PSY 239 401 Chapter 15 SLIDES

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  • Learning: the change of behavior as a function of experience
    Stimuli that occur close together in time will come to elicit the same response; for example, air puffs and a bell ringing will both elicit blinking.
    Activity 15-2. Learned helplessness anagrams (I like to do this activity before we get to the section on learned helplessness so students are more likely to actually experience learned helplessness because we haven’t talked about it yet.)
  • Emphasizes objectivity, publicly observable data, and tight theoretical reasoning: so it’s seen by many as more scientific than other approaches; focus on aspects of psychology that can be observed directly and therefore are outside of the mind
  • Definition: study of how a person’s behavior is a direct result of his environment, particularly the rewards and punishments that the environment contains
    People should be studied from the outside: All knowledge worth having comes from direct, public observation; introspection is not valid because it cannot be verified; environment is what’s important
    Personality is the sum of everything a person does: does not include anything that cannot be directly observed (traits, unconscious conflicts, etc.); internal processes are not seen as important
    Belief that the causes of behavior can be directly observed: because the causes are in the environment (rewards and punishments in the social world)
    Functional analysis: determining how behavior is a function of one’s environment; the goal of behaviorism
  • Empiricism: idea that all knowledge comes from experience
    In opposition to rationalism: idea that the structure of the mind determines our experience of reality; this is the belief held by phenomenologist's and some deconstructionists and cultural psychologists
  • Associationism: idea that any two things, including ideas, become mentally associated as one if they are repeatedly experienced close together in time
    Hedonism: organisms learn for two reasons: to seek pleasure and to avoid pain
    Implications for values and morality: whatever produces the most pleasure for the most people is good
    Utilitarianism: the best society creates the most happiness for the largest number of people; this is more important than truth, freedom, and dignity
  • Habituation: a decrease in responsiveness with each repeated exposure to something
    How to maintain the intensity of the original response: The stimulus has to change or continually increase.
    It is possible to habituate to violence portrayed in the media and video games (and there is evidence that this decreases helping behavior), winning the lottery (winners are not happier in the long run), and being paralyzed (people are not less happy in the long run)
  • Classical conditioning: the kind of learning in which an unconditioned response that is naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes elicited also by a new, conditioned stimulus
    Classical conditioning affects normally involuntary processes: insulin release, speed of heartbeat, nausea, opponent processes that lessen the effects of drugs, etc.
    Learned helplessness: belief that nothing one does really matters; occurs when events seem to happen randomly and cannot be predicted; produces anxiety and depression
    Stimulus-response (S-R) connections in personality: personality is our learned repertoire of S-R associations; people are unique because they have different learning histories
    Activity 15-1. Classical conditioning: “That was easy”
  • Operant conditioning: the process of learning in which an organism’s behavior is shaped by the effect of the behavior on the environment
    Thorndike’s law of effect: responses followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened, and responses followed by an aversive state of affairs will be weakened.
    Figure 15.1 on p. 530—Thorndike’s puzzle box
    Skinner article in the reader—Why organisms behave
  • Skinner box: used to figure out the laws of operant conditioning
    Reinforcement: a good result that makes a behavior more likely
    Shaping: raising the criterion for reward until the desired behavior is produced
  • People are not always aware of the causes of their behavior: usually when this occurs the rewards are hidden.
  • Definition: an aversive consequence that follows an act in order to stop it and prevent its repetition
  • Availability of alternative responses: Alternatives should be rewarded and not punished so people can learn what they are supposed to do.
    Behavioral and situational specificity: about what is being punished and when, so people learn what they are not supposed to do and what is okay to do; punish yelling inside but not outside
    Apply punishment immediately after the behavior and every time it occurs: to ensure understanding of what is being punished
    Condition secondary punishing stimuli: Verbal warnings are usually effective and allow the avoidance of the actual punishment.
    Avoid mixed messages: Don’t console directly after punishing, because the consolation can be rewarding.
  • Arousing emotion: in the punisher (can lead to loss of control) and the punished (pain, discomfort, humiliation, fear of the punisher, self-contempt; decreases likelihood that something will be learned from the punishment)
    It is difficult to be consistent: Mood can influence type and severity of punishment.
