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Legal english ภาษาอังกฤษกฎหมาย

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Legal english ภาษาอังกฤษกฎหมาย

  1. 1. ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) รม
  2. 2. ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH Sorawit Limparangsri Judge of Office of the President of the Supreme Court  √«‘» ≈‘¡ª√—ß…’ ºŸâæ‘æ“°…“»“≈™—Èπµâπª√–®” ”π—°ª√–∏“π»“≈Æ’°“ »Ÿπ¬å«‘∑¬∫√‘°“√»“≈¬ÿµ‘∏√√¡  ”π—°ß“π»“≈¬ÿµ‘∏√√¡
  3. 3. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH Sorawit Limparangsri Judge of Office of the President of the Supreme Court ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม  √«‘» ≈‘¡ª√—ß…’ ºŸâæ‘æ“°…“»“≈™—Èπµâπª√–®” ”π—°ª√–∏“π»“≈Æ’°“ æ‘¡æå§√—Èß∑’Ë 1 ®”π«π 4,000 ‡≈à¡ ISBN 978-616-7140-19-3 æ‘¡æå∑Ë’ ∫√‘…—∑ ™«πæ‘¡æå 50 ®”°—¥ 513/124 ´Õ¬®√—≠ π‘∑«ß»å 37 («—¥‡æ≈ß«‘ªí  π“) ∂ππ®√—≠ π‘∑«ß»å ·¢«ß∫“ߢÿπ»√’ ‡¢µ∫“ß°Õ°πâÕ¬ °√ÿ߇∑æœ 10700 ‚∑√. 0-2412-9460 ‚∑√ “√ 0-2864-6997 ¡◊Õ∂◊Õ 08-9675-3922 𓬮‘‚√®πå »√ ß§√“¡ ºâŸæ‘¡æåºâŸ‚¶…≥“ æ.». 2554
  4. 4. §”π” ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม „πªí®®ÿ∫—π¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…π—∫‰¥â«à“‡ªìπ¿“…“∑’Ë¡’§«“¡ ”§—≠¡“° ∑’Ë ÿ¥¿“…“Àπ÷Ëß„π‚≈° ·¡â·µà„π∫√‘∫∑∑“ߥâ“π°ÆÀ¡“¬ ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ… ∑’Ë ‡ °’Ë ¬ «°— ∫ °ÆÀ¡“¬°Á ¡’ ∫ ∑∫“∑·≈–Õ‘ ∑ ∏‘ æ ≈µà Õ °“√æ— ≤ π“°ÆÀ¡“¬ ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»µà“ßÊ Õ¬à“ß¡“° ‡π◊ËÕß®“°‡ªìπ¿“…“∑’Ë„™â„π‡Õ° “√ µ”√“ µ≈Õ¥®π°ÆÀ¡“¬√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑»®”π«π¡“° §«“¡ ”§—≠¢Õß¿“…“ Õ—ß°ƒ…¬—ß∑«’¡“°¬‘Ëߢ÷Èπµ“¡§«“¡·æ√àÀ≈“¬¢Õ߇∑§‚π‚≈¬’ “√ π‡∑» ∑’Ë∑”„À⧫“¡√Ÿâ∑Ë’Õ¬Ÿà„π√Ÿª¢Õß¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…·æ√à°√––®“¬‰ª∑—Ë«∑ÿ°¡ÿ¡‚≈° §«“¡√Ÿâ∑“ߥâ“π°ÆÀ¡“¬®”π«π¡“°∑’ˇº¬·æ√à ‰¡à«à“„π∑“߇∑§‚π‚≈¬’  “√ π‡∑»À√◊Õ„π√Ÿª¢ÕßÀπ—ß ◊Õ„™â¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…‡ªìπÀ≈—° ∑”„ÀâÕ‘∑∏‘æ≈ ·≈–∫∑∫“∑¢Õß¿“…“Õ—ß°°ƒ…µàÕ°“√æ—≤π“°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»µà“ßÊ ¡’‡æ‘¡¡“°¢÷πµ“¡‰ª¥â«¬ Ë È °ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬®”π«πÀ≈“¬©∫—∫‰¥â¬°√à“ߢ÷π‚¥¬Õ“»—¬ È ·π«§‘ ¥ ®“°°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»Õ◊Ë π ∑’Ë „ ™â ¿ “…“Õ— ß °ƒ… °“√»÷ ° …“ °ÆÀ¡“¬‡À≈à“π’È „Àâ¡’§«“¡‡¢â“„®Õ¬à“ß∂àÕß·∑â∂÷ßæ◊Èπ∞“𧫓¡§‘¥·≈– °“√ª√–¬ÿ°µå „™â°—∫ ∂“π°“√≥å∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ®÷ß®”‡ªìπµâÕß»÷°…“∂÷߇հ “√ ·≈–µ”√— ∫ µ”√“∑’Ë ‡ ªì π ∑’Ë ¡ “¢Õß°°ÆÀ¡“¬©∫— ∫ µà “ ßÊ ‡À≈à “ π—È π ¥â « ¬ ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°‡Àµÿ ° “√≥å À √◊ Õ °√≥’ µà “ ßÊ ∑’Ë ‡ °‘ ¥ ¢÷È π µ“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬‡À≈à “ π’È  à«π„À≠à≈â«π‡§¬‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ¡“°àÕπ·≈â«„πª√–‡∑»Õ◊Ëπ À“°√Ÿâ·≈–‡¢â“„®∂÷ß °“√ª√–¬ÿ ° µå „ ™â ° ÆÀ¡“¬¥— ß °≈à “ «®–∑”„Àâ ° “√π”°ÆÀ¡“¬¡“„™â „ π ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬¡’ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ·≈–∑”„À⇰‘¥§«“¡‡ªìπ∏√√¡¬‘Ëߢ÷Èπ  ”π— ° ß“π»“≈¬ÿ µ‘ ∏ √√¡‰¥â ‡ ≈Á ß ‡ÀÁ π ∂÷ ß §«“¡ ”§— ≠ ¢Õß¿“…“ Õ—ß°ƒ…∑’ˇ°’ˬ«°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë¡’º≈µàÕ°“√æ—≤π“°ÆÀ¡“¬„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬
  5. 5. ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ¥— ß °≈à “ « ®÷ß ‰¥â „ Àâ »Ÿ π ¬å «‘ ∑ ¬∫√‘ ° “√»“≈¬ÿ µ‘ ∏ √√¡¥”‡π‘ π °“√√«∫√«¡ ∫∑§«“¡¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…∑’ˇ°’ˬ«°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬¢÷Èπ‡æ◊ËÕª√–‚¬™πå„π°“√»÷°…“ °“√„™â¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…„π∫√‘∫∑∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬µàÕ‰ª  ”π—°ß“π»“≈¬ÿµ‘∏√√¡ À«—߇ªìπÕ¬à“߬‘Ëß«à“Àπ—ß ◊Õ Legal English ©∫—∫π’È®–‡ªìπª√–‚¬™πå „π°“√æ—≤π“Õߧ姫“¡√Ÿâ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…∑’ˇ°’ˬ«°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ µàÕ‰ª (𓬫‘√—™ ™‘π«‘π‘®°ÿ≈) ‡≈¢“∏‘°“√ ”π—°ß“π»“≈¬ÿµ‘∏√√¡
  6. 6. TABLE OF CONTENT Types of Laws Procedural Law Nature of Contract Law World Wackiest Lawsuit 1 World Wackiest Lawsuit 2 Res ipsa loquitur Criminal Law ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 5 20 52 70 74 78 93
  7. 7. ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม The wording of laws should mean the same thing to all men. Chalres Louis de Montesquieu ∂âÕ¬§”¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬§«√¡’§«“¡À¡“¬‡¥’¬«°—π ”À√—∫∑ÿ°§π ™“√å≈ À≈ÿ¬ å ‡¥Õ ¡Õ߇µ °‘‡ÕÕ
