What makes me    Nervous?By: Kierra, James, Kara,Rachael, Anna, and Josh
Organization of the   Cells of the Nervous   Nerve Impulses   The SynapseNervous System        System100                  ...
This system is a part of the nervous system that     consists of the brain and spinal cord.
What is CNS?
This system connects the central nervous system (CNS) tosensory organs (such as the eye and ear), other organs of the  bod...
What is PNS?
An nerve impulse that refers to pathwaysleading to the cortex (ie, sensory) and a nerve impulse where the pathways are    ...
What is the difference between afferent and         efferent nerve impulses?
the part of the pns that is responsible for carrying motor  and sensory information both to and from the cns. This   syste...
What is Somatic Nervous System?
The part of the peripheral nervous system and it  controls many organs and muscles within the                       body. ...
What is the Autonomic Nervous            System?
Astrocytes- Astrocytes are star shaped glial cells because of cytoplasmic processes that     extend from the cell body. th...
What cells does the central nervous        system consist of?
(2 other types and functions of Glia)- Schwann cells-Schwann cells are the supporting cells of the PNS- Satellite cells-An...
What cells does thePeripheral Nervous System?
Bipolar neurons have two processes extending                         from the cell body (examples: retinal                ...
What are the types ofNeurons?
Groups:Sensory neurons Motor neurons    Receptors  Interneurons
What are the groups ofneurons?
Functions:Sensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your    body (periphery) into the central nervous system.M...
What are the functions ofthe groups of neurons?
Also known as transmembrane potential or  membrane voltage, this is the difference inelectrical potential between the inte...
What is Membrane Potential?
the transmembrane voltage that exists when aneuron or muscle cell is not producing an action                   potential.
What is resting Membrane Potential?
The potential is the depolarization of a cell below threshold. After the cell is sufficiently depolarized(and reaches thre...
What is Local Potential?
A nerve impulse that travels down the axon away  from the axon hillock but does not diminish                 with distance...
What is Action Potential?
Na+ is critical for the action potential in nerve cells. Action  potentials are repeatedly initiated as the extracellularc...
What is a mechanism that produces the           action potential?
The pairing of homologouschromosomes during the meiotic phase          of cell division.
What is Synopsis?
Action potential passes along a nerve fiber and     over the surface of its synaptic knob.
What is the event leading to the release         of a neurotransmitter?
Cause of ion tropic effect
What is when the neurotransmitterbinds to a receptor that is also an ion              channel?
When the neurotransmitter binds to a receptor that activates a second  messenger, then the change in  membrane potential i...
What is metabotropic effect?
The bulbous structures on the end ofan axon, each of which contains many          synaptic vesicles.
What is the synaptic knob?          Neuromuscular          Reflex Lab (CLICK          ME)
Neuromuscular Reflex        Lab
Table 1 (voluntary)               Kick    Kick 2   Kick 3   Kick 4   Kick 5   Average               1Time of        5.84s ...
Table 2 (involuntary)               Reflex 1 Reflex 2   Reflex 3   Reflex 4   Reflex 5   AverageTime of        2.18s 6.75s...
Table 3           Reflex without                 Reflex with reinforcement           reinforcementReflex     Max (mV)   Mi...
Data Analysis• There was a significant difference between the  voluntary and involuntary reaction times. The  average volu...
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What makes me nervous artifact jeopardy

  1. 1. What makes me Nervous?By: Kierra, James, Kara,Rachael, Anna, and Josh
  2. 2. Organization of the Cells of the Nervous Nerve Impulses The SynapseNervous System System100 100 100 100200 200 200 200300 300 300 300400 400 400 400500 500 500 500
  3. 3. This system is a part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  4. 4. What is CNS?
  5. 5. This system connects the central nervous system (CNS) tosensory organs (such as the eye and ear), other organs of the body, muscles, blood vessels and glands. The peripheral nerves include the 12 cranial nerves, the spinal nerves and roots, and what are called the autonomic nerves that areconcerned specifically with the regulation of the heart muscle, the muscles in blood vessel walls, and glands.
  6. 6. What is PNS?
  7. 7. An nerve impulse that refers to pathwaysleading to the cortex (ie, sensory) and a nerve impulse where the pathways are leading away (ie, motor).
  8. 8. What is the difference between afferent and efferent nerve impulses?
  9. 9. the part of the pns that is responsible for carrying motor and sensory information both to and from the cns. This system is made up of nerves that connect to the skin, sensory organs and all skeletal muscles. The system isresponsible for nearly all voluntary muscle movements aswell as for processing sensory information that arrives via external stimuli including hearing, touch and sight.
  10. 10. What is Somatic Nervous System?
  11. 11. The part of the peripheral nervous system and it controls many organs and muscles within the body. This is most important in two situations:In emergencies that cause stress and require us to "fight" or take "flight" (run away) In nonemergencies that allow us to "rest" and "digest."
  12. 12. What is the Autonomic Nervous System?
