PSY 239 401 Chapter 17 SLIDES

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  • Me: statements about the self; I am friendly, I have brown hair; the main topic of this chapter because it can be more easily studied
    The I: a somewhat mysterious entity; experiences life and makes decisions; people differ in level of self-awareness
  • Two approaches: assume the self is a Western cultural artifact that has no meaning in other cultures; examine how the self and its implications might differ across cultural contexts
  • Differences in how Americans and Indians describe others: Americans—50% trait terms: friendly, cheap, etc.; Indians—20% trait terms: what they do for others: Brings cakes to my family, has trouble giving to his family; assumption: People think of themselves in the same way they think of others.
    Differences in number of trait terms in languages: English has several times more trait terms than Chinese.
    Other interpretations are possible: 20% of Indian descriptions were trait terms, so they understand the concept; phrases given by Indian participants may still be traits, but they are just longer and more descriptive.
  • This is the second approach to research.
    Self-regard: The need for positive self-regard may be felt less acutely by a member of a collectivist culture because individual well-being is more connected to the well-being of a larger group.
  • Expectations for consistency depend on the perceived cause of behavior: individualistic cultures perceive the cause of behavior to be internal and expect consistency; collectivist cultures perceive the cause of behavior to be external and do not expect consistency (and also feel less conflict about inconsistent behavior)
    Differences in consistency are absolute, not relative: In both cultures, people who are the highest on a trait in one situation are also highest in other situations (relative consistency); but individuals in collective cultures have more varied behavior across situations than individuals in individualistic cultures (absolute consistency).
    Personality matters: in both kinds of cultures
  • Psychological self: our abilities and personalities
    Influences behavior: because people are sometimes motivated to maintain their self-image
    Organizes knowledge (one of the most important functions of the self)
  • These are the purposes.
    Self-regulation: ability to restrain impulses and keep focused on long-term goals
    Information processing filter: helps us focus on, remember, and organize the information that matters to us
    Help us understand others: helps with empathy, by imagining how we would feel
    Identity: reminds us where we fit in our relations with others (position in the family and community)
  • Two types of self-knowledge
    Declarative knowledge: the facts and impressions that we consciously know and can describe
    Activity 17-1. Sentence completion about the self
    Procedural knowledge: knowledge expressed through actions rather than words
    Relational self: patterns of social skills and styles of relating to others; extraverted people are more likely to seek out social interaction and start conversations
    Implicit self: unconscious self-knowledge; we are not aware of these characteristics, but they influence our behavior
  • Definition: all of your conscious knowledge or opinions about your own personality traits; an overall opinion (self-esteem) and a more detailed opinion
    Self-esteem: your overall opinion about whether you are good or bad, worthy or unworthy, or somewhere in between
    Low self-esteem is related to dissatisfaction with life, hopelessness, depression, loneliness, and delinquency; these might be warning signs that something is wrong (sociometer theory); may motivate people to restore their reputations
    Attempts to increase self-esteem may be detrimental: by making people more aware that they do not have the positive perceptions of themselves that they would like
    Self-esteem can be too high: self-enhancement is related to problems in relationships, worse mental health, and maladjustment; arrogant, abusive, and criminal behavior; and narcissism
    How to legitimately increase self-esteem: accomplish important tasks
    Activity 17-2. Self-esteem test
    Baumeister et al. article in the reader: Self-esteem, narcissism, and aggression
    Donnellan et al. article in the reader: Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency
    Note: It’s good to read both articles because they test similar questions but have conflicting results
  • Definition: all of one’s ideas about the self, organized into a coherent system
    B data: reaction times when determining whether a trait term was “me” or “not me”—schematics possessed faster reaction time to schema relevant traits
    May have important consequences for how one processes information: easier to remember information about the self that fits with one’s self-schema; process information related to self-schema more quickly; limit seeing beyond one’s self-image or by viewing things in a rigid way that fits with one’s self-image
    Not based on memories of specific events: Case studies of two people who lost memory of specific life events showed that they still knew what their personalities were like and had general knowledge of themselves; suggests the self-schema is not dependent on memories for specific events.
    Klein et al. article in reader: Self-knowledge of an amnesiac patient
  • Self-reference effect: the enhancement of long-term memory that comes from thinking of how information relates to the self
    Increases accessibility: because the knowledge structure related to the self is rich, well-developed, and often used
    Depends on culture: the self-reference effect may work differently in different cultures; for Chinese people, information thought about in terms of one’s mother or father was remembered as well as information thought about in terms of the self, which suggests mother and father are included in the self-concept
    Activity 17-3. Demonstration of self-reference and memory
  • Definition: one’s beliefs about the degree to which one will be able to accomplish a goal, if one tries
    May form the foundations of personality: This is the view of Dweck.
