The city


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The city

  1. 1. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 1 The Future City Representation Eco Green City Kimberley Ee Sze Ann0315319 FNBE April 2013
  2. 2. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 2 Content: No. Title Page number Cover Page 1 Content 2 1. Introduction 3 2. A City 4-5 3. Investigation & data Collection: The Ancient City 6-9 4. Investigation & data Collection: The Present City 10-12 5. Investigation & data Collection: The Future City 13-14 6. The “X” City 15 7. The new “X” City 16-17 8. The Process and Progress 18-21 9. The Conclusion 22 10. References List 23-24
  3. 3. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 3 1.Introduction This assignment is the future city representation. I am required to plan a future city by first understanding the components of a city and what is required for a city to function efficiently. Therefore, I am required to first research past, present and future cities in order to plan a new and better future city. The future city will be able to provide the best quality of life for its citizens and will also be able to sustain itself in the future. The possibility for growth and development must be considered in the city‟s designas well as its energy sources and other necessities. Cities have been called the highest form of social organization and as such they require road systems, transportation, business, education, housing, sanitation, utilities and so on. This project will expose the elements of the natural and built environments in their basic unit, form and function. It will allow for the exploration of the symbiotic relationship of the elements of the natural and built environment. Thus, it will create an understanding of the importance of maintaining the balance in such a relationship.
  4. 4. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 4 2.The City Definition of City The Merriam Webster Dictionary defines a city as an inhabited place of greater size, population, or importance than a town or village. Therefore, a city can also be defined as a large and permanent settlement; many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law. History Towns and cities have a long history, although opinions vary on whether any particular ancient settlement can be considered a city. The first true towns were considered to be large settlements where inhabitants began to take on specialized occupations and where trade, food storage and power was centralized. In 1950, Gordon Childe attempted to define a historic city with ten general metrics.These are: 1. Size and density of the population should be above normal. 2. Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food, leading to specialists and division of labor. 3. Payment of taxes to a deity or king. 4. Monumental public buildings. 5. Those not producing their own food are supported by the king. 6. Systems of recording and practical science. 7. A system of writing. 8. Development of symbolic art. 9. Trade and import of raw materials. 10.Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group.
  5. 5. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 5 Components of a City The (CSBE) website states that in essence, a city consists of buildings, roads, and open spaces. These components of course occupy a natural setting. The city as a physical composition involves interaction between these man-made and natural components. Man-made components of the city, such as the buildings, are where people carry out most of their daily activities; the roads accommodate the vehicles we use to move through the city; and the open spaces are where the city and its residents “breathe” and interact. A healthy city is one where there is a balance between the three. Its quality of life is undermined when one overtakes the others. The Future City (BBC) notes that if the cities of the past were shaped by people, the cities of the future are likely to be shaped by ideas. Some of these ideas revolve around the theory that smarter equals greener. Sustainability experts predict carbon- neutral cities full of electric vehicles and bike-sharing schemes will improve air quality greatly and allow for a healthier living. Visions of a green city often include skyscrapers where living and office space vie with floating greenhouses or high-rise vegetable patches and green roofs, as we try to combine urbanization with a return to our pastoral past, (BBC).
  6. 6. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 6 3.Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient Cities Ancient Rome Introduction and History Today, Rome is the capital city of Italy. However, 2 000 years ago it was the center of the Roman Empire. The Romans had a story to explain how Rome began, (BBC). When the twin sons of Mars (The Roman God of War), Romulus and Remus were only babies they were taken by an evil uncle and thrown into the River Tiber to drown. However, the babies survived and floated to land, and a mother wolf fed and cared for them. Later a herdsman looked after the twins until they grew up.Years later, Mars told his twin sons to build a city where they had been found and this city was Rome. Today, historians and archaeologists agree that people were living in Rome long before 753 BC, but the legend is one of the most famous in world history. Significance and Details The (History Learning Site) states that Ancient Rome was the largest city in the then known world; Rome‟s population is estimated to have been over 1 million people when the city was at the height of its power. From Rome, the heart of government beat; military decisions were taken and the vast wealth Rome earned was invested in a series of magnificent buildings.