    It is difficult to gauge the severity of punishment: for physical and psychological punishment
    Teaches misuse of power: that powerful people get to hurt less powerful people
    Activity 15-3. Functional analysis of punishment
  • Kohler’s chimpanzees: figuring out puzzles; they did more than learn from rewards; they developed insight (based on sudden changes in behavior that imply understanding the situation)
    Link to Youtube video that shows an example of insightful behavior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPz6uvIbWZE
  • Ignoring of motivation, thought, and cognition: in social learning theory (SLT), these are important parts of learning
    Primarily based on animal research: some aspects of learning (insight, thinking) may be more important in humans than in the animals studied by behaviorists (rats, pigeons, dogs)
    Ignores the social dimension of learning: but we often learn by watching others
    Organisms are treated as essentially passive: behaviorists put animals in particular environments with specific rules for which behaviors will and which will not be reinforced; people often seek out environments and change them once they are there
  • Habit hierarchy: all of the behaviors an individual might do, ranked in order from most to least probable; the key idea of this theory; a person’s most likely behavior is at the top of the hierarchy and the least likely behavior is at the bottom
  • Motivation: what a person wants and why they want it
    Drive: a state of psychological tension that feels good when reduced
    Primary drives: a drive that is innate to an organism; food, water, physical comfort, avoidance of physical pain, sexual gratification, etc.
    Secondary drives: a drive that is learned through its association with a primary drive; love, prestige, money, power, and avoidance of fear and humiliation; learned during socialization
    Drive reduction theory: for a reward to have the power to encourage the target behavior, the reward must satisfy a need; implies that the goal of all behavior is to satisfy every desire, which would result in no motivation; but this does not seem like a desirable state and people often increase their level of need
  • The frustration-aggression hypothesis: the natural reaction to being blocked from a goal is frustration, which results in the urge to lash out and injure; preferred target is the source of the frustration, but the aggression can be directed elsewhere
    Approach-avoidance conflict: addresses the conflict between desire and fear and how it can change over time
  • 5 keys assumptions
    Stronger response: the one with greater drive strength
  • #5 is the most important assumption, and results in the avoidance gradient
    Many goals of both positive and negative elements: the negative elements become more important than the positive elements as the event gets closer in time
    Figure 15.5 on p. 545—Approach-avoidance conflict
  • Primary concerns of the theory: decision making and the role of expectancies
    Expectancy value theory: behavioral decisions are determined by the presence or size of reinforcements and beliefs about the likely results of behavior; even if a reinforcement is very attractive, you are not likely to pursue it if your chances of success seem slim; even something that is not particularly desirable might motivate behavior, if the chances of getting it are good enough
    Expectancy: belief about how likely it seems that the behavior will attain its goal; can be right or wrong; the belief is what causes action or inaction; different from classical behaviorism, in which the actual reward is what is important
    Specific expectancy: belief that a certain behavior, at a certain time and place, will lead to a specific outcome
    Generalized expectancies: general beliefs about whether anything you do is likely to make a difference
    Locus of control: generalized expectancies; people with high generalized expectancies have an internal locus of control and people with low generalized expectancies have an external locus of control; domain-specific (academic, health, etc.)
  • Builds directly on Rotter's theory
    Efficacy expectations: one’s belief that one can perform a given goal-directed behavior; Bandura's interpretation of Rotter's expectancies; difference is Rotter focused on the likelihood of success if something is done and Bandura focused on the likelihood of being able to do something in the first place
    Self-efficacy: another name for efficacy expectations; a belief about what one is capable of doing
    Influenced by the self-concept (attractiveness, ability level)
    How to change behavior: change efficacy expectations by watching someone else accomplish the behavior (modeling) or forcing yourself to do the behavior
  • Observational learning: learning a behavior vicariously, by seeing someone else do it; very different from classic behaviorism
    Bobo doll experiments—search Youtube if you want to show a video
    Figure 15.6 on p. 550
  • Reciprocal determinism: the way people affect their environments even while their environments affect them
    People are not passive: they can choose their environments and change situations
    Figure 15.7 on p. 551.
    Bandura article in the reader—The self system in reciprocal determinism
  • People do more than behave, observe, and expect—they also think.
    Personal construct theory: Personal constructs are the idiosyncratic ideas about the world that guide each individual’s perceptions and thoughts.
