APPEL PSY 150 403 Chapter 3 SLIDES


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APPEL PSY 150 403 Chapter 3 SLIDES

  1. 1. Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind Chapter 3
  2. 2. Chapter Topics This chapter is concerned with:  the quality our mental experience.  the way that experience is affected by the two tracks of mental experience.  the way that experience is altered by  sleep.  hypnosis.  psychoactive drugs.
  3. 3. Brain States and Consciousness Topics to be aware of:  Defining Consciousness  Having a “Dual-Track” Mind  Selective Attention/Inattention
  4. 4. Many psychologists define Consciousness as: “our awareness of ourselves and our environment.” Aren’t animals aware of their environment? If so, is our awareness different? Possibly, because we have (uniquely?) a narrative experience of that awareness. Consciousness is…  alertness; being awake vs. being unconscious  self-awareness; the ability to think about self  having free will; being able to make a “conscious” decision  a person’s mental content, thoughts, and imaginings To explore the nature of consciousness, it helps to first choose a definition.
  5. 5. Altered States and Forms of Consciousness
  6. 6. Psychology’s Relationship to this Topic Psychology was once defined as “the description and explanation of states of consciousness.” Now, consciousness is just one topic among many for psychologists. Cognitive neuroscience allows us to revisit this topic and see how the brain is involved.
  7. 7. Conscious vs. Unconscious Activity: The Dual-Track Mind Conscious “high” track: our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing Examples: problem solving, naming an object, defining a word Unconscious “low” track: our minds perform automatic actions, often without being aware of them Examples: walking, acquiring phobias, processing sensory details into perceptions and memories Automatic processing: Conscious “high” track says, “I saw a bird!” Unconsciously, we see color, motion, form, and depth. Example of Dual Processing: Sensation and Perception
  8. 8. Consequences of a Dual-Track Conscious/Unconscious Mind Blindsight Selective Attention Selective Inattention  Inattentional blindness  Change blindness  Choice blindness
  9. 9. Case Study A woman with brain damage, but NO eye damage, was unable to use her eyes to report what was in front of her. BUT, she was able to use her eyes to help her take actions such as putting mail in slots. What are the two mental “tracks” in this case? Blindsight: two tracks of parallel processing Judging size and distance well enough to put the mail in the slot: the “low road,” or unconscious, automatic track, in this case known as the visual action track Describing the mail and the slot: the “high road,” or conscious track, in this case known as the visual perception track
  10. 10.  There are millions of bits of information coming at our senses every second.  So, we have the skill of selective attention; our brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice. Selective Attention Selective Attention and Conversation  The good news: we can focus our mental spotlight on a conversation even when other conversations are going on around us. This is known as the cocktail party effect.  The bad news: we can hyperfocus on a conversation while driving a car, putting the driver and passengers at risk.
  11. 11. Selective inattention refers to our failure to notice part of our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere. Selective Inattention:  inattentional blindness  change blindness Selective Inattention: what we are not focused on, what we do not notice Selective Attention: what we focus on, what we notice
  12. 12. Inattentional Blindness  Various experiments show that when our attention is focused, we miss seeing what others may think is obvious to see (such as a gorilla, or a unicyclist).  Some “magic” tricks take advantage of this phenomenon.
  13. 13. Change Blindness Two-thirds of people didn’t notice when the person they were giving directions to was replaced by a similar-looking person. The Switch By the way, did you notice whether the replacement person was in the same clothes or different clothes?
  14. 14. Another state of consciousness: Sleep and Dreams Topics to Dream About  Biological rhythms and sleep  Theories of why we need sleep  Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders  Why and what we dream
  15. 15. Daily Rhythms and Sleep The circadian (“about a day”) rhythm refers to the body’s natural 24-hour cycle, roughly matched to the day/night cycle of light and dark. What changes during the 24 hours? Over the 24 hour cycle, the following factors vary, rising and falling over the course of the day and night:  body temperature  arousal/energy  mental sharpness “Larks” and “Owls” Daily rhythms vary from person to person and with age. General peaks in alertness:  evening peak—20-year old “owls”  morning peak—50-year old “larks”
  16. 16. How Do We Learn About Sleep and Dreams?  We can monitor EEG/brain waves and muscle movements during sleep.  We can expose the sleeping person to noise and words, and then examine the effects on the brain (waves) and mind (memory).  We can wake people and see which mental state (e.g. dreaming) goes with which brain/body state. Sleep as a State of Consciousness Consider that:  we move around, but how do we stop ourselves from falling out of bed?  we sometimes incorporate real-world noises into our dreams.  some noises (our own baby’s cry) wake us more easily than others. When sleeping, are we fully unconscious and “dead to the world”? Or is the window to consciousness open?
