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Social work supervision in aotearoa new zealand


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Conference paper slides- Supervision Conference 2010, Auckland, New Zealand

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Social work supervision in aotearoa new zealand

  1. 1. Social work supervision in Aotearoa New Zealand: The state of the art and future directions Kieran O’Donoghue Senior Lecturer in Social Work, School of Health and Social Services Massey University © 2010, Kieran O’Donoghue, PB 437, Palmerston North
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Background to the study </li></ul><ul><li>Key Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background to the study <ul><li>The professionalisation and regulation of social work resulting from the Social Workers Registration Act (2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed methods study concerned with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is social work supervision constructed in Aotearoa New Zealand? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What influence does the Aotearoa New Zealand context have on the participants’ construction of social work supervision practice? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where and how can social work supervision practice in Aotearoa New Zealand be most effectively improved? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Key Findings 1 <ul><li>Construction of social work supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The social, organisational and interpersonal context influenced how supervision was produced in any setting and at any one time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision was mainly constructed from a professional standpoint, with supervisees and supervisors displaying different emphasises which were derived from their setting and participation in a range of supervision arrangements. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The supervision produced The politics of the social services environment Organisational climate and culture The parties’ personal construction of the supervision relationship, their roles and responsibilities Factors influencing how supervision is produced
  6. 6. Key Findings 2 <ul><ul><li>There was a difference between internal and external supervision in terms of the focus, content taken and discussed, and recordkeeping . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision mainly occurred through individual sessions, which were varied in frequency and duration according to the needs of the parties and their organisational setting and consisted of specific stages and phases . </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Supervisee Stages Supervisee Phases Supervisor Phases Supervisor Stages Preparation Continual consideration. Session preparation. Accessing and reviewing records. Thinking about the forthcoming session. Preparation Start Social engagement. Orientation. Starting Checking-in. Beginning Planning Agenda setting. Prioritisation Agenda setting. Prioritising items. Planning Working Telling the story or presenting an item. Interactively processing. Clarifying and exploring the story or issue. Decision making and task setting. Working Ending Summary and review. The practicalities of next session Reviewing what was covered. Finishing up the session. Finishing the notes Ending
  8. 8. Key Findings 3 <ul><li>Influence of the Aotearoa New Zealand Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily influenced supervision through the discourses of biculturalism and indigenous development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism was a lesser influence than biculturalism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall, the influence of the Aotearoa New Zealand context was variable and depended upon: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The prevalence to which, biculturalism, indigenous development and multiculturalism were acknowledged. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of connection participants had with Maori and different ethnic and cultural communities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The participants exposure to supervision practices such as cultural supervision and consultation and Kaupapa Maori supervision. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Key Findings 4 <ul><li>Improvements to social work supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements were needed in the professional and organisational systems that support supervision as well as in the practice and provision of it . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main areas of improvement were: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The processes and practices within supervision sessions; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supervisee and supervisor development, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the supervision culture within organisations, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and the level of promotion and support provided by the ANZASW towards improving supervision for individual members and across the profession as a whole. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Implications 1 <ul><li>The construction of social work supervision theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first is the need to reconstruct the theory of what social work supervision is, in professional rather than organisational terms . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a paradigm shift occurring within social work supervision in which the separation of the line-management and professional aspects of supervision has given rise to professional forms (i.e. peer and external supervision). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Supervision is an organisational responsibility Supervision is a professional responsibility Traditional model –the line manager/ supervisor undertakes all supervisory functions Management supervision Professional supervision Delivered in an internal peer or external type Evolutionary direction Changes in social services provision from the State as provider to purchaser and the contracted and contestable services Changes in organisational and management structures Professionalisation of social work and the professionalisation of supervision To sanction and approve delivery type Portfolio model
  12. 12. Implications 2 <ul><ul><li>The mandates for supervision need to be reconceptualised to include the professional, statutory and supervisee mandates, as well as the traditional organisational mandate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The social work research community need to investigate and evaluate the professional forms of supervision (peer and external) further, in terms of their contribution to client outcomes and practitioner well-being and development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a need to re-construct social work supervision theory so that it gives greater recognition to the supervisee’s contribution to supervision </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Implications 3 <ul><li>Cultural competence within supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The breath and complexity of cultural discourses and positioning within supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The contribution supervision makes to the cultural development of practitioners and the cultural safety of clients from indigenous and minority cultural groups as well as the cultural competence of practitioners from dominant cultural groups. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Emerging Cultural Framework of supervision Type of cultural engagement/ cultural positioning Cultural Insider example Cultural Outsider example Indigenous Kaupapa Maori supervision within an Iwi (tribal) social service where both the supervisee and supervisor are from the same iwi (tribe) Maori supervision within a Kaupapa Maori setting where either the supervisee and/or supervisor are not from the local iwi (tribe) Bicultural Cultural supervision for Maori staff in mainstream or bicultural settings provided by a Maori supervisor. Non-Maori engaging in cross-cultural supervision/ consultation with a Maori consultant supervisor/ supervisee. Or Non-Maori engaging in cross-cultural supervision/ consultation with a Maori consultant regarding the supervision of their work with Maori clients. Multicultural Supervision within same culture group within a multicultural setting. Cross-cultural supervision relationships and the supervision of cross cultural practice.