  7. 7. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 7 Buildings and Architecture The forum was traditionally a market place and an area where people met. Therefore, it was suitable that to start with, many buildings in Rome were built around it, such as government buildings, temples and palaces. As Rome grew, however, the forum became crowded and a second city center was planned and built some distance from the forum but still in Rome itself. Colloseum (
  8. 8. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 8 Furthermore, Rome is also famous for its magnificent buildings. For example, theColosseum; this was where thousands of Roman citizens would gather for their entertainment. Such grand buildings were constructed so that emperors would be remembered by future generations. The Colosseum was built on the orders of the Emperor Vespasian and completed when the Emperor Titus was in power. The building was finally completed in AD 80, (History Learning Site). Notable Achievements According to the (UNRV) website, the Roman Aqueducts were a highly advanced Roman waterway system and among the greatest achievements in the ancient world. The running water, indoor plumbing and sewer system was not surpassed in capability until very modern times. The Aqueducts are a testament to Roman engineering and some of these ancient structures are still in use today in various capacities. Roman Aqueduct (
  9. 9. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 9 The great bulk of the Roman waterway system ran below ground. Water was carried by channels bored through rock, or dug below the surface to where it was possible. Of the approximately 260 miles in the aqueduct system, only 30 miles consisted of the visible, mammoth arched structures. It is impressive exactly how remarkable the engineering was at that time and the entire Aqueduct system relied upon various gradients and the use of gravity to maintain a continuous flow. Without the aqueducts it would've been impossible to maintain the flow of water at the proper grades required.When water reached Rome it flowed into enormous cisterns (castella) maintained on the highest ground. These large reservoirs held the water supply for the city and were connected to a vast network of lead pipes. Everything from public fountains, baths and private villas could tap into the network, (UNRV) The (UNRV) website confirms that at the height of the ancient city's population of approximately 1,000,000 inhabitants, the water system was capable of delivering up to 1 cubic meter of water per person in the city, more than what is commonly available in most cities today. Conclusion Ancient Rome was one of the greatest cities of all time and it embodies this reputation in its efficient city plan and innovative use of technology. The Romans planned there city to be both functional and magnificent. Thus, the city was able to express the power and glory of its rulers while providing pleasure and comfort to its citizens. Information and elements that can be used for my future city I like that Ancient Rome places all its important building in the city centre to enable easy access and I will most definitely apply this concept in my own design. Furthermore, the buildings of Ancient Rome, such as the Colloseum have shown me the importance to have suitable buildings and places to suit their function and I hope to ensure that my own city is fully equipped with these. Lastly, I like the underground concept of the Roman Aqueducts because it transports sewage out of the city while hiding the unpleasantness away from view.
  10. 10. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 10 4.Investigation & Data Collection: Present Cities Masdar City Masdar City (
  11. 11. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 11 Introduction and History The plan to create what aimed to be the world‟s sustainable city was launched by the government of Abu Dhabi on February 8, 2008. The city in mind was to be named Masdar City, a fitting name as Masdar is the Arabic word for „the source‟ and the city was to become home to the world‟s leading businesses, academics and researches involved in the fields of renewable energy and sustainable technologies. Construction of the first phase was soon underway and due for completion and occupancy in 2010. Significance and Details Masdar City aims to be a zero waste, zero carbon and fossil fuel free city. No fossil fuel automobiles are used in Masdar City and as a result the air is clean. Instead, pedestrian only streets provide the city with a level of intimacy and charm. Masdar City‟s ultimate goal is to provide the highest quality of life with the lowest environmental impact. A notable fact about Masdar City is that in realising the design, its master planners went back in time and referred to traditional Arabian Cities. According to the video, (Welcome to Masdar City), every aspect of the city is designed to reduce energy demand. The city‟s northeast orientation reduces exposure to the hot desert sun, green spaces create breezy green oasis, and water features evaporate and cool the surrounding air. In addition, the absence of fossil fuel vehicles, means Masdar city can be smaller and feature narrow streets which provide more shade and lower temperatures so people can walk, interact and play. Transportation Masdar city will also feature the first large scale zero emission transportation system, a subway of personalised driverless electric vehicles will carry people and freight. Furthermore, a ground level light rail system and a subterranean Metro high speed train will keep the Masdar citizens well committed. Even more amazing, is the fact that you will never be further than 250m from public transport.
  12. 12. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 12 Energy Source The city‟s design aims to reduce electricity and water demand as much as possible and smart buildings and appliances will monitor consumption and reduce demand further still. The video, (Welcome to Masdar City) states that Masdar city will use around 80 per cent less water than a conventional city. As for waste, it is either recycled or turned into energy. In fact, waste water is processed and used to irrigate the city‟s landscape. Moreover, 100 per cent of Masdar City‟s electricity will be drawn from renewable sources, such as solar, geothermal and even waste. On the other hand, the energy that Masdar city doesn‟t use will be exported to the local power grid. Conclusion Masdar City is not only a vision for cities of the future but an inspiration to mankind.It proves that, instead of moulding the environment to suit our needs we can develop and adapt ourselves to Mother Nature through the use of technology. Masdar City is setting an example of how we can use sustainable energy and modern design concepts to create the lowest environmental impact while still enjoying the highest quality of life. Information and elements that can be used for my future city I like that Masdar City does not use any fossil fuel automobiles and instead has narrow pedestrian only walkways and will consider this in my design. Also, the fact that Masdar City‟s public transportation is supremely efficient is yet another notable characteristic. Furthermore, I hope to imitate Masdar City in the sense that my city too will function 100 per cent on renewable sources.