    Thoughts proceed simultaneously on multiple tracks that occasionally intersect: many things happen at the same time, and we are only aware of some of them; thoughts, feelings, and behavior are the product of compromises between these different processes; consistent with psychodynamic theory
  • Definition of personality: a stable system that mediates how an individual selects, construes, and processes social information and generates social behaviors
  • Cognitive person variables: properties and activities of the cognitive system; this is where individual differences in personality come from
    Cognitive and behavioral construction competencies: mental abilities and behavioral skills; IQ, creativity, social skills
    Encoding strategies and personal constructs: ideas about how the world can be categorized and efficacy expectations
    Subjective stimulus values: beliefs about the probabilities of attaining a goal if it is pursued; value placed on different rewarding outcomes (money vs. prestige)
    Self-regulatory systems and plans: a set of procedures that control behavior; also how people directly control their own thoughts; self-reinforcement, selection of situations, and purposeful alteration of the situations selected
    Affects: feelings and emotions; influence social information processing and coping behavior; added to the updated model
  • If . . . then contingencies: a repertoire of actions triggered by particular stimulus situations
    Behavioral signature: a person’s unique pattern of contingencies
    Mischel wants these to replace traits as the essential units for understanding personality differences: redescribe traits and specific behavior patterns
    Mischel article in the reader—Personality coherence and dispositions in a Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) approach
  • Establishing psychology as an objective science: tight theoretical reasoning, careful experimental design, backs up statements with data
    A technology of behavior change: because the process of learning is about changing behavior; works well in the short run
  • Unclear whether behavioral therapies are generalizable and long-lasting: People are more complicated than learning theories acknowledge.
    Underappreciation: This makes it harder to change people’s behavior, because it is hard to know how an individual will respond to a specific situation.
  • Correct answer: a
  • Correct answer: c
  • Correct answer: b
  • PSY 239 401 Chapter 15 SLIDES

    1. 1. Chapter 15: Learning to Be a Person: Behaviorism and Social Learning Theories The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
    2. 2. Objectives • Discuss the two learning approaches to explaining personality: behaviorism and social learning theory • Discuss the cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) • Discuss the contributions and limitations of learning approaches to personality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
    3. 3. Learning-based Approaches • Learning – Stimuli that occur close together in time will come to elicit the same response – Behaviors followed by pleasant outcomes are more likely to be repeated; behaviors followed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated • Explain personality in terms of learning principles © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
    4. 4. Learning-based Approaches • Emphasizes objectivity, publicly observable data, and tight theoretical reasoning • Implies everyone should behave the same in the same environment/situation © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
    5. 5. Behaviorism • Definition • People should be studied from the outside • Personality is the sum of everything a person does • Belief that the causes of behavior can be directly observed • Functional analysis © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
    6. 6. The Philosophical Roots of Behaviorism • Empiricism – Experience is the direct product of reality – Reality determines personality, the structure of the mind, and behavior – In opposition to rationalism – Implies that at birth the mind is essentially empty • John Locke: tabula rasa, or blank slate © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6
    7. 7. The Philosophical Roots of Behaviorism • Associationism – Many things are associated because one causes the other • Hedonism – Explains the motivation for learning and behaving – Implications for values and morality • Utilitarianism © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
    8. 8. Behaviorism: Three Kinds of Learning • Habituation – Simplest form of behavior change as a result of experience – How to maintain the intensity of the original response – It is possible to habituate to violence portrayed in the media and video games, winning the lottery, and being paralyzed © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
    9. 9. Behaviorism: Three Kinds of Learning • Classical conditioning – Pavlov’s dog – One stimulus becomes a warning signal for another stimulus – Physiology: classical conditioning affects involuntary processes – Learned helplessness – Stimulus-response (S-R) connections in personality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
    10. 10. Behaviorism: Three Kinds of Learning • Operant conditioning – Thorndike’s law of effect 10
    11. 11. Behaviorism: Three Kinds of Learning • Operant conditioning – Techniques of operant conditioning: Skinner • Skinner box • Reinforcement • Shaping 11
    12. 12. Behaviorism: Three Kinds of Learning • Operant conditioning – People are not always aware of the causes of their behavior. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
    13. 13. Behaviorism: Punishment • Definition • Alternative: reward a response that is incompatible with the one you want to prevent © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
    14. 14. Behaviorism: Rules of Correct Application of Punishment • Availability of alternative responses • Behavioral and situational specificity • Apply punishment immediately after the behavior and every time it occurs • Condition secondary punishing stimuli • Avoid mixed messages © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14
    15. 15. Behaviorism: The Dangers of Punishment • Arousing emotion • It is difficult to be consistent • It is difficult to gauge the severity of punishment • Teaches misuse of power • Motivates concealment • It is nearly impossible to use punishment correctly © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 15
