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The final crisis


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The final crisis

  1. 1. THE FINAL CRISIS Assassination at Sarajevo
  2. 2. Focusing Question How did the assassination trigger another Balkan crisis that escalated to world war one?
  3. 3. 1914  Despite the militarism of nations, relationships between the powers was relatively calm.  No nation was bent on war. 1914 was no more likely to witness widespread war than any other year.
  4. 4. Assassination at Sarajevo  On 28th of June, archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria- Hungary empire was killed in Sarajevo.  The assassination was performed by young Bosnian terrorists armed by the Black Hand.
  5. 5. The Black Hand  Formed in 1911, with the aim of uniting all the Balkan slavs into one large state of Yugoslavia.  The group was headed by Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic. He was also chief of intelligence.
  6. 6. The Assassination attempts  Several assassins were placed on the route to be driven by the archdukes car.  The first attempt was a bomb thrown into the car but it bounced out, wounding 20 others.  The assassin, Čabrinović swallowed his cyanide pill and jumped into the Miljacka river. This attempt failed as the cyanide only induced vomiting, and the Miljacka was only 13 cm deep. Police dragged him out of the river, and he was severely beaten by the crowd before being taken into custody.
  7. 7. Assassination attempts  Franz then went to a town hall meeting and then wished to go to the hospital to visit the bombing victims.  The driver to an incorrect turning into the path of Princip. The car attempted to turn around and stalled. Princip took his chance.  He fired two shots, killing the Archduke and his wife.
  8. 8. Austria Reacts  The Austria-Hungary government was enraged. The Serbs were undoubtedly behind the killing and now must be crushed.  They, however, faced two problems. Their army needed a month to prepare for war and they needed the support of Germany.
  9. 9. Austria Reacts  5th July, in Berlin, the Kaiser fully supports Austria, giving them a blank cheque of support.  Germany did not want to risk losing her last powerful ally, even if it meant war.  The Kaiser did not believe that Russia would support Serbia nor was the Russian army ready for war. So if a war was to happen this moment was as good as any.
  10. 10. Ultimatum  On the 23rd of July, Serbia was given an ultimatum. Deemed one of the harshest ever, which no self-respecting nation would abide by, they were given 48 hours to respond.  Serbia agreed to most of the terms, but Austria was set on war.  Grey, the British foreign minister, called for a conference of the four great powers. The Germans refused to take part.
  11. 11. Ultimatum to war  Germany believed the war could remain localised in the Balkans.  On the 28th of July Austria declared war on Serbia. The next day they bombed the city of Belgrade.  On the 30th, Russia began to mobilise, while having secretly been doing so for the past five days. Russia wanted to fully back Serbia.
  12. 12. Germany Mobilises  With other countries mobilising and the rigidness of the Schlieffen plan the Germans countered with immediate mobilisation.  11 thousand trains carrying troops, arms and supplies went to the French front via Belgium.  With only six weeks to beat France, the Germans attempted diplomatic assurance. They gave Russia 12 hours to demobilise and France 18 to promise neutrality in a Russo-German war.
  13. 13. Continental War  The ultimatums expired. Germany declared war on Russia on August 1 and on France the following day by invading Luxembourg.  The Germans demanded rights of travel through Belgium. On the 3rd this were rejected and Germany invaded.  Britain demands Germany leave Belgium in the next five hours. At midnight on the 4th Britain declares war.  World war one had begun.
  14. 14.  U8A