  17. 17. Sleep Stages and Sleep Cycles: What is Measured?
  18. 18. Stages and Cycles of Sleep Sleep stages refer to distinct patterns of brain waves and muscle activity that are associated with different types of consciousness and sleep. There are four types of sleep. Sleep cycles refer to the patterns of shifting through all the sleep stages over the course of the night. We “cycle” through all the sleep stages in about 90 minutes on average.
  19. 19. Not yet asleep: Beta and Alpha waves Alpha waves are the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
  20. 20. Falling asleep  Yawning creates a brief boost in alertness as your brain metabolism is slowing down.  Your breathing slows down.  Brain waves become slower and irregular.  You may have hypnagogic (while falling asleep) hallucinations.  Your brain waves change from alpha waves to NREM-1.
  21. 21. Non-REM Sleep Stages Getting deeper into sleep…but not dreaming yet NREM-1 NREM-2 NREM-3
  22. 22. REM Sleep Eugene Aserinsky’s discovery (1953): dreams occurred during periods of wild brain activity and rapid eye movements [REM sleep].  Heart rate rises and breathing becomes rapid.  “Sleep paralysis” occurs when the brainstem blocks the motor cortex’s messages and the muscles don’t move. This is sometimes known as “paradoxical sleep”; the brain is active but the body is immobile.  Genitals are aroused (not caused by dream content) What happens during REM sleep?
  23. 23. Stages of Sleep: 90 Minute Cycles During 8 Hours of Sleep Duration of REM sleep increases the longer you remain asleep. With age, there are more awakenings and less deep sleep.
  24. 24. Why do we sleep? What determines the quantity and rhythm of sleep? The amount and pattern of sleep is affected by biology, age, culture, and individual variation.  Age: in general, newborns need 16 hours of sleep, while adults need 8 hours or less  Individual (genetic) variation: some people function best with 6 hours of sleep, others with 9 hours or more  Culture: North Americans sleep less than others, and less than they used to, perhaps because of the use of light bulbs Light and the brain regulate sleep, thanks to the action of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, decreasing melatonin levels when we see light.  The circadian rhythm is hard to shift (jet lag).  This rhythm can be affected by light, which suppresses the relaxing hormone melatonin.
  25. 25. 1. Sleep protected our ancestors from predators. 2. Sleep restores and repairs the brain and body. 3. Sleep builds and strengthens memories. 4. Sleep facilitates creative problem solving. 5. Sleep is the time when growth hormones are active. Why do we sleep? What does sleep do for us?
  26. 26. Effects of Sleep Loss/ Deprivation Research shows that inadequate sleep can make you more likely to:  lose brainpower.  gain weight.  get sick.  be irritable.  feel old.
  27. 27. Sleep Loss/Deprivation=Accident Risk Sleep loss results in more accidents, probably caused by impaired attention and slower reaction time. Accident Frequency
  28. 28. Sleep Loss Effects by Body System
  29. 29. Sleep Disorders • Insomnia: persistent inability to fall asleep or stay asleep • Narcolepsy (“numb seizure”): sleep attacks, even a collapse into REM/paralyzed sleep, at inopportune times • Sleep apnea (“with no breath”): repeated awakening after breathing stops; time in bed is not restorative sleep  Night terrors refer to sudden scared-looking behavior, with rapid heartbeat and breathing.  Sleepwalking and sleeptalking run in families, so there is a possible genetic basis. Are these people dreaming? These behaviors, mostly affect children, and occur in NONREM-3 sleep. They are not considered dreaming.
  30. 30. Sleep Hygiene: How to Sleep Well 1. Turn the lights low and turn all screens off. 2. Eat earlier, and drink less alcohol and caffeine. 3. Get up at the same time every day, avoid naps. 4. Exercise regularly, but not in the late evening. 5. Don’t check the clock; just let sleep happen. 6. Manage stress and anxiety.
  31. 31. Dreams the stream of images, actions, and feelings, experienced while in REM sleep What We Dream About: the “hallucinations of the sleeping mind”  Dreams often include some negative event or emotion, especially failure dreams (being pursued, attacked, rejected, or having bad luck).  Dreams do NOT often include sexuality.  We may incorporate real-world sounds and other stimuli into dreams.  Dreams also include images from recent, traumatic, or frequent experiences.
