EXTRACTION Tooth Extraction : Definition- Tooth extraction is the removal of a tooth from its socket in the bone. Purpose- Extraction is performed for positional, structural, or economic reasons. Teeth are often removed because they are impacted. Teeth become impacted when they are prevented from growing into their normal position in the mouth by gum tissue, bone, or other teeth. Impaction is a common reason for the extraction of wisdom teeth. Extraction is the only known method that will prevent further problems. Teeth may also be extracted to make more room in the mouth prior to straightening the remaining teeth (orthodontic treatment), or because they are so badly positioned that straightening is impossible. Extraction may be used to remove teeth that are so badly decayed or broken that they cannot be restored. In addition, patients sometimes choose extraction as a less expensive alternative to filling or placing a crown on a severely decayed tooth.
EXTRACTIONS (cont) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Potential complications of tooth extraction include postoperative infection, temporary numbness from nerve irritation, jaw fracture, and jaw joint pain. An additional complication is called dry socket. When a blood clot does not properly form in the empty tooth socket, the bone beneath the socket is painfully exposed to air and food, and the extraction site heals more slowl y.
LAVAGE lavage 1. irrigation or washing out of an organ or cavity, as of the stomach or intestine. TYPES OF LAVAGE abdominal lavage the infusion of saline into the peritoneal cavity, usually through a catheter inserted through the abdominal wall, for diagnostic purposes. The fluid returned may be examined for red blood cells, bacteria, enzymes, etc. Called also peritoneal lavage. bronchoalveolar lavage percutaneous entry of a catheter between tracheal rings, followed by infusion of a small volume of normal sterile saline which is then aspirated. The sample is submitted to microbiological and histopathological examination. colonic lavage irrigation of the colon, usually to remove ingested toxins. gastric lavage gastric lavage, or irrigation of the stomach, is usually done to remove ingested poisons. The solutions used for gastric lavage are physiological saline, 1% sodium bicarbonate, plain water or a specific antidote for the poison. A gastric tube is passed and then the irrigating fluid is funneled into the tube. It is allowed to flow into the stomach by gravity. The solution is removed by siphonage; when the funnel is lowered, the fluid flows out, bringing with it the contents of the stomach. Called also gavage.
LAVAGE (cont) TYPES OF LAVAGE ice water lavage administration of ice water through a stomach tube is used in the treatment of acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. There is a risk of inducing hypothermia. ruminal lavage used in the treatment of carbohydrate engorgement. Serial gavages are performed until the fluid comes back clear. A 2.5 in (6 cm) diameter Kingman tube is necessary if any bulk of material is to be retrieved and a hose from a tap is the only practical irrigating mechanism. subpalpebral lavage a method of medicating the eye, particularly useful in treating corneal ulcerations in horses. Tubing is inserted from the conjunctival sac through the upper eyelid and extended onto the head or neck. Medication can then be delivered continuously in a drip. thoracic lavage irrigation of a pleural sac via a paracentesis cannula.
COLONOSCOPY <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Colonoscopy is a medical procedure where a long, flexible, tubular instrument called the colonoscope is used to view the entire inner lining of the colon (large intestine) and the rectum. Purpose A colonoscopy is generally recommended when the patient complains of rectal bleeding or has a change in bowel habits and other unexplained abdominal symptoms. The test is frequently used to test for colorectal cancer , especially when polyps or tumor-like growths have been detected using the barium enema and other diagnostic tests. Polyps can be removed through the colonoscope and samples of tissue (biopsies) can be taken to test for the presence of cancerous cells. The test also enables the physician to check for bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is a necessary tool in monitoring patients who have a past history of polyps or colon cancer .
COLONOSCOPY(cont) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>The procedure is virtually free of any complications and risks. Very rarely (two in 1000 cases) there may be a perforation (a hole) in the intestinal wall. Heavy bleeding due to the removal of the polyp or from the biopsy site seldom occurs (one in 1000 cases). Infections due to a colonoscopy are also extremely rare. Patients with artificial or abnormal heart valves are usually given antibiotics before and after the procedure to prevent an infection.
ANASTOMOSIS Definition 1. communication between vessels by collateral channels. 2. surgical, traumatic, or pathological formation of an opening between two normally distinct spaces or organs.anastomot´ic Types of Anastomosis arteriovenous anastomosis -one between an artery and a vein. crucial anastomosis - an arterial anastomosis in the upper part of the thigh. end-to-end anastomosis- 1. one connecting the end of an artery and that of some other vessel. 2. anastomosis of two sections of colon, as with partial colectomy or closure of an ileostomy.
ANASTOMOSIS(cont) Types of Anastomosis end-to-side anastomosis -an anastomosis connecting the end of one vessel with the side of a larger one. heterocladic anastomosis - one between branches of different arteries . homocladic anastomosis - one between two branches of the same artery. ileoanal pull-through anastomosis -anastomosis of an ileoanal reservoir to the anal canal by means of a short conduit of ileum pulled through the rectal cuff and sutured to the anus, allowing continent elimination of feces following colectomy . intestinal anastomosis - establishment of a communication between two formerly distant portions of the intestine. anastomosis of Riolan - anastomosis of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Roux-en-Y anastomosis -any Y-shaped anastomosis in which the small intestine is included.
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