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PSY 239 401 Chapter 12 SLIDES

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PSY 239 401 Chapter 12 SLIDES

  1. 1. Chapter 12: Psychoanalysis after Freud: NeoFreudians, Object Relations, and Current Research The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
  2. 2. Objectives • Discuss how Freud’s theory has been reinterpreted and altered by neo-Freudians • Discuss important elements of several neo-Freudian theories • Discuss current research on attachment theory • Identify propositions of psychoanalytic theory that have been empirically supported © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
  3. 3. Developments in Psychoanalysis • Many people are still trying to prove Freud was wrong • Clinical practitioners and theorists © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
  4. 4. Interpreting Freud • This can be difficult. • He changed his mind about important issues more than once. • Updating the theory to be reasonable today © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
  5. 5. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists • • • • • Neo-Freudian psychology Anna Freud Bruno Bettelheim Harry Stack Sullivan Henry Murray © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
  6. 6. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists • Used the same methods as Freud • Common themes in neo-Freudian thought – Less emphasis on and reinterpretation of the libido – Less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more on conscious thought • Ego psychology – Less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties, and more on interpersonal relationships 6 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  7. 7. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Inferiority and Compensation • Alfred Adler • Thought Freud focused too much on sex • Social interest: the desire to relate positively and productively with other people – More important than sex • Organ inferiority – Perceptions of weakness are more important than reality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
  8. 8. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Inferiority and Compensation • Masculine protest – Also experienced by women – Particularly acute for boys • Helps explain some universal needs • Style of life © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
  9. 9. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: The Collective Unconscious, Persona, and Personality • Carl Jung • Collective unconscious – Archetypes: core ideas of how people think about the world, both consciously and unconsciously • Earth mother, hero, devil, supreme being • Appear in dreams, fantasies, mythology, and modern literature © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
  10. 10. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: The Collective Unconscious, Persona, and Personality • Persona – Everyone’s persona is false to some degree – Possible danger • Anima and animus – Cause a masculine side and feminine side in everyone – Shape responses to the other sex © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10
  11. 11. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: The Collective Unconscious, Persona, and Personality • Introverts vs. extraverts • Ways of thinking: rational, feeling, sensing, and intuiting – People vary in which way predominates – The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11
  12. 12. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Feminine Psychology and Basic Anxiety • Karen Horney • Disagreed with “penis envy” and women’s desire to be male • Basic anxiety – Influences adult behavior – Neurotic needs © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
  13. 13. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Erik Erikson • Many conflicts are conscious and arise at various stages of life • Stages of Erikson’s theory 1. Basic trust vs. mistrust • Learn whether needs will be met, ignored, or overindulged • Development of hope and confidence © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
  14. 14. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Stages of Erikson’s theory 2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt • Figuring out who is in charge 2. Initiative vs. guilt • Anticipating and fantasizing about life as an adult • Develop a sense of right and wrong © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14
  15. 15. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Stages of Erikson’s theory 4. Industry vs. inferiority (8–12 years) • Develop skills and abilities to succeed in the world of work and contribute to society • Must begin to control imagination and unfocused energy 4. Identity vs. identity confusion (adolescence) • Figure out who I am and what is important • Choose consistent, meaningful, and useful values and goals 15 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  16. 16. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Stages of Erikson’s theory 6. Intimacy vs. isolation • Find an intimate life partner 6. Generativity vs. stagnation • Turn concerns to the next generation or become passive 8. Integrity vs. despair • Brought on by the prospect of death • Based on feelings about one’s life © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16
  17. 17. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Major contributions of Erikson’s theory – Psychological development is based on the structure of society and developmental tasks – Life-span development © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17
  18. 18. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Melanie Klein and D. W. Winnicott • Objects • Object relations theory – We relate to others via the images of them in our minds. – The images do not always match reality. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18
  19. 19. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Four principal themes – Every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration, or pleasure and pain – The mix of love and hate – Distinction between parts of the love object and the whole person – The psyche is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19
  20. 20. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Theories based on work with children • Play therapy – Allows the symbolic expression of emotions • Split of love objects into good and bad parts – Neurotic defenses © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20
  21. 21. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Transitional objects – Sentimental objects for adults – Do you know anybody who brought a transitional object to college? What purpose does it serve? Would the person be upset if the object were lost? Why? • The false self: used to please others – Prevents exposure of the true self © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21
  22. 22. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Purpose of object relations therapy – Minimize discrepancies between true and false selves – Help the rational resources of the mind work through irrational defenses – To help the client see important people in his life the way they actually are • Must love always be mixed with frustration and resentment? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 22
  23. 23. Current Psychoanalytic Research • Independent and simultaneous mental processes that can conflict • Unconscious mental processes • Compromises among mental processes negotiated outside of consciousness • Self-defensive thoughts and self-deception • The influence of the past • The influence of sexual or aggressive wishes © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23
  24. 24. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Testing Psychoanalytic Hypotheses • The unconscious part of the mind can perceive things without the conscious mind’s awareness. – To prevent anxiety – Recognition of dirty vs. neutral words • Most of what the mind does is unconscious – Parallel distributed processing (PDP) • Traits associated with having an anal or oral character intercorrelate © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24
  25. 25. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Based on idea of transference • Consistency of attachment styles is empirically supported © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25
  26. 26. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • John Bowlby – Saw attachment as the basis of love – Based on evolutionary theory – Desire for protection leads to attachments – Based on childhood experiences – Lessons learned by the child from early experiences with adult caregivers © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26
  27. 27. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Mary Ainsworth – Developed the strange situation task • Anxious-ambivalent attachment – Caregivers are inconsistent – Adult characteristics © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27
  28. 28. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Avoidant attachment – Caregivers rebuff attempts for contact and reassurance – Adult characteristics • Secure attachment – Easily soothed, actively explore environment – Confident faith in themselves and their caregivers – Adult characteristics © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28
  29. 29. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Attachment patterns are self-fulfilling • Moving to two dimensions: anxiety and avoidance • Evidence of unconscious priming of attachment figures • The doctrine of opposites © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 29
  30. 30. Psychoanalysis in Perspective • It’s difficult to evaluate the theory. • Five neo-Freudian propositions that are firmly established and supported – Much of mental life is unconscious. – The mind does many things at once and can be in conflict with itself. – Events of childhood shape adult personality. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 30
  31. 31. Psychoanalysis in Perspective • Five neo-Freudian propositions that are firmly established and supported – Relationships formed with significant other people establish patterns that are repeated – Psychological development involves moving from an unregulated, immature, and self-centered state to a more regulated, mature state in which relationships become increasingly important © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 31
  32. 32. Clicker Question #1 According to Karen Horney, why do women envy men? a)Men have penises. b)Men do not have the burden of bearing children. c)Men have more freedom to pursue their interests. d)Men do not have basic anxiety. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 32
  33. 33. Clicker Question #2 Erikson’s theory of development , whereas Freud’s theory . a)focuses on childhood; covers the entire lifespan b)focuses on conscious social conflicts; focuses on the location of mental energy c)is based on unconscious conflict; is based on the structure of society d)All of the above. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 33
  34. 34. Clicker Question #3 According to object relations theory, a)interpersonal relationships are very important. b)the objects we form to represent people are always realistic. c)it is possible for a relationship to be entirely good. d)observing a child at play is not a good way to diagnose the child’s problems. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 34

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