  32. 32. Theory Explanation Wish fulfillment (Freud’s psycho- analytic theory) Information- processing Physiological function Activation- synthesis Cognitive- developmental theory Theories about Functions of Dreams Dreams provide a “psychic safety valve”; they often express otherwise unacceptable feelings, and contain both manifest (remembered) content and a latent content (hidden meaning). Dreams help us sort out the day’s events and consolidate our memories. Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways. REM sleep triggers impulses that evoke random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories. Dream content reflects the dreamers’ cognitive development—his or her knowledge and understanding. Lacks any scientific support; dreams may be interpreted in many different ways.But why do we sometimes dream about things we have not experienced? This may be true, but it does not explain why we experience meaningful dreams. The individual’s brain is weaving the stories, which still tells us something about the dreamer. Does not address the neuroscience of dreams.
  33. 33. Hypnosis What we need you to focus your attention on  Defining Hypnosis  What are some of the powers and limits of hypnosis?  Hypnosis as socially influenced behavior  Hypnosis as divided consciousness
  34. 34. A Possible State of Consciousness: HYPNOSIS Text definition: Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. “Your arm may soon feel so light that it rises…” Alternate definition: Hypnosis is a cooperative social action in which one person is in a state of being likely to respond to suggestions from another person.  This state has been called heightened suggestibility as well as a trance.  Controversy: does this social interaction really require an altered state of consciousness?
  35. 35. The Highly Hypnotizable 20 Percent How do some people get so hypnotized that they can have no reaction to ammonia under their noses? • These people seem to be more easily absorbed in imaginative activities. • They are able to focus and to lose themselves in fantasy. • The hypnotic induction method may happen to work just right. Induction Into Hypnosis A swinging watch and recitation of the words “you are getting sleepy” are not necessary. Hypnotic induction, the inducing of a hypnotic state, is the process by which a hypnotist leads someone into the state of heightened suggestibility.
  36. 36. Benefits of Hypnosis for Some People: With the help of posthypnotic suggestions (carried out after hypnosis session is complete), people can:  block awareness of pain, even enough for surgery without anesthesia  reduce obesity, anxiety, and hypertension  improve concentration and performance What Hypnosis Cannot Do:  work when people refuse to cooperate  bestow ‘superhuman’ abilities or strength  accurately boost recall of forgotten events (it is more likely to implant false recall)
  37. 37. Theories Explaining Hypnosis Social Influence Theory Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative people who go along with the “subject” role they have agreed to play. Divided Consciousness Theory Hypnosis is a special state of dissociated (divided) consciousness of our dual-track mind.
  38. 38. Drugs and Consciousness Topics to digest, to expand our consciousness  When Drugs are a problem: Criteria for Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction  Types of Psychoactive Drugs:  Depressants  Stimulants  Hallucinogens  Biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences on drug use
  39. 39. Altering Consciousness Drugs Psychoactive drugs are chemicals introduced into the body which alter perceptions, mood, and other elements of conscious experience. Dependence/Addiction  Many psychoactive drugs can be harmful to the body.  Psychoactive drugs are particularly dangerous when a person develops an addiction or becomes dependent on the substance.  Factors related to addiction:  tolerance  withdrawal  impact on daily life of substance use  physical and psychological dependence
  40. 40. Tolerance of a drug refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use. Tolerance feeds addiction because users take increasing amounts of a drug to get the desired effect. Tolerance
  41. 41. Withdrawal  After the benefits of a substance wear off, especially after tolerance has developed, drug users may experience withdrawal (painful symptoms of the body readjusting to the absence of the drug).  Withdrawal worsens addiction because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms.
  42. 42. Dependence In physical dependence, the body has been altered in ways that create cravings for the drug (e.g. to end withdrawal symptoms). In psychological dependence, a person’s resources for coping with daily life wither as a drug becomes “needed” to relax, socialize, or sleep.
  43. 43. Dependence on a substance (or activity?)  Tolerance: the need to use more to receive the desired effect  Withdrawal: the distress experienced when the “high” subsides  Using more than intended  Persistent, failed attempts to regulate use  Much time spent preoccupied with the substance, obtaining it, and recovering  Important activities reduced because of use  Continued use despite aversive consequences
  44. 44. Depressants Examples:  alcohol  barbiturates  opiates Depressants are chemicals that reduce neural activity and other body functions.