    Activity 17-6. Assessment of perceived self-efficacy
  • Definition: the images we have, or can construct, of the other possible ways we might be
    Possible future selves may affect goals: Who you think you will be or what role you will have may influence the goals you set.
    Evidence that it affects mate preferences: People who were asked to imagine themselves as married with children and working as a homemaker preferred mates who were older and could provide for them (consistent with what women typically report, so women may be more likely to perceive homemaker as a future possible self than men).
    Want similar future selves: People want their future self to be similar to how they are now (we want continuity of identity).
    Activity 17-4. Possible selves exercise
  • Ideal self: view of what you could be at your best
    Discrepancy leads to depression: because of disappointment at failing to achieve rewards
    Ought self: view of what you should be
    Discrepancy leads to anxiety: because of fear of not avoiding punishment
  • A hallmark of mental health: people who are healthy, secure, and wise enough to see the world as it is tend to see themselves more accurately too; accurate self-knowledge allows people to make better decisions on important issues
    Process for gaining accurate self-knowledge: based on assumption that we learn about ourselves in the same way that we learn about others
  • Important differences in perceiving ourselves vs. others: attending to the self is difficult; all you see is what you decide to do (and this is difficult to compare to what others do)
    Others know our behaviors better than we do: People tend to think that others would behave the same way that they did, and therefore they do not learn as much about how their behaviors differ from others and are related to their personality. But time may put our own behavior in perspective because when people think about behaviors in the past, they are more likely to see their pattern of behavior and how it differs from others.
  • Introspection: look into your own mind and understand who you are; honestly evaluate your behavior
    Seek feedback: especially helpful for aspects that are obvious to everyone but you; either through direct feedback or from reading subtle, nonverbal indicators of what people think of you
    Observe own behavior: put yourself in different situations, try new things, and meet new people
    This can be limited by where you live (small town), and family or culture (if self-expression is not encouraged)
    Activity 17-5. Improving self-knowledge exercise
  • Definition: patterns of behavior that are characteristic of an individual; the unique aspects of what you do; includes ways of doing things, or procedures
    Relational self-schema: self-knowledge based on past experiences that directs how we relate to the important people in our lives
    Difficult to change: probably because they are set early in life
  • Definition: self-relevant behavioral patterns that are not readily accessible to consciousness
    Measure with the IAT (Implicit Association Test): by testing the strength of associations in an individual’s cognitive system that the person might not be conscious of
  • Self-esteem: “me” and “good” are implicitly associated for people with high self-esteem, so reaction time with this pair should be faster
    Narcissism: implicit self-esteem is lower than explicit
    Shyness: declarative predicts controlled behavior (speech, gestures), and implicit predicts spontaneous behavior (facial expressions, body movements)
    Implication: We have attitudes and feelings about many things of which we are not entirely aware, but this influences our emotions and behaviors.
  • Conscious self-consciousness: awareness of who one is and what one is doing; the traditional view
    Negative implications: overly focused on the self, especially during social interactions
    Unconscious self-consciousness: view of the self affects behavior in ways the person is not aware of
    Goal-directed behavior: Behavior is more likely to be guided by attitudes and values than by the immediate situation when people have higher levels of unconscious self-awareness.
    Information processing: People may process information as relevant to themselves.
  • The active self: depends on where you are and who you are with
    Working self-concept: the view that the self is continuously changing
    Deciding which self to be: Is there a self that decides which self to be?
    Where does one stop fractionating the self? There is no way to decide how many selves to break a person into. We are each really only one person.