  13. 13. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 13 5.Investigation & Data Collection: Future Cities Gwanggyo Introduction and History Gwanggyo is an idea for a future self-sufficient city that plans to be located 35 km from Seoul in South Korea, (Tinkalicious). Significance and Details The city is designed to be sufficient enough to hold 77000 inhabitants. Furthermore, its design also envisions two city centers which will be a mix of housing, culture, office, retail, and leisure and education spaces. One of these city centers is the remarkable Gwanggyo Power House. The site is situated on the Southern edge of the development, surrounded by a beautiful lake and nicely forested hills (Broto. E).
  14. 14. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 14 Gwanggyo Power Centre Gwanggyo Power Centre ( Gwanggyo Power Centreis a design by Dutch architects that participated in the competition to design a new city center for Gwanggyo. The towers that form the program rise in a series of concentric rings that function as terraces for outdoor life. The resulting series of hills are carefully positioned: the housing around the reservoir, the retail along the road, the museum along the lake and the offices next to the main street. Furthermore, the rooftops of these „hills‟ and the terraces can be planted with box hedges, which are intended to improve ventilation and reduce, energy and water usage. Aesthetically, the vegetation enables the towers to integrate with their green surroundings and transforms the Power Center into a strong, recognizable, cohesive park, (Broto. E).
  15. 15. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 15 Conclusion The Power Centre of the future Gwanggyo City is truly a fantastic building that provides a natural green element to the entire city. It is an example of how building can be adapted and made into comfortable green living spaces. Information and elements that can be used for my future city I love the design of the Gwanggyo Power Centre because of how it gives the entire city a unique identity. I hope to imitate the building design in my own city and adapt it such that it suits my city in function.
  16. 16. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 16 6.The “X” City Introduction and History The year is 2033 and I am the mayor. My city is neither destroyed nor in ruins but the citizens are suffering as the city becomes more and more uninhabitable. My city is plagued by pollution and also overpopulation. The streets are filled with cars and factories have popped up everywhere within the city. These cause unhealthy emissions to be released into the surroundings and the air is thick with haze. Overpopulation has caused unsanitary conditions and people are sick and dying. People have forgotten to respect Mother Nature and not a single blade of grass can be found in my city. The Citizens My citizens are Malaysian and number 150 000 people in total. The four main religions present in my city are Muslims, Christians, Buddhist and Hindus. Therefore, they will require separate places of worship and cultural sites. Furthermore, my citizens are multi-talented. Some work in offices and industrial sites doing basic jobs while others are skilled at farming. My citizens will require a city that functions efficiently and allows them to enjoy the highest quality of life. However, because of the destruction the current city has caused to the environment and the lack of any natural elements, the new enhanced city should be a green city that functions on renewable sources. Lastly, the new enhanced city should allow the citizens to live together in harmony while having peaceful interactions with one another. Conclusion The „X‟ City is a city that no longer functions nor exhibits the components required in a city. However, it is not only the city that is unhealthy but the people as well. If the citizens do not change their mind sets, even if a new enhanced city were to be built same problems would only recur. Thus, the enhanced city will be a green city that reminds citizens of the importance of green living and function entirely on sustainable energy.
  17. 17. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 17 7.The New “Eco Green City”. Introduction Eco Green City will be a future city that encourages green living and will function entirely on renewable resources. The reason that I have chosen to enhance my city in this manner is because I wish to encourage healthy living in my citizens and foster healthy environmental conditions in the future society. City Center Eco Green City‟s city center will function like that of the forums of Rome. The city hall, religious and cultural place, schools and important services will be placed in the center such that these vital places will be easily accessible. Government Buildings, Business and Commercial Areas The government buildings, shopping malls and offices will be placed around the city center and connected to the main and outer city roads such that they can be accessed efficiently. Residences The apartment buildings will be surrounded by facilities such as a lake, park, jogging are, theme park and playground to keep the citizens healthy and entertained. Transportation The city will use electric cars and a public transport system that features zero use of fossil fuels. The roads will also be flanked by safe pedestrian only walkways that encourage people to walk from place to place.