  45. 45. Effects of Alcohol Use Impact on functioning  Slow neural processing, reduced sympathetic nervous system activity, and slower thought and physical reaction  Reduced memory formation caused by disrupted REM sleep and reduced synapse formation  Impaired self-control, impaired judgment, self-monitoring, and inhibition; increased accidents and aggression Chronic Use: Brain damage
  46. 46. Barbiturates Barbiturates are tranquilizers--drugs that depress central nervous system activity.  Examples: Nembutal, Seconal, Amytal  Effects: reducing anxiety and inducing sleep  Problems: reducing memory, judgment, and concentration; can lead to death if combined with alcohol
  47. 47. Opiates: Highly Addictive Depressants  Opiates depress nervous system activity; this reduces anxiety, and especially reduces pain.  High doses of opiates produce euphoria.  Opiates work at receptor sites for the body’s natural pain reducers (endorphins). Opiates are chemicals such as morphine and heroin that are made from the opium poppy.
  48. 48. Stimulants Examples of stimulants:  Caffeine  Nicotine  Amphetamines, Methamphetamine  Cocaine  Ecstasy Stimulants are drugs which intensify neural activity and bodily functions. Some physical effects of stimulants: dilated pupils, increased breathing and heart rate, increased blood sugar, decreased appetite
  49. 49. Caffeine  adds energy  disrupts sleep for 3-4 hours  can lead to withdrawal symptoms if used daily:  headaches  irritability  fatigue  difficulty concentrating  depression
  50. 50. Nicotine The main effect of nicotine use is ADDICTION.
  51. 51. Why do people smoke?  Starting to smoke: invited by peers, influenced by culture and media  Continuing: positively reinforced by physically stimulating effects  Not stopping: after regular use, smokers have difficulty stopping because of withdrawal symptoms such as insomnia, anxiety, distractibility, and irritability
  52. 52. Cocaine  Cocaine blocks reuptake (and thus increases levels at the synapse of:  dopamine (feels rewarding).  serotonin (lifts mood).  norepinephrine (provides energy).  Effect on consciousness: Euphoria!!! At least for 45 minutes… What happens next?  Euphoria crashes into a state worse than before taking the drug, with agitation, depression, and pain.  Users develop tolerance; over time, withdrawal symptoms of cocaine use get worse, and users take more just to feel normal.  Cycles of overdose and withdrawal can sometimes bring convulsions, violence, heart attack, and death.
  53. 53. Methamphetamine  Methamphetamine triggers the sustained release of dopamine, sometimes leading to eight hours of euphoria and energy.  What happens next: irritability, insomnia, seizures, hypertension, violence, depression  “Meth” addiction can become all-consuming. From 1998 to 2002: Extreme Makeover, Meth Edition
  54. 54. Ecstasy/MDMA (MethyleneDioxyMethAmphetamine)  Ecstasy is a synthetic stimulant that increases dopamine and greatly increases serotonin.  Effects on consciousness: euphoria, CNS stimulation, hallucinations, and artificial feeling of social connectedness and intimacy What Happens Next?  In the short run, regretted behavior, dehydration, overheating, and high blood pressure.  Make it past that, and you might have:  damaged serotonin-producing neurons, causing permanently depressed mood  disrupted sleep and circadian rhythm  impaired memory and slowed thinking  suppressed immune system
  55. 55. Hallucinogens LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)  LSD and similar drugs interfere with serotonin transmission.  This causes hallucinations--images and other “sensations” that didn’t come in through the senses. Marijuana/THC (delta-9- TetraHydroCannabinol)  Marijuana binds with brain cannabinoid receptors.  Effect on consciousness:  amplifies sensations  disinhibits impulses  euphoric mood  lack of ability to sense satiety Marijuana/THC: What Happens Next?  Impaired motor coordination, perceptual ability, and reaction time  THC accumulates in the body, increasing the effects of next use  Over time, the brain shrinks in areas processing memory and emotion  Smoke inhalation damage
  56. 56. Summary: Desired Effects of Drugs
  57. 57. Summary: Aversive Effects of Drugs
  58. 58. Prevalence of Drug Use in the United States Nicotine Use as of 2011: 26 percent of high school dropouts smoke; 6 percent of people with graduate degrees smoke
  59. 59. • Smoking/nicotine use usually begins before college, in people who have friends that smoke • Adolescent substance abuse varies by country and ethnic group (low among African-American teens) • Adolescents tend to overestimate substance abuse by their peers; getting more accurate information reduces risk of alcohol abuse. • Risk of substance abuse is reduced by – Information on long-term costs to short-term pleasures – Finding a sense of personal worth and purpose – Building skills in resisting perceived peer pressure Adolescent substance use
  60. 60. What influences can lead to drug use?
  61. 61. What can turn drug use into dependence?  Biological factors: dependence in relatives, thrill-seeking in childhood, genes related to alcohol sensitivity and dependence, and easily disrupted dopamine reward system  Psychological factors: seeking gratification, depression, problems forming identity, problems assessing risks and costs  Social influences: media glorification, observing peers