    16. 16. Social Learning Theory • Suspicion that behaviorism did not tell the whole story – Kohler’s chimpanzees © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16
    17. 17. Social Learning Theory • Reaction to shortcomings of behaviorism – Ignores motivation, thought, and cognition – Primarily based on animal research – Ignores the social dimension of learning – Organisms are treated as essentially passive © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17
    18. 18. Dollard and Miller’s Social Learning Theory • Habit hierarchy – The effect of rewards, punishments, and learning is to rearrange the habit hierarchy – Learning does not change behavior—it changes the hierarchy (i.e., personality) – Understand this to understand the person © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18
    19. 19. Dollard and Miller’s Social Learning Theory • Motivation and drives – Primary drives – Secondary drives • Drive reduction theory © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19
    20. 20. Dollard and Miller’s Social Learning Theory • Frustration and aggression – The frustration-aggression hypothesis • Psychological conflict – Approach-avoidance conflict © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20
    21. 21. Dollard and Miller’s Social Learning Theory • Psychological conflict 1. An increase in drive strength increases the tendency for approach or avoidance 2. When there are two competing responses, the stronger response wins 3. The tendency to approach increases as the positive goal gets closer 4. The tendency to avoid increases as the negative goal gets closer © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21
    22. 22. Dollard and Miller’s Social Learning Theory 5. Tendency 4 is stronger than tendency 3 • Avoidance gradient © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 22
    23. 23. Dollard and Miller’s Social Learning Theory • Psychological conflict predictions – People are willing to commit to behaviors that produce conflict when they are far off in time – Regret will increase as the event gets closer in time © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23
    24. 24. Rotter's Social Learning Theory • Primary concerns of the theory • Expectancy value theory • Expectancy (for a behavior): – Specific and general • Locus of control – Internal vs. external – Domain-specific © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24
    25. 25. Bandura's Social Learning Theory • Emphasizes the social nature of learning and the ways people interact with situations • Efficacy expectations – Self-efficacy – Influenced by the self-concept – Influences motivation, and performance – How to change behavior © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25
    26. 26. Bandura's Social Learning Theory • Observational learning – Bobo doll experiments © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26
    27. 27. Bandura's Social Learning Theory • Reciprocal determinism – People are not passive – The self system affects behavior independent of the environment © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27
    28. 28. The Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) • Mischel • Based on Kelly’s personal construct theory • The most cognitive version of social learning theory • Combines two important ideas – The individual’s interpretation of the world is all-important – Thoughts proceed simultaneously on multiple tracks that occasionally intersect © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28
    29. 29. CAPS: Interactions Among Systems • The most important aspect of the many systems of personality and cognition is their interaction • Definition of personality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 29
    30. 30. CAPS: Cognitive Person Variables • Cognitive and behavioral construction competencies • Encoding strategies and personal constructs • Subjective stimulus values • Self-regulatory systems and plans • Affects © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 30
    31. 31. CAPS: If and Then • If . . . then contingencies – Behavioral signature – Mischel wants these to replace traits as the essential units for understanding personality differences – Advantages: specificity, more sensitive to behavior change across situations © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 31
    32. 32. Contributions of Learning Approaches to Personality • Establishing psychology as an objective science • Recognition that people’s behavior depends on the environment and even the specific, immediate situation • A technology of behavior change – Used to treat phobias, addictions, and other emotional and behavioral disorders © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 32
    33. 33. Limitations of Learning Approaches to Personality • Unclear whether behavioral therapies are generalizable and long-lasting • Underappreciation of the degree to which the characteristic ways people think can cause them to respond differently to the same situation © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 33
    34. 34. Behaviorism and Personality • Behaviorism was too simple to account for the whole range of human and animal behavior • Does what you do depend on rewards and punishments? What else does it depend on? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 34
    35. 35. Clicker Question #1 According to learning theorists, learning is the change in as a function of . a) behavior; experience b) behavior; cognitions c) personality; sensations d) personality; associations © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 35
    36. 36. Clicker Question #2 If a child is rewarded for saying thank-you after receiving a gift, then she will be more likely to say thank-you after receiving another gift. This change in behavior is the result of a) social learning. b) classical conditioning. c) operant conditioning. d) cognitive affect. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 36
    37. 37. Clicker Question #3 The most cognitive of the social learning theories is from a) Bandura. b) Mischel. c) Rotter. d) Dollard and Miller. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 37

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