves as a model (albeit simple) for processing input. If you do not understand this then try mentally putting in if statements for the case statements. Default simply skips out of the switch case construction and allows the program to terminate naturally. If you do not like that, then you can make a loop around the whole thing to have it wait for valid input. You could easily make a few small functions if you wish to test the code.http://eglobiotraining.com
  15. 15. Looping Loops are used to repeat a block of code. Being able to have your program repeatedly execute a block of code is one of the most basic but useful tasks in programming -- many programs or websites that produce extremely complex output (such as a message board) are really only executing a single task many times.http://eglobiotraining.com
  16. 16. (They may be executing a small number of tasks, but in principle, to produce a list of messages only requires repeating the operation of reading in some data and displaying it.) Now, think about what this means: a loop lets you write a very simple statement to produce a significantly greater result simply by repetition.http://eglobiotraining.com
  17. 17. One Caveat: before going further, you should understand the concept of C++s true and false, because it will be necessary when working with loops (the conditions are the same as with if statements). Three types of Loops: for, while, and do..http://eglobiotraining.com
  18. 18. FORFor ( variable initialization; condition; variable update ) { Code to execute while the condition is true} http://eglobiotraining.com
  19. 19. The variable initialization allows you to either declare a variableand give it a value or give a value to an already existing variable.Second, the condition tells the program that while the conditionalexpression is true the loop should continue to repeat itself. Thevariable update section is the easiest way for a for loop to handlechanging of the variable. It is possible to do things like x++, x =x + 10, or even x = random ( 5 ), and if you really wanted to, youcould call other functions that do nothing to the variable but stillhave a useful effect on the code. Notice that a semicolon separates each of these sections, that isimportant. Also note that every single one of the sections may beempty, though the semicolons still have to be there. If thecondition is empty, it is evaluated as true and the loop willrepeat until something else stops it. http://eglobiotraining.com
  20. 20. Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){ // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get();}This program is a very simple example of a for loop. x isset to zero, while x is less than 10 it calls cout<< x<<endl; and it adds 1 to x until the condition is met.Keep in mind also that the variable is incremented afterthe code in the loop is run for the first time. http://eglobiotraining.com
  21. 21. WHILEThe basic structure: While ( condition ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The true represents a boolean expression which could be x == 1 or while ( x != 7 ) (x does not equal 7). It can be any combination of boolean statements that are legal. Even, (while x ==5 || v == 7) which says execute the code while x equals five or while v equals 7. Notice that a while loop is the same as a for loop without the initialization and update sections. However, an empty condition is not legal for a while loop as it is with a for loop. http://eglobiotraining.com
  22. 22. Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So we can see cout and endlint main(){ int x = 0; // Dont forget to declare variables while ( x < 10 ) { // While x is less than 10 cout<< x <<endl; x++; // Update x so the condition can be met eventually } cin.get();}The easiest way to think of the loop is that when it reaches thebrace at the end it jumps back up to the beginning of theloop, which checks the condition again and decides whether torepeat the block another time, or stop and move to the nextstatement after the block. http://eglobiotraining.com
  23. 23. DO..WHILEThe Structure: do { } while ( condition ) ; http://eglobiotraining.com
  24. 24. The condition is tested at the end of the block instead of the beginning, so the block will be executed at least once. If the condition is true, we jump back to the beginning of the block and execute it again.http://eglobiotraining.com
  25. 25. A do.. while loop is basically a reversed whileloop. A while loop says "Loop while the condition istrue, and execute this block of code", a do.. whileloop says "Execute this block of code, and loop whilethe condition is true". http://eglobiotraining.com
  26. 26. Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get();}Keep in mind that you must include a trailing semi-colon afterthe while in the above example. A common error is to forgetthat a do..while loop must be terminated with a semicolon (theother loops should not be terminated with a semicolon, addingto the confusion). Notice that this loop will execute once,because it automatically executes before checking thecondition. http://eglobiotraining.com
  27. 27. Programs that have testedhttp://eglobiotraining.com
  28. 28. LOOPING STATEMENT 1#include <iostream>int main(){ using namespace std; // nSelection must be declared outside do/while loop int nSelection; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); // do something with nSelection here // such as a switch statement return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  29. 29. LOOPING STAEMENT 2#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){ int nSelection; double var1, var2; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  30. 30. LOOPING STATEMENT 3 if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; } return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  31. 31. LOOPING STATEMENT 3#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main(){ int nSelection; double var1, var2; while (1) { do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cout << "5) Exit" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4 && nSelection != 5); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; }http://eglobiotraining.com
  32. 32. LOOPING STATEMENT 4 else if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; }else { return 0; } }} http://eglobiotraining.com