  13. 13. Astrocytes- Astrocytes are star shaped glial cells because of cytoplasmic processes that extend from the cell body. they play a role in regulating the extracellular composition of brain fluid. They release chemicals that promote the formation of tight junctions between the endothelial cells of capillaries. (type of Glia) Oligodendrocytes-The principle function of oligodendrocytes is to provide support to axons and to produce the Myelin sheath, which insulates axons. (type of glia) Microglia- Small nonneural cells forming part of the supporting structure of the central nervous system. They are migratory and act as phagocytes to waste products of nerve tissue. (type of glia) Ependymal cells- Ependymal cells are the cells which line the ventricles of the brain.
  14. 14. What cells does the central nervous system consist of?
  15. 15. (2 other types and functions of Glia)- Schwann cells-Schwann cells are the supporting cells of the PNS- Satellite cells-Any of the cells that envelop the bodies of neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
  16. 16. What cells does thePeripheral Nervous System?
  17. 17. Bipolar neurons have two processes extending from the cell body (examples: retinal cells, olfactory epithelium cells). Pseudounipolar cells (example: dorsal root ganglion cells). Actually, these cells have 2Detailed image of axons rather than an axon and dendrite. OneNeuron below: axon extends centrally toward the spinal cord; the other axon extends toward the skin or muscle. Multipolar neurons have many processes that extend from the cell body. However, each neuron has only one axon (examples: spinal motor neurons, pyramidal neurons, Purkinje cells).
  18. 18. What are the types ofNeurons?
  19. 19. Groups:Sensory neurons Motor neurons Receptors Interneurons
  20. 20. What are the groups ofneurons?
  21. 21. Functions:Sensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your body (periphery) into the central nervous system.Motor neurons (motoneurons) carry signals from the centralnervous system to the outer parts (muscles, skin, glands) of your body.Receptors sense the environment (chemicals, light, sound, touch) and encode this information into electrochemical messages that are transmitted by sensory neurons.Interneurons connect various neurons within the brain and spinal cord.
  22. 22. What are the functions ofthe groups of neurons?
  23. 23. Also known as transmembrane potential or membrane voltage, this is the difference inelectrical potential between the interior and theexterior of a biological cell. Typical values range from –40 mV to –80 mV.
  24. 24. What is Membrane Potential?
  25. 25. the transmembrane voltage that exists when aneuron or muscle cell is not producing an action potential.
  26. 26. What is resting Membrane Potential?
  27. 27. The potential is the depolarization of a cell below threshold. After the cell is sufficiently depolarized(and reaches threshold), it fires an action potential down the axon.
  28. 28. What is Local Potential?
  29. 29. A nerve impulse that travels down the axon away from the axon hillock but does not diminish with distance. This impulse is either on or off.
  30. 30. What is Action Potential?
  31. 31. Na+ is critical for the action potential in nerve cells. Action potentials are repeatedly initiated as the extracellularconcentration of Na+ is modified. As the concentration ofsodium in the extracellular solution is reduced, the action potentials become smaller.
  32. 32. What is a mechanism that produces the action potential?
  33. 33. The pairing of homologouschromosomes during the meiotic phase of cell division.
  34. 34. What is Synopsis?
  35. 35. Action potential passes along a nerve fiber and over the surface of its synaptic knob.
  36. 36. What is the event leading to the release of a neurotransmitter?
  37. 37. Cause of ion tropic effect
  38. 38. What is when the neurotransmitterbinds to a receptor that is also an ion channel?
  39. 39. When the neurotransmitter binds to a receptor that activates a second messenger, then the change in membrane potential is slightly delayed.
  40. 40. What is metabotropic effect?
  41. 41. The bulbous structures on the end ofan axon, each of which contains many synaptic vesicles.
  42. 42. What is the synaptic knob? Neuromuscular Reflex Lab (CLICK ME)
  43. 43. Neuromuscular Reflex Lab
  44. 44. Table 1 (voluntary) Kick Kick 2 Kick 3 Kick 4 Kick 5 Average 1Time of 5.84s 10.55s 15.17s 20.37s 25.31sMuscleConstraction(s)Time of 5.41s 10.24s 14.37s 19.78s 24.73sStimulus (s)Change of .43s .31s .8s .59s .58s .54stime (s)
  45. 45. Table 2 (involuntary) Reflex 1 Reflex 2 Reflex 3 Reflex 4 Reflex 5 AverageTime of 2.18s 6.75s 10.91s 19.3s 24.35sMuscleConstraction(s)Time of 2.14s 6.64s 10.85s 19.28s 24.34sStimulus (s)Change of .04s .08s .06s .2s .1s .096stime (s)
  46. 46. Table 3 Reflex without Reflex with reinforcement reinforcementReflex Max (mV) Min (mV) Change Max (mV) Min (mV) Change ofresponse of mV mV1 1.527 .728 .799 1.411 .86 .5512 1.421 .832 .589 1.156 .874 .2823 1.850 .786 1.064 1.473 .837 .6364 1.751 .778 .973 1.666 .865 .8015 1.672 .828 .844 1.532 .827 .705Average .8538 .595
  47. 47. Data Analysis• There was a significant difference between the voluntary and involuntary reaction times. The average voluntary reaction time took a longer time than the involuntary reaction time. The reason this for what was observed is because the when the body responds to stimuli it takes a lot less than a fraction of a millisecond to go from the area of the body (using receptors) that is being effected to go up to the brain to decipher (using sensory nerves) the electrochemical messages and send the information back (using motor neurons) to act on that change of state of the body.

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