  18. 18. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 18 Energy Sources The city will function entirely on renewable sources. There will be two power plants; one that generates energy through the use of water turbines and another that generates electricity through the use of solar panels and steam turbines. The city will also feature solar convertors that convert solar energy into electricity that can be used to charge the electric cars. Conclusion Eco Green City will be an entirely functional city that encourages healthy living in every aspect. The layout, structure and components of the city all function to enable quality living while maintaining the balance between natural and man-made elements.
  19. 19. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 19 8.The Process & Progress The first city plan for an underwater city
  20. 20. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 20
  21. 21. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 21 In the beginning, I had planned to create an underwater city as I was enthralled by the idea of a future Atlantis. However, it was through tutorial sessions that I discovered I had been too immersed in my fantasies and realized that my city was not actually functional or even well planned.
  22. 22. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 22 The first drawings and impression of Eco Green City Discouraged by my attempt at an underwater city, I decided to change my perspective and design an enhanced city instead. The enhanced city that I envisioned would be an entirely green and healthy city. The lake was placed in the middle for this design as I felt it would give the city character and enable power generation from water turbines to be done within the city. However, it was only later that I discovered that this was a serious flaw in my design plan as it would inhibit me greatly.
  23. 23. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 23 Also my design was a circular plan in which I tried to concentrate too many things. There was no real structure or efficiency in this design and I was forced to redevelop it.
  24. 24. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 24 The Final Eco Green City
  25. 25. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 25 The new city plan for Eco Green city proved to be much more efficient and functional. With this design, I can actually see people living comfortably while interacting with the natural environment. Also, in this design, I no longer limited myself to just my circular plan but also stretched my city borders outward, in order to provide greater functionality to the city. By placing the power plants outside the city, I am able to truly define the industrial area and this enables me to zone my city in a more efficient way.
  26. 26. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 26 Furthermore, I have replaced my large central lake with a small garden, as I realized that the lake had divided my city in half and created additional problems. Moreover, without the central lake, I find that I have space to place my vital buildings, such that they are easily accessible. Another thing that I like about this new city plan is that although I do not have a central lake, I now have one lake for recreational activities and another for power generation. This way, I am able to maintain the elements that I had planned in my last design.
  27. 27. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 27 9.Conclusion Through this assignment I have learnt many things that I had never thought to learn. Many of us live within cities and yet are oblivious to what is around us. We do not see how every part of the city functions like the components of a cell. Even worse we do not realize the effort and painstaking detail that is put into the design of a city and as a result we take our surroundings for granted. Cities were created by humanity and have grown with humanity. In reality, cities embody us as people and our cities today will define us to future generations. Thus, it is critical that we plan our cities efficiently and do our part to maintain as well as develop our cities. As we move into a time of industrial development, we must understand that our every action will make a difference in our world. Emissions from factories and pollution caused by industrial development are ruining our environment. Therefore, it is time that we take action and search for a solution to this problem. In fact, this solution may very well lie in the design of our cities and just like Eco Green City, future cities too should focus on being green and environmentally friendly.
  28. 28. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 28 10.Reference Links (2012). City - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 15 Jun 2013]. (1950). City - New World Encyclopedia. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 15 Jun 2013]. Ancient / Classical History (n.d.). Rome - The City. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 24 Jun 2013]. BBC News (2013). How will our future cities look?. [online] Retrieved from: 20770518 [Accessed: 15 Jul 2013]. (2010). BBC - Primary History - Romans - City of Rome. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 14 Jul 2013]. Broto, E. (2010). High Density: Architecture For The Future. Barcelona: Links International. (2011). City Components » CSBE. [online] Retrieved from: resources/urban-crossroads/city-components/ [Accessed: 15 Jul 2013]. (2007). Ancient Rome. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 14 Jul 2013]. Tinkalicious (2008). Green Metropolises. [online] Retrieved from: gwang-gyo-power-center-is-green-in-more-ways-than-one [Accessed: 15 Jul 2013].
  29. 29. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Page | 29 (2003). Roman Aqueducts. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 14 Jul 2013]. YouTube (2010). Welcome To Masdar City. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 14 Jul 2013]. Etherington, R. (2008). Gwanggyo Power Centre by MVRDV - Dezeen. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 15 Jul 2013]. (2010). Masdar: The World’s First Zero-Carbon City. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 15 Jul 2013]. romecabs (2012). 7 Wonders Of Ancient Rome | Rome Cabs Travel Articles. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 15 Jul 2013]. (2010). Roman Aqueducts - Harry Ellsworth. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 15 Jul 2013].