  8. 8. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 3 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬-‡¡◊Õ¬“¢¡‡§≈◊Õ∫πÈ”µ“≈ Ë ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม „πÕ¥’µ∑’˺à“π¡“«‘™“¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°—∫§π∑’ˇ√’¬π°ÆÀ¡“¬¥Ÿ®– ‰¡à§àÕ¬∂Ÿ°°—π‡∑à“‰À√à ∫“ߧ√—È߇¡◊ËÕ‡ÀÁπ‡Õ° “√∑’ˇªìπ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ… ‡À¡◊Õπ‡ÀÁπÕ–‰√∫“ßÕ¬à“ß∑’Ë¥Ÿ·ª≈°ª√–À≈“¥‰¡à§àÕ¬Õ¬“°®–®—∫µâÕß ‡∑à“‰À√à æÕ‡ÀÁπ¢âÕ Õ∫¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…∫“ߧπ∂÷ß¢π“¥¬Õ¡∑‘Èߧ–·π𠉪ø√’Ê ·≈⫧àÕ¬‰ª‡ ’ˬߥ«ß°—∫¢âÕ Õ∫¿“…“‰∑¬ à«π∑’ˇÀ≈◊Õ ·µà∫“ߧπ °Á¡’§«“¡æ¬“¬“¡∑’Ëπà“™◊Ëπ™¡ æ¬“¬“¡®—∫§”»—æ∑åµà“ßÊ ∑’Ë¢≥–π—ËßÕ¬Ÿà „πÀâ Õ ß Õ∫®–æÕπ÷ ° ¢÷È π ‰¥â ¡ “√«∫√«¡·≈–‡√’ ¬ ∫‡√’ ¬ ß„Àâ „ °≈â ‡ §’ ¬ ß°— ∫  ‘Ëß∑’Ë¢âÕ Õ∫µâÕß°“√¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ ∫“ߧπæÕ‡ÀÁπ çΩ√—Ëßé ‡¥‘π¡“ ∂â“¡’ ∑“߇≈’ˬ߰Á欓¬“¡‡¥‘π‰ªÕ’°∑“ß À√◊Õ‰¡à‡™àππ—Èπ°Á欓¬“¡‰¡à ∫ “¬µ“ ¥â«¬ ·¡â«à“ ∂“π°“√≥å·∫∫π’Ȭ—ߧßæ∫‡ÀÁπ‰¥âÕ¬Ÿà ·µà‡√‘Ë¡¡’§«“¡ ‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ߧàÕπ¢â“ß¡“°„π™à«ßÀ≈—ßÊ ‡¥Á°√ÿàπ„À¡à¡’§«“¡§ÿâπ‡§¬ ·≈– ¡’§«“¡°≈â“„π°“√„™â¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…¡“°¢÷Èπ∑ÿ°«—π „πÕ𓧵‡√“§ß¡’ π—°°ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë„™â¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…‰¥âÕ¬à“ߧ≈àÕß·§≈à«¡“°¢÷ÈπÕ¬à“ß·πàπÕπ „π∞“π–¢ÕߺŸâ∑’Ë»÷°…“«‘™“°ÆÀ¡“¬‡Õß ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’Ë ™à«¬ à߇ √‘¡°“√»÷°…“°ÆÀ¡“¬‰¥â‡ªìπÕ¬à“ߥ’ ‡æ√“–‚≈°‡√“∑ÿ°«—ππ’·¡â«“ È à ®–¡’æ√¡·¥π∑“ß°“¬¿“æ∑’Ë·∫àß·µà≈–ª√–‡∑»ÕÕ°®“°°—π ·µà „π·ßà ¢Õߧ«“¡§‘¥·≈â«æ√¡·¥π∑“ß°“¬¿“æ‡À≈à“π’È·∑∫®–‡ªìπ ‘Ëß≈«ßµ“∑’Ë ‰¡à¡’§«“¡À¡“¬ §«“¡§‘¥∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ„À¡à·¡â·µà„π«ß°“√°ÆÀ¡“¬‡¥‘π∑“ß ‰ªµ“¡ª√–‡∑»µà“ßÊ ‡√Á«°«à“∑’ˇ√“§“¥§‘¥‰«â¡“° º≈¢Õß°“√‡¥‘π∑“ß ¢Õߧ«“¡§‘¥·≈–°“√·≈°‡ª≈’Ë¬π§«“¡√Ÿâª√– ∫°“√≥åµà“ßÊ ∑”„Àâ Ë‘ß µà“ßÊ ∑’ˇ√“‡§¬√Ë”‡√’¬π¡“ ¡—¬‡¡◊ËÕ§√—Èß»÷°…“«‘™“°ÆÀ¡“¬„À¡àÊ Õ“® ®–‰¡à‡ªìπ‡™àππ—Èπ·≈â«„πªí®®ÿ∫—π
  9. 9. 4 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม µ—«Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ë· ¥ß∂÷ߢâÕ‡∑Á®®√‘߇À≈à“π’ȧ◊Õ‡√“‡§¬‡√’¬π«à“ ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬‡√“‡ªìπª√–‡∑»∑’Ë„™â√–∫∫ª√–¡«≈°ÆÀ¡“¬ (Civil Law) ·≈–ª√–‡∑» ‡™àπ Õ—ß°ƒ…·≈– À√—∞Õ‡¡√‘°“‡ªìπª√–‡∑»∑’Ë „™â√–∫∫ °ÆÀ¡“¬®“√’µª√–‡æ≥’ (Common