Mi Libro Gramatica


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Mi Libro Gramatica

  1. 1. Mi Libro Gramatica Bella Haynes
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1) Imperfect 2) Preterite 3) Por vs. Para 4) Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns 5) Los Mandatos 6) Present Subjunctive 7) Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence 8) Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion 9) Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial 10) Conjunctions 11) Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses 12) Tu Commands 13) Nosotros Commands 14) Past Participles Used as Adjectives 15) Present Perfect 16) Past Perfect 17) Future Tense 18) Conditional Tense 19) Past Subjunctive
  3. 3. 1. Imperfect  Uses:  Give background events in a story         Todas los dias A menudo  Ibamos al parque los domingos. (We used to go to the park on Sundays.) Frecuentamente Cada Age dia  Los gemelos tenian seis anos. (The twins were six years old.) Siempre/nunca Los Time/date lunes… Generalmente Mientra  Eran las tres y media. (It was 3:30.) Muchas veces A veces Event or action in progress Da vez en cuando Rara  Yo leia mientras el estudiaba. (I was reading while he was studying.) vez Irregular Verbs No definite beginning or end Ir: iba, ibas, iba, ibamos,  Estabamos caminando en el parque. (We were walking in the park.) ibais, iban Physical characteristics  Era alto y guapo. (He was tall and handsome.) Ser: era, eras, era, eramos, erais, eran Descriptions/feelings Habitual or repeated actions   La senora era doctora. (The woman was a doctor.) Mental or emotional states   Triggers Llovia mucho. (It was raining a lot.) Queria mucho a su familia. (He loved his family very much.) Ver: veia, veias, veia, veiamos, veiais, veian Interrupted activity (with cuando)  Yo dormia cuando el telefono sono. (I was sleeping when the telephone rang.)
  4. 4. 2. Preterite  Irregular Verbs Uses:     One time action  Ayer yo comi comida china. (Yesterday I ate Chinese food.) Definite beginning and end  El verano pasado fuimos a Nueva York. (Last summer we went to New York.) Narration  Fui a la escuela, hice tarea, y regrese a casa. (I went to school, did my homework, and returned home.) Interrupting action (cuando)  Mi hermana lavaba la ropa cuando llego papa. (My sister was washing clothes when dad arrived.) ir/ser dar *ver same format Fui Fuimos Di Dimos Fuiste Fuisteis Diste Disteis Fue Fueron Dio Dieron i-y verbs *caer, creer, oir Snakey Lei Leimos Pedi Pedimos Leiste Leisteis Pediste Pedisteis Leyo Leyeron Pidio Pidieron Snakey -ir -car/ -gar/ -zar Buscar- Yo busque Dormi Dormimo s Jugar- Yo jugue Dormiste Almorzar- Yo almorce Dormistei s Dumio Dumieron
  5. 5. 3. Por vs Para Por  Used:  Motion or general location, duration of an action, object of a search, means by which something is done, exchange or substitution, or unit of measure  Found in several idiomatic expressions      por aqui (around here) por ejemplo (for example) por eso (that’s why, therefore) por fin (finally) When given an exact time, de is used instead of por before la manana, la tarde, and la noche.   Llegue a la diez de la noche. (I arrive at ten at night.) Me gusta estudiar por la noche. (I like to study at night.) Para  Used: Destination, deadline or a specific time in future, purpose or goal plus infinitive, purpose plus noun or verb, the recipient of something, comparisons or opinions, employment Por and Para: Often, either por or para can be used in a sentence. The meaning of the sentence changes, depending on which one is used.  Camine por el parque. (I walked through the park.) Camine para el parque. (I walked towards the park.)
  6. 6. 4. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Adjectives Pronouns Short form Nuestro(a/as/os) Tu(s) Vuestro(a/as/os) Su(s) Su(s) Mio(a) Long FormNuestro(a) Singula r Mi(s) Vuestro(a) Suyo(a) Suyo(a) Mios(as) Plural Tuyo(a) Nuestros(as) Tuyos(as) Vuestros(as) Suyos(as) Suyos(as) To form a possessive pronoun, use the long form of the possessive adjective, then add: el, la, los, or las based on the gender and number of the noun. Attach the pronoun to a reflexive when using a reflexive in the infinitive form.
  7. 7. Negative Affirmative 5. Los Mandatos Ud./Uds. Put it in the yo form and then change it to the opposite vowel Tu simply drop the ‘s’ Los irregulares: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, se, ten, ven DOP+IOP+’Se’ Los irregulares: can attach to an TVDISHES Nosotros: Make affirmative the same as __________ Ud./Uds. DOP+IOP+’Se’ must Irregulares: go before the negative TVDISHES command Tu put in the yo form and change to opposite vowel, Ud./Uds. Same as above then add an ‘s’ Los irregulares: TVDISHES Los irregulares: TVDISHES
  8. 8. 6. Present Subjunctive  For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps:  Start with the yo form of the present indicitive  Then drop the –o ending  Then add the these endings:  -ar verbs: -e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, en -er and -ir verbs: -a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an Es mejor que Es bueno que Es malo que Unas expresiones para el subjunctivo Es important e que Es triste que Es necesario que Es urgente que TVDISHES T- traer (traiga), tener (tenga) V- venir(venga) D- dar (de), decir (diga) I- ir (vaya) S- saber (sepa) H- hacer (haga), haber (haya) E- estar (este) S-
  9. 9. 7. Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence Aconsejarto advise Recomendar (e-ie)- to recommend Insistir (en)to insist on Verbs of will and influence are often used when someone wants to affect the action and behaviors of others. Mandar- to order Sugerir (eie)- to suggest Rogar (oue)- to beg, to plead Important- to be important, to matter Inifinitives are only used if there is no change of subject in the sentence
  10. 10. 8. Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion  When the verb in the main clause of the sentence shows an emotion or a feeling such as hope, fear, joy, pity, or surprise, the subjunctive is required in the subordinate clause.    Nos alegramos de que te gusten las flores. Siento que tu no puedas venir manana. As with expressions with will and influence, the infinitive is used after an expression of emotion when there is no change of subject from the main clause to the subordinate clause. Alegarse de To be happy Esperar To hope, to wish Sentir (e-ie) To be sorry, to regret Sorprender To surprise Temer To be afraid, to fear Es triste It’s sad Ojala (que) I hope (that), I wish (that)
  11. 11. 9. Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial   Indicative is used when there is no doubt or uncertainty in the main clause. Subjunctive is used when there is doubt. No negamos que hay demasiados carros en las Dudar To doubt Negar (e-ie) To deny Es imposible It’s impossible Es improbable It’s improbable No es cierto It’s not true, it’s not certain No es seguro It’s not certain No es verdad It’s not true
  12. 12. 10. Conjunctions  Conjunctions are words or phrases that connect clauses in sentences.     Describe how, why, when, or where an action takes place. Subjunctive is used when there is a hypothetical situation, uncertainty about an action or event, or an unfulfilled condition In Spanish you must use the subjunctive in place of where you would use a gerund in English. (yo) (tu) No juego a menos que S – Sin que (Without) P – Para que (So that) A – A fin de que (So that) A – Antes de que (Before) A – A menos que (Unless) C – Con tal de que (Provided that) E – En caso de que (In case)
  13. 13. 11. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses
  14. 14. 12. Tu Commands
  15. 15. 13. Nosotros Commands
  16. 16. 14. Past Participles Used as Adjectives
  17. 17. 15. Present Perfect
  18. 18. 16. Past Perfect
  19. 19. 17. Future Tense
  20. 20. 18. Conditional Tense
  21. 21. 19. Past Subjunctive