CECOS University Of IT and Emerging Sciences
TOPIC:RELIABILITY,CENTRED MAINTENANCE RELIABILITY
Reliability is a measure of the probability that an item will perform its intended function for a
specified interval under stated conditions. There are two commonly used measures of
* Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), which is defined as: total time in service / number of
* Failure Rate (λ), which is defined as: number of failures / total time in service.
Definition: Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is a corporate-level maintenance strategy
that is implemented to optimize the maintenance program of a company or facility. The final
result of an RCMprogram is the implementation of a specific maintenance strategy on each of
the assets of the facility. The maintenance strategies are optimized so that the productivity of
the plant is maintained using cost-effective maintenance techniques.
There are four principles that are critical for an reliability centered maintenance program.
1. The primary objective is to preserve system function.
2. Identify failure modes that can affect the systemfunction.
3. Prioritize the failure modes.
4. Select applicable and effective tasks to control the failure modes.
1965: Studies show scheduled overhaul of complex equipment has little or no effect on in-
1970: RCM had its beginning in the commercial airline sector in 1970's. At that time, the
commercial airline industry was experiencing high number of crashes in the take-offs which
majority of them was related to equipment failures
After applying the RCM method, it proved to be highly successful; in commercial airlines it
reduced crashes from 60 per million take-offs to only 2 per million and more important than
that reduced the equipment related crashes from 40 per million to only 0.3 per million take-
Types of RCM:
There are different ways to conduct and implement an RCMprogram;
Classical or rigorous RCM provides the most knowledge and data concerning system
functions, failure modes, and maintenance actions addressing functional failures of any of
the RCM approaches.
The intuitive approach identifies and implements the obvious, usually condition-based,
tasks with minimal analysis. In addition, it culls or eliminates low value maintenance tasks
based on historical data and Maintenance and Operations (M&O) personnel input.
The Principles of RCM:
• RCM is Function Oriented.
• RCM is System Focused
• RCM is Reliability-Centered
• RCM Acknowledges Design Limitations
• RCM is Driven by Safety, Security, and Economics
• RCM Defines Failure as "Any Unsatisfactory Condition
• RCM Uses a Logic Tree to Screen Maintenance Tasks.
• RCM Tasks Must Be Applicable
• RCM Tasks Must Be Effective
• RCM Acknowledges Three Types of Maintenance Tasks :
o Time directed (PM)
o Condition directed (CM)
o Failure finding (Proactive Maintenance)
• RCM is a Living System
The RCM Process –Basic Steps:
RCMis nota stand-alone process,itmustbe an integral partof the Operationsand
Maintenance program.the followingstepcanbe define asfollows.
The preparatory phase has a number of steps which basically involve the selection of the
systems to be analysed, gathering the necessary data for the analysis. In addition the ground
rules or criteria to be used in the selection and analysis process must be established. The stages
can be summarised as follows:
Definition of the system boundaries.
Acquisition of Documentation and Materials.
Interviews with Plant Personnel.
Once the systems have been selected for analysis and the preparations have been completed
the analysis can commence. Experience in the analysis process is important for effective
decision-making. Such experience may exist in the utility or it may be bought in from specialist
service providers in this area. The analysis involves the following stages.
SystemFunctional failure analysis
Identificationof failure modes
Identificationof failure effects
The task selection process uses various forms of logical decision making to arrive
at conclusions in a systematic manner. The outcomes can include:
Inspection and functional testing
Run to Failure
When the task selection has been completed and reviewed, the recommendations arising
from the task selection process will be compared against the current maintenance practices.
The purpose of this comparison is to identify the changes needed to the maintenance
programme and the impact on resources and other commitments.
Task Comparison Review
The outputs of the analysis will result in a change to the maintenance programme. It is
important that such changes are consistent with the maintenance philosophy of the plant and
with regulatory and social obligations. For this reason it is important that the process and its
outcomes be subjected to a final review.
RCM should form part of a living programme. The outcomes of the analysis process and the
implementation of the recommendations will have an impact on the effectiveness of the
operations and maintenance programmes. It is important therefore, that all decisions, the basis
for them and those involved in making them are effectively recorded, so that the information is
available to those carrying out subsequent reviews of the maintenance strategy.
Can be the most efficient maintenance program.
Lowers costs by eliminating unnecessary equipment maintenance or system overhauls.
Minimizes the frequency of overhauls.
Reduces probability of sudden equipment failures.
Focuses maintenance activities on critical system components.
Increases component reliability.
Incorporates root cause analysis.
Can have significant startup costs associated with staff training and equipment needs
Savings potential is not readily seen by management.
RCM is not cheap; it imposes many accomplishing costs to system, for example training
costs and costs of employing some new experts for replacement with those who
entered in the program and have not enough time to fulfill their responsibilities as
Dealing with hidden failures causes challenges for many analysts (and then others) not
familiar with the concept
Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is the optimum mix of reactive, time or interval-based,
condition-based,andproactive maintenance practices. These principal maintenance strategies, rather
than being applied independently, are integrated to take advantage of their respective strengths in
order to maximize facility and equipment reliability while minimizing life-cycle costs.
Total productive maintenance (TPM), total maintenance assurance, preventive maintenance, relia-
bilitycenteredmaintenance (RCM),andmanyotherinnovative approachestomaintenance problems all
aim at enhancing the effectiveness of machines to ultimately improve productivity
The components of RCM program are shown in Figure 1. This figure showing that RCM program consists of
(reactive maintenance, preventive maintenance, condition based maintenance, and proactive maintenance)
and its patterns.