APPEL PSY 263 401 Chapter 2

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APPEL PSY 263 401 Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Theories of Psychosocial and Cognitive Development
  2. 2. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 2 Overview • Erikson: Psychosocial Development • Piaget: Cognitive Development • Vygotsky: Cognitive Development • Using Technology to Promote Cognitive Development • Piaget, Kohlberg, Gilligan, and Noddings: Moral Development
  3. 3. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 3 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Basic Principles of Erikson’s Theory • Basic Principles of Erikson’s Theory  Epigenetic Principle – Idea that development progresses through a series of interrelated stages and that each stage has a critical period of development  Psychosocial Crisis – Turning points; conflict between opposing psychological qualities
  4. 4. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 4 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust • Stages of Psychosocial Development  Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year) – Consistent, positive care produces view of world as safe and dependable – Inconsistent, inadequate care produces view of world as unsafe, fearful
  5. 5. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 5 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt • Stages of Psychosocial Development  Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (2 to 3 years) – Toddlers who are allowed to do what they are capable of doing at their own pace are likely to develop a sense of autonomy – Toddlers whose parents are impatient and intervene too often and too quickly are likely to develop feelings of shame and self- doubt
  6. 6. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 6 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Initiative vs. Guilt • Stages of Psychosocial Development  Initiative vs. Guilt (4 to 5 years) – Allowing children to make decisions about their own behavior and answering questions encourages initiative – Telling children what to do and treating questions as a nuisance encourages guilt
  7. 7. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 7 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Industry vs. Inferiority • Stages of Psychosocial Development  Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 11 years) – Encouraging children to make and do things well, to persevere, and giving praise contributes to a sense of industry – Unsuccessful efforts that are criticized often and harshly contributes to a sense of inferiority
  8. 8. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 8 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Identity vs. Role Confusion • Stages of Psychosocial Development  Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 to 18 years) – Integrating various roles (e.g., academic, occupational, sexual, political) into a coherent whole contributes to identity – Lack of stability in playing various roles contributes to role confusion
  9. 9. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 9 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Adolescent Identity Statuses • Adolescent Identity Statuses (James Marcia)  Identity Diffusion – No crisis; no commitment; little self-direction, impulsive, and low self-esteem  Foreclosure – No crisis; commitment made; close-minded and accepts and endorses parental choices and values  Moratorium – Crisis experienced; no commitment; anxious, changes major often, and often dissatisfied  Identity Achievement – Crisis experienced; commitment made; introspective, planful, logical, and high self-esteem
  10. 10. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 10 Erikson: Psychosocial Development Cultural, Ethnic, and Gender Factors in Identity Status • Cultural, Ethnic, and Gender Factors in Identity Status  Foreclosure is historical norm, but moratorium was more popular in 1960s and 70s because of Vietnam war and other social upheavals  Males and females emphasize different identity statuses  Percentage of adolescents in each category varies by country and culture
  11. 11. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 11 Criticisms of Erikson’s Theory • Based on personal and subjective interpretations • Is better at describing psychosocial development than explaining how and why it occurs • Active exploration of beliefs, relationships, careers not universal practice • Reflects the personality development of males more than females
  12. 12. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 12 Piaget: Cognitive Development • Basic Principles of Piaget’s Theory  Scheme – Organized pattern of behavior or thought  Organization – Tendency to and combine cognitive processes into coherent, logically interrelated systems  Adaptation – Process of creating a good fit between one’s conception of reality and one’s experiences
  13. 13. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 13 Piaget: Cognitive Development Adaptation • Adaptation is accomplished by:  Assimilation: – Interpreting an experience by fitting into an existing scheme  Accommodation: – Interpreting an experience by changing an existing scheme to incorporate the experience
  14. 14. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 14 Piaget: Cognitive Development Cont. • Basic Principles of Piaget’s Theory (Cont’d)  Equilibration – Tendency to organize schemes to allow better understanding of experiences  Disequilibrium – Perception of a discrepancy between existing scheme and new information that one is driven to resolve
  15. 15. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 15 Piaget: Cognitive Development Social Interaction • The Role of Social Interaction and Instruction in Cognitive Development  Social interaction with peers leads to less egocentrism and development of new schemes  Instruction may hasten development of new schemes that have started to form
