Irish nationalism


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Irish nationalism

  1. 1. Wikispaces •year11historycbhs.wikispaces.c om
  2. 2. Irish nationalism 19th Century rise
  3. 3. Up to this point •The Pope gives the English Sovereign rule over Ireland. Henry II takes over the pale, as Lord of Ireland. •Henry VIII changes to Protestant and attempts to destroy Irish Religion and Culture. •James I settles English and Scottish on confiscated Irish land.
  4. 4. Up to this point •Cromwell puts down an Irish rebellion and Catholicism is banned. •William III defeats James II and establishes the Protestant ascendency. •The act of Union joins Ireland to England, Scotland and Wales, and abolishes the Irish parliament.
  5. 5. Leinster Munster Connacht Ulster
  6. 6. Nationalism definition • Devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation. • The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals. • Aspirations for national independence in a country under foreign domination.
  7. 7. The rise of nationalism • Charles Parnell: • “Why should Ireland be treated as a geographical fragment of England? Ireland is not a geographical fragment but a nation.” • Several groups set out to answer Parnell's question at a time of change in Ireland, as a number of historical grievances were being remedied.
  8. 8. A time of change • In 1869, the Church of Ireland (protestant) was disestablished as the state church and repealing the law the required tithes. • Alongside this, over the following 40 year period, a series of land acts allowed Irish farmers to buy their land from their landlords. Ending economic and social bitterness. • Why then, would nationalistic feelings rise at this time?
  9. 9. Three nationalist groups •Fenians •This group demanded an end to British control over Ireland and the creation of an independent Irish Republic. This was to be achieved by violent revolutionary activities.
  10. 10. Three nationalist groups •Home rule •This group wanted to change the government of Ireland. They wanted to establish an Irish Government to look after home affairs. They also wanted to remain apart of the United Kingdom.
  11. 11. Three nationalist groups •Gaelic revival •Their goal was to revive traditional Gaelic aspects of Irish culture such as language, societal traditions, and culture; such as music, sports and folklore. •“To wean the youth of Ireland away from subservience to foreign (British) games.”
  12. 12. Fenians •The most radical group, they were formed in 1858 and later became the I.R.B. •They took their name from Gaelic legend, as the Fenians were a brave warrior group.
  13. 13. Fenians •As an underground group, they used violent and revolutionary tactics. Between 1865-7 they attempted two failed uprisings. This lead to limited activity of sporadic bombings attacks in Britain.
  14. 14. Home rule •This group had the greatest impact on British policy. Started in 1870, it came to prominence under Parnell. •With their own parliament, Irish affairs could be handled better causing less public unrest.
  15. 15. Home rule • The group continually used its British parliament members (85 by 1885) to disrupt proceedings with the goal of getting the government to listen to their demands. • By 1886, the Irish members held the balance of power between the liberal and conservative parties.
  16. 16. Home rule • Liberal Prime Minister Gladstone offered Parnell home rule if they would support them. • The Ulster Unionist party was set up to oppose home rule. • But both home rule bills failed to pass both houses. • Continued failures and scandals left supports disillusioned and looking elsewhere.
  17. 17. Gaelic revival • Started as the Gaelic Athletic Association in 1884. • The founder, Cusack, sought the approval of the Fenians, with early meetings containing 4 out of 7 being Fenians members. • The group passes rules prohibiting British from joining. • This restores Irish identity but at a cost with an association with the Fenians and British dislike.
  18. 18. Gaelic revival • The Gaelic League, encouraged cultural aspects of Ireland. • They were popular with the middle class and educated Irish. • They had great influence on Irish authors, which in turn lead to an increase in Irish identity. • The league and the G.A.A. both played a role in increasing nationalistic feelings and pride in Irish culture.
  19. 19. Activities •Complete: •Task Five question A •Task Six