  33. 33. LOOPING STATEMENT 5#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){ // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
  34. 34. LOOPING STATEMENT 6#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
  35. 35. LOOPING STATEMENT 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){int n;cout << "Enter the starting number > ";cin >> n;while (n>0) {cout << n << ", ";--n;}cout << "FIRE!n";return 0;}http://eglobiotraining.com
  36. 36. SWITCH CASE 1 SWITCH CASE #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { int score; cout << "What was your score?"; cin >> score; if (score <= 25) { cout << "nOuch, less than 25...!"; }http://eglobiotraining.com
  37. 37. SWITCH CASE 2 else if (score <= 50) { cout << "nYou score aint great mate.."; } else if (score <= 75) { cout << "nYour pretty good, wel done man!"; } else if (score <= 100) { cout << "nYou got to the top!!!"; }http://eglobiotraining.com
  38. 38. SWITCH CASE 3 else { cout << "nYou cant score higher than 100!!! Cheater!!!!"; } cin.ignore(); cin.get(); return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  39. 39. SWITCH CASE 4 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main(){ cout << "Enter a number between 1 and 5!" << endl; int number; cin >> number; if(number == 1){ cout << "one"; } else if(number == 2){ cout << "two"; } else if(number == 3){ cout << "three"; } else if(number == 4){ cout << "four"; } else if(number == 5){ cout << "five"; } else{ cout << number << " is not between 1 and 5!"; } cout << endl; system("pause"); }http://eglobiotraining.com
  40. 40. SWITCH CASE 5#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){int price_before_discount, RM, dozen, total_price;cout<< "How much is the price before discount for 1 dozen boxes of tissue?n";cout<<"RM ";cin>>price_before_discount;cout<<"nn";cout<< "How many dozen boxes of tissue you buy?n";cin>>dozen;cout<<"nn";switch (dozen){total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (95/100));case 1: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (88/100));case 2: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (75/100));case 3: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (60/100));case 4 : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (40/100));default : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";}return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  41. 41. SWITCH CASE 6#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>int main(void) { int n; printf("Please enter a number: "); scanf("%d", &n); switch (n) { case 1: { printf("n is equal to 1!n"); break; } case 2: { printf("n is equal to 2!n"); break; } case 3: { printf("n is equal to 3!n"); break; } default: { printf("n isnt equal to 1, 2, or 3.n"); break; } } system("PAUSE"); return 0;}http://eglobiotraining.com
  42. 42. SWITCH CASE 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(void){ char grade; cout << "Enter your grade: "; cin >> grade; switch (grade) { case A: cout << "Your average must be between 90 - 100" << endl; break; case B: cout << "Your average must be between 80 - 89" << endl; break; case C: cout << "Your average must be between 70 - 79" << endl; break; case D: cout << "Your average must be between 60 - 69" << endl; break; default: cout << "Your average must be below 60" << endl; } return 0;}http://eglobiotraining.com
  43. 43. An output program using Dev C++http://eglobiotraining.com
  44. 44. In this looping statement, I used “while” looping, and I chooseto show MDAS just as an example for the program torun. If logical Expression evaluates to true, thestatement executes. The logical Expression isreevaluated. The body of the loop continues to execute untilthehttp://eglobiotraining.com logicalExpression is false
  45. 45. I have came up with this by just starting to write thiscode: #include <iostream> and then enter thesucceeding codes, compiled and run.http://eglobiotraining.com
  46. 46. I noticed that sometimes if the program does not run, it isbecause some braces are not included and I accidentallyput braces on the same line and it causes the programnot to read its contents. Programming is sensitive, whenthere is missing variable or braces or some words it doesnot run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  47. 47. When I learned that programming is very sensitive and at the same time very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I make sure that it is clear means that I put everything important codes in it so that the program would run.http://eglobiotraining.com
  48. 48. So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces are needed programming is very specific that whatever you have entered in to it you should specify because when the statement is false it wouldn’t let you run the program, I have experienced it before I arrived at this result.http://eglobiotraining.com
  49. 49. Because of so many experiences I had before this program run, I found programming is also interesting for the more you are practicing to make a program run, the more questions that came up in my mind and try something that will fit to this or entering new codes tohttp://eglobiotraining.com etc… that I know is possible. make matrix
  50. 50. In this switch case missing out a break statement causescontrol to fall through to the next case label. Switches canalways be replaced by nested if-else statements, but insome cases this may be more clumsy.Each break statement terminates theenclosing switch statement. Control flow continues with thehttp://eglobiotraining.comfirst statement
  51. 51. Unlike if-then and if-then-else statements,the switch statement can have a number of possible executionpaths, A switch works with the byte, short, char,and int primitive data types. http://eglobiotraining.com
  52. 52. The switch statement evaluates its expression, thenexecutes all statements that follow the matching case label.http://eglobiotraining.com
  53. 53. The switch statement can include any numberof case instances, but no two case constants within thesame switch statement can have the same value. Executionof the statement body begins at the selected statement andproceeds until the jump-statement transfers control out ofthe case body. http://eglobiotraining.com
  54. 54. Submitted to: Prof. Erwin GlobioSubmitted by:Francisco, Kimberly BM10203 http://eglobiotraining.com

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