  15. 15. Implications 4 <ul><li>Overall, the construction of the cultural framework captures the breadth and depth of the cultural needs and dynamics, as well as the complexity and challenges pertaining to supervision and social work practice . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Implications 4 <ul><li>Development of professional supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further research; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and professional development for supervision; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving the supervision environment </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Implications 5 <ul><ul><li>The practice of supervision could be further developed by research into the supervision of supervisors and evaluations of the supervision practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The education and professional development for supervision indicated a need for a supervisee role development strand within social work professional education and training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional development pathway for supervisors. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Supervisee and Supervisor development <ul><li>Supervisee Role development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to be a supervisee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being a supervisee within an organisational setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being a supervised professional who makes the most of supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking the lead supervisee-led supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervisory Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisor of students on placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisor within an organisational setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Professional supervisor </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Implications 6 <ul><li>Improving the supervision environment by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a best practice culture through the development of and use of best practice models and best practice guidelines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researching the influence of office, organisational and professional cultures on professional supervision practice. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Emergent Model of Best Supervision Practice Best-fit decisions that are contingent upon the setting, Issues and those involved Client Practitioner/supervisee Agency Supervisor O’Donoghue, K., Munford, R, and Trlin, A. (2006). What’s best about social work supervision according to Association members. Social Work Review 18(3) 79-91.
  21. 21. Best Supervision Practice <ul><li>A relationship characterised by support, trust, honesty, openness </li></ul><ul><li>A supervisor who demonstrate well developed personal and professional qualities, attributes, and shares expertise, knowledge and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>A supervision practice that enables progressive learning and development (including problem solving and solution finding), is humanly responsive, uses a constructive interactional process, and provides accountability and safety </li></ul><ul><li>An environment in which there is a mutually agreeable situation/setting, where time is claimed and productively used and contact is of an appropriate frequency, where participants are comfortable and opportunities for supervision conversations and practice are available. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Recommendations 1 <ul><li>Theory of supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition be revisited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop shared terminology and concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research supervision mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconceptualise supervision from both sides of the relationship. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Recommendations 2 <ul><li>Cultural Competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify the role cultural supervision and consultation have in culturally competent social work practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater recognition of the cultural differences found in the supervision of Maori and capacity building in the area of supervision for Maori practitioners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research the role consultation and supervision have in developing cultural competence amongst non-Maori practitioners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research to explore best cross-cultural supervision practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and training packages concerned with consultation and supervision for cultural competence with Maori be developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research the influence that having a supervisor from the same culture has for practitioners for from indigenous and minority population groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research the contribution of supervision and consultation in cross-cultural practice and the cultural competence of practitioners from majority population groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and training packages concerned with multicultural competence within supervision be developed </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Recommendations 3 <ul><li>Towards the further development of professional supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research into the supervision of supervisors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An evaluation tool for the practice of supervision be developed and tested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research of the supervisee role development curriculum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workforce development plan for supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision of the supervision curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of best practice culture, models and guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research into the influence of environmental factors on supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further research into the phenomena of office, organisational, and professional supervision cultures. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion the state of the art of and future direction for social work supervision <ul><li>The future research and development agenda for social work supervision concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theory-building; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responding to the dynamics of culture and difference; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the professionalisation of supervision in terms of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) formal education and training; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) its role within organisations and contribution to organisational development; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) the need for a stronger evidence-base regarding supervision’s contribution to client practice and social worker well-being and development. </li></ul></ul></ul>