  16. 16. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 16 Piaget: Cognitive Development Criticisms • Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory  Underestimating Children’s Capabilities  Overestimating Adolescents’ Capabilities  Vague Explanations for Cognitive Growth  Cultural Differences
  17. 17. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 17 Vygotsky: Cognitive Development • How One’s Culture Affects Cognitive Development  How one thinks and solves problems is influenced by the current and historical forces of one’s culture  A culture’s psychological tools (various cognitive devices and procedures) aid and change one’s thought processes
  18. 18. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 18 Vygotsky: Cognitive Development Social Interaction • How Social Interaction Affects Cognitive Development  Cognitive development aided more by interacting with more intellectually advanced peers, older children, and adults who can transmit more advanced psychological tools
  19. 19. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 19 Vygotsky: Cognitive Development Formal Instruction • How Instruction Affects Cognitive Development  Formal instruction replaces spontaneous concepts (empirical learning) with scientific concepts (theoretical learning)
  20. 20. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 20 Vygotsky: Cognitive Development Zone of Proximal Development • Instruction and the Zone of Proximal Development  ZPD is the difference between what a child can do on his own and what can be accomplished with some assistance  Scaffolding is used to support learning during its early phases; as students become more capable of working independently, supports are withdrawn  Well-designed instruction should be aimed slightly ahead of what a child knows and can do  See online Video Case “Vygtosky's Zone of Proximal Development: Increasing Cognition in an Elementary Literacy Lesson”
  21. 21. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 21 Using Technology to Promote Cognitive Development • Technology Applied to Piaget  Microworlds  Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL)  Collaboration with other students via the Internet • Technology Applied to Vygotsky  Cognitive apprenticeship with technology (telementoring)  Interaction with peers as well as experts on the Web (multi-user virtual environments, for example) See Online Video Case “Middle School Reading Instruction: Integrating Technology”
  22. 22. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 22 Piaget, Kohlberg, Gilligan, and Noddings: Moral Development • Piaget’s Analysis of the Moral Judgment of the Child  Moral Realism (Morality of Constraint) – Rules are sacred, consequences determine all guilt; typical of six-year-olds  Moral Relativism (Morality of Cooperation) – Rules are flexible, intent is important in determining guilt; typical of twelve-year-olds
  23. 23. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 23 Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Moral Development Cont. • Kohlberg’s Use of Moral Dilemmas  Expanded on Piaget’s work by having people of different ages respond to moral dilemmas  On the basis of their responses identified six stages of moral development
  24. 24. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 24 Example of a Moral Dilemma: Heinz and the Drug • “In Europe a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later, but the druggist said “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that?” (Kohlberg, 1969, p. 376)
  25. 25. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 25 Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Kohlberg • Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Reasoning Stage 1: Punishment-obedience orientation  Stage 2: Instrumental relativist orientation  Stage 3: Good boy-nice girl orientation  Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation  Stage 5: Social contract orientation  Stage 6: Universal ethical principle orientation
  26. 26. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 26 Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory • Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory  Not applicable to all cultures  Moral dilemmas are too removed from everyday social interactions  Theory does not adequately address micromoral issues  Too much emphasis on moral reasoning and not enough on moral behavior
  27. 27. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 27 Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Gilligan • The Caring Orientation to Moral Development and Education: Carol Gilligan  Believes that females are less concerned about separation and independence and more concerned about remaining loyal through expressions of caring, understanding, and sharing experiences  More likely to resolve identity vs. role confusion and intimacy vs. isolation at the same time
  28. 28. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 28 Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Nel Noddings • The Caring Orientation to Moral Development and Education: Nel Noddings  Believes that caring relationships help produce a moral attitude in students  Educators should strive to create genuine caring relationships in schools
  29. 29. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 | 29 Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan: Moral Thinking – Moral Behavior • Does Moral Thinking Lead to Moral Behavior?  Hartshorne and May studies (1929,1930): Providing students with moral knowledge and belief systems does not necessarily lead to moral behavior  Recent research on character education programs supports these findings

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