  • Correct answer: c (d is true for relative consistency but not for absolute consistency)
  • Correct answer: a
  • Correct answer: b
  • PSY 239 401 Chapter 17 SLIDES

    1. 1. Chapter 17: What You Know About You: The Self The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
    2. 2. Objectives • Discuss how the self is conceptualized across cultures • Discuss two types of self-knowledge: declarative and procedural • Discuss how self-knowledge can be acquired and changed © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
    3. 3. The I and the Me • William James • The me: an object that can be observed and described • The I: does the observing and describing • Recent research focuses on the me © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
    4. 4. The Self Across Cultures • Two approaches • Individualistic cultures: the self has an independent and separate existence • Collectivist cultures: the self is embedded in a larger social context of obligations and relationships © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
    5. 5. The Self Across Cultures: Is the Self a Cultural Artifact? • Some evidence that people from different cultures think of the self in fundamentally different ways – Differences in how Americans and Indians describe others – Differences in number of trait terms in languages – Other interpretations are possible © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
    6. 6. The Self Across Cultures: Individualist and Collectivist Selves • Western self: relatively separate entity • Eastern self: more integrated into the social and cultural context • Self-regard © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6
    7. 7. The Self Across Cultures: Individualist and Collectivist Selves • Consistency – Expectations for consistency depend on the perceived cause of behavior – Differences in emotional consistency are absolute, not relative • Personality matters © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
    8. 8. The Contents and Purposes of the Self • Psychological self – Influences behavior – Organizes memories – Influences impressions and judgments of others – Organizes knowledge © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
    9. 9. The Contents and Purposes of the Self • • • • Self-regulation Information processing filter Help us understand others Identity © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
    10. 10. The Contents and Purposes of the Self • Declarative knowledge • Procedural knowledge – Relational self – Implicit self © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10
    11. 11. The Declarative Self: Self-Esteem • Definition: all of your conscious knowledge or opinions about your own personality traits • Self-Esteem – Low self-esteem – Attempts to increase self-esteem may be detrimental – Self-esteem can be too high – How to legitimately increase self-esteem © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11
    12. 12. The Declarative Self: The Self-Schema • • • • Definition Where the declarative self resides Can be assessed with S data or B data May have important consequences for how one processes information • Not based only on memories of specific events © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
    13. 13. The Declarative Self: Self-Reference and Memory • Self-reference effect – Increases accessibility – Explains why your most meaningful memories stay with you the longest • Depends on culture © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
    14. 14. The Declarative Self: Self-Efficacy • Definition • Sets the limits for what we attempt to do • May form the foundations of personality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14
    15. 15. The Declarative Self: Possible Selves • Definition: the images we have, or can construct, of the other possible ways we might be • Possible future selves may affect goals • Evidence that it affects mate preferences • Want future selves that fulfill the needs for self-esteem, competence, and meaning • Want similar future selves © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 15
    16. 16. The Declarative Self: Self-Discrepancy Theory • The interactions between possible selves and the actual self determine feelings about life. • Ideal self – Discrepancy leads to depression • Ought self – Discrepancy leads to anxiety © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16
    17. 17. The Declarative Self: Accurate Self-Knowledge • A hallmark of mental health • Process for gaining accurate self-knowledge – Realistic Accuracy Model: relevance, availability, detection, utilization © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17
    18. 18. The Declarative Self: Accurate Self-Knowledge • Self-knowledge vs. knowledge of others – Important differences in perceiving ourselves vs. others – We know our emotional experience better than do others – Others know our behaviors better than we do © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18
    19. 19. The Declarative Self: Accurate Self-Knowledge • Improving self-knowledge – Introspection – Seek feedback – Observe own behavior © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19
    20. 20. The Procedural Self • Definition • Not conscious and not possible to explain to others • Learned by doing and watching others • Relational selves – Relational self-schema – Deeply ingrained and difficult to change © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20
    21. 21. The Procedural Self: Implicit Selves • Definition • Includes the relational self • Measure with the Implicit Association Test (IAT) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21
    22. 22. The Procedural Self: Implicit Selves • Self-esteem – People with high implicit self-esteem respond more quickly when “me” and “good” are paired than when “me” and “bad” are paired – Predicts responses to success and failure – Only weakly related to declarative self-esteem • Shyness – Implicit and declarative self-esteem predict behavior differently © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 22
    23. 23. The Procedural Self: Conscious and Unconscious Self-Consciousness • Conscious self-consciousness – Negative implications • Unconscious self-consciousness – Goal-directed behavior – Information processing • Acquiring and changing procedural knowledge – Practice and feedback are necessary – Have experiences that are different from the current procedural knowledge © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23
    24. 24. How Many Selves? • Some theorists think each person has many declarative and procedural selves – The active self – Working self-concept • Problems with this theory – A unitary and consistent sense of self is associated with mental health – Deciding which self to be – Where does one stop fractionating the self? 24 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
    25. 25. Think About It • How well do you think most people know themselves? What aspects of oneself are the hardest to know? • Can the self be changed? Has your view of yourself ever changed? How did that come about? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25
    26. 26. Clicker Question #1 The concept of the self a)is the same in all cultures. b)exists in only some cultures. c)is likely to have different implications in different cultures. d)is equally consistent across situations in all cultures. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26
    27. 27. Clicker Question #2 When you describe yourself as hard-working and friendly, you are describing the a) declarative self. b) procedural self. c) implicit self. d) most important self. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27
    28. 28. Clicker Question #3 The procedural self a)is easy to change. b)predicts behavior differently from what is predicted by the declarative self. c)is measured with self-report data. d)can be used to increase memory for new information because of the self-reference effect. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28

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