law) °ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ‡√“‰¥â√—∫Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈®“°ª√–‡∑»¿“§æ◊Èπ¬ÿ‚√ª ‡™àπ ª√–‡∑»‡¬Õ√¡—π ª√–‡∑» «‘ ‡´Õ√å·≈π¥å À√◊Õ·¡â·µàÕ‘∑∏‘æ≈¢Õß°“√æ—≤π“ª√–¡«≈ °ÆÀ¡“¬®“°ª√–‡∑»≠’˪Éÿ𠧫“¡√Ÿâ‡À≈à“π’È∑”„Àâ‡√“√Ÿâ ÷°«à“°ÆÀ¡“¬ ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»„π√–∫∫°ÆÀ¡“¬Àπ÷Ëßπà“®–¡’§«“¡·µ°µà“ß°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬ „πÕ’°√–∫∫Àπ÷Ëß¡“° ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈π’ÈÕ“®®–‡ªìπ®√‘ß„πÕ¥’µ ·µàÀ“°‡√“¡Õß≈÷° ≈߉ª„πæ—≤π“°“√∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬¬ÿ§ªí®®ÿ∫—𠧫“¡·µ°µà“ßπ’È¡’¡“°‡©æ“– „π·ßà¢Õß·∫∫æ‘∏’∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬ ·µà·π«§«“¡§‘¥µà“ßÊ ∑’Ë·ΩßÕ¬Ÿà ‰ ¡à ·µ°µà“ß°—π‡∑à“„¥ Õß§å ° √√–À«à “ ߪ√–‡∑»À≈“¬·Àà ß °Á ¡’ § «“¡æ¬“¬“¡∑’Ë ® –∑” „Àâ°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»µà“ßÊ ¡’§«“¡‡ªìπÕ—πÀπ÷ËßÕ—π‡¥’¬«°—𠇙à𠧫“¡æ¬“¬“¡¢Õߧ≥–°√√¡“∏‘°“√°ÆÀ¡“¬°“√§â“√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑»·Ààß  Àª√–™“™“µ‘ (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law - UNCITRAL) ´÷Ë ß ‰¥â √ –¥¡ ¡ÕߢÕßπ— ° °ÆÀ¡“¬ ∑—Èßø“° Civil Law ·≈–Ωíòß Common Law ¡“√à«¡¥â«¬™à«¬°—𧑥 ™à « ¬°— π √à “ ߇հ “√∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬µà “ ßÊ ‡™à π °ÆÀ¡“¬·¡à · ∫∫«à “ ¥â«¬Õπÿ≠“‚µµÿ≈“°“√∑“ßæ“≥‘™¬å√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑» (Model law on international commercial arbitration) °ÆÀ¡“¬·¡à·∫∫«à“¥â«¬ ∏ÿ√°√√¡∑“ßÕ‘‡≈Á°∑√Õπ‘° å (Model law on electronic commerce) °ÆÀ¡“¬·¡à · ∫∫∑—È ß  Õß©∫— ∫ ≈â « π‡ªì π ∑’Ë ¡ “¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬‰∑¬∑’Ë ‡ √“Ê ∑à“πÊ æ∫‡ÀÁπ„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬´÷Ë߉¥â·°àæ√–√“™∫—≠≠—µ‘Õπÿ≠“‚µµÿ≈“°“√
  10. 10. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 5 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม æ.». 2545 ·≈–æ√–√“™∫—≠≠—µ«“¥â«¬∏ÿ√°√√¡∑“ßÕ‘‡≈Á°∑√Õπ‘° å æ.». 2544 ‘à  ‘Ëßµà“ßÊ ∑’Ëπ”¡“°≈à“«∂÷ß„π Legal English 4 U π’ȇªìπ ‡°√Á¥‡≈Á°‡°√Á¥πâÕ¬∑’ËÀ«—ß«à“®–‡ªìπª√–‚¬™πå„π¥â“πµà“ßÊ ∫â“߉¡à¡“° °ÁπâÕ¬ ·µà¢Õ„Àâ∑à“πÕ¬à“‡§√à߇§√’¬¥π—°°—∫°“√Õà“π‡Õ° “√™ÿ¥π’È¢Õ„Àâ π÷°«à“‡√“°”≈—ß查§ÿ¬·≈°‡ª≈’ˬπ‡°√Á¥¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈µà“ßÊ ∑’ˇªìπª√–‚¬™π几’¬ ¡“°°«à“ ¥—ßπ—Èπ ‰¡à«à“∂âÕ¬§”∑’Ë„™âÀ√◊Õ°“√𔇠πÕÀ≈“¬ à«π®–欓¬“¡ ‡ πÕ„π≈—°…≥–¢Õß°“√查§ÿ¬¡“°°«à“®–‡ªìπ°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ∑’§√Ë”‡§√àß Ë ‚¥¬æ¬“¬“¡®–‡§≈◊Õ∫¬“¢¡¥â«¬πÈ”µ“≈„Àâ¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥‡æ◊ËÕ®–‰¥â∑”„Àâ°“√ ∑“π¬“¢¡‡¡Á¥π’È¡’§«“¡§≈àÕߧա“°¢÷Èπ Types of Laws ª√–‡¿∑¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬ Substantive versus procedural law.1 It is important at the outset to differentiate between the substance of the law and the process or procedures of the law. The former-that is, substantive law - is concerned with the content, or substance, of the law. In criminal law, for example, the substantive °ÆÀ¡“¬ “√∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ °— ∫ °ÆÀ¡“¬ «‘ ∏’   ∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ ∂◊ Õ ‡ªì 𠧫“¡ ”§— ≠ ∑’Ë ® –·¬°§«“¡·µ°µà “ ߇ ’ ¬ µ—È ß ·µà ‡√‘Ë¡·√°√–À«à“ß “√–·Ààß°ÆÀ¡“¬ °— ∫ ¢—È π µÕπÀ√◊ Õ °√–∫«π°“√·Àà ß °ÆÀ¡“¬  ‘Ëß·√°Õ—π‰¥â·°à°ÆÀ¡“¬  “√∫—≠≠—µ‘‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕ߇°’ˬ«°—∫‡π◊ÈÕÀ“ À√◊Õ “√—µ∂–¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬ µ—«Õ¬à“ß ‡™àπ „π°ÆÀ¡“¬Õ“≠“ °ÆÀ¡“¬ “√∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ ® –π‘ ¬ “¡æƒµ‘ ° √√¡∑’Ë ∂◊ Õ «à “ 1 Excerpt from American Law and Legal Systems by James V. Calvi and Susan Coleman.
  11. 11. 6 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ‡ªì π ªØ‘ ªí ° …å µà Õ  — ß §¡·≈–∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ ª√–‡¿∑¢Õß‚∑…∑’Ë ® –≈ß ”À√— ∫ °“√°√–∑”°“√‡À≈à“π—Èπ °ÆÀ¡“¬  “√∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ ® –π‘ ¬ “¡Õ¬à “ ß™— ¥ ·®â ß ‡°’ˬ«°—∫Õߧåª√–°Õ∫¢Õߧ«“¡º‘¥ ·≈–¢Õ∫‡¢µ¢Õß‚∑… (®”§ÿ°À⓪ï∂÷ß  ‘∫ªï) ∑’Ë®–≈߇¡◊ËÕ¡’ §”µ— ¥  ‘ π «à “ ¡’ §«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“ ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม law will define what kind of behavior is considered to be antisocial and prescribe the kind of punishment that will be imposed for engaging in it. The substantive law will clearly define the elements of the crime ... and the range of punishment (five to ten yearsû imprisonment) that may be handed out upon conviction. ... Legal Vocabulary Substantive law °ÆÀ¡“¬ “√∫—≠≠—µ‘ Procedural law °ÆÀ¡“¬«‘∏’  ∫—≠≠—µ‘ Prescribe ∫—≠≠—µ‘ Punishment ‚∑… Element Õߧåª√–°Õ∫ Crime §«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“ Imprisonment °“√®”§ÿ° Conviction µ—¥ ‘π«à“¡’ §«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“ °“√∑”§«“¡‡¢â“„®»—æ∑å¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬‡À≈à“π’ȇªìπ‡√◊ËÕß ‰¡à¬“°‡¬Áππ—°À“°‡√“§àÕ¬Ê §‘¥ §àÕ¬Ê æ‘®“√≥“ §”·√°§”«à“ çsubstantive lawé π—Èπ®–‡ÀÁπ‰¥â«à“‚§√ß √â“ߢÕߧ”§≈⓬°—∫§”«à“ çsubstanceé ´÷ËßÀ¡“¬∂÷ß  “√–À√◊Õ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“¢Õ߇√◊ËÕß∑’Ë°”≈—ß°≈à“«∂÷ß ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ª≈’ˬπ√Ÿª‡ªìπ§”«à“ çsubstantiveé ´÷Ë߇ªì𧔠Adjective ®÷ß
  12. 12. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 7 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม À¡“¬∂÷ߧ«“¡‡°’ˬ«‡π◊ËÕßÀ√◊Õ§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å°—∫ ‘Ëß∑’ˇªìπ “√–À√◊Õ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“ ¢Õ߇√◊ËÕß °“√°≈à“«∂÷ß çsubstantive lawé ®÷ßÀ¡“¬∂÷ß°ÆÀ¡“¬„¥Ê °Á µ “¡∑’Ë °”Àπ¥À√◊ Õ ∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ ‡ °’Ë ¬ «°— ∫  “√–µà “ ßÊ¢Õß ‘ ∑ ∏‘ À πâ “ ∑’Ë ¢ Õß ∫ÿ§§≈ ‰¡à«à“®–‡ªìπ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“·Ààß ‘∑∏‘«à“ºŸâ¡’ ‘∑∏‘®– “¡“√∂‡√’¬°√âÕß„Àâ Õ’°ΩÉ“¬Àπ÷Ëß°√–∑”°“√ ߥ‡«âπ°√–∑”°“√ À√◊Õ àß¡Õ∫∑√—æ¬å ‘πÕ¬à“ß„¥ ∫â“ß µ≈Õ¥®π«‘∏’°“√‰¥â¡“À√◊Õ‡ ’¬‰ª´÷Ëß ‘∑∏‘π—ÈπÊ §”Õ’° à«πÀπ÷Ëß´÷ËßÕ¬ŸàÕ’°ø“°Àπ÷ËߢÕߪ√–‡¿∑°ÆÀ¡“¬§◊Õ§”«à“ çProcedural lawé À“° —߇°µ‚§√ß √â“ߢÕߧ”®–‡ÀÁπ«à“¡’≈—°…≥– §≈⓬°—∫§”«à“ çProcedureé ´÷ËßÀ¡“¬∂÷ß°√–∫«π°“√À√◊Õ¢—ÈπµÕπ ‡¡◊ËÕπ”¡“°≈à“«∂÷ß„π∞“π–∑’ˇªìπª√–‡¿∑À√◊Õ≈—°…≥–¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬®÷ß∑” „Àâ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬‡ªìπ°ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë°”Àπ¥°Æ‡°≥±å‡°’ˬ«°—∫°√–∫«π°“√ À√◊ Õ ¢—È π µÕπ‚¥¬‡©æ“–∑’Ë ‡ °’Ë ¬ «°— ∫ ¢—È π µÕπ°“√¥”‡π‘ 𠧥’ „ π»“≈´÷Ë ß ‡√’¬°«à“‡ªìπ ç°ÆÀ¡“¬«‘∏’ ∫—≠≠—µ‘é °“√∑’Ë ‡ √“®–°≈à “ «∂÷ ß «à “ °ÆÀ¡“¬∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ À √◊ Õ °”Àπ¥‡√◊Ë Õ ß„¥ ‡√◊ËÕßÀπ÷Ë߉«â«à“Õ¬à“߉√ §”∑’ˇ√“Õ“®π”¡“„™â ‰¥â§◊Õ§”«à“ prescribe ª√–‚¬§∑’ˇ°’ˬ«¢âÕߧ◊Õ à«π∑’ˇ¢’¬π‰«â«à“ “... the substantive law will ... prescribe the kind of punishment ....” ´÷ËßÀ¡“¬§«“¡«à“ °ÆÀ¡“¬ “√∫—≠≠—µ‘®–°”Àπ¥‚∑… ”À√—∫°“√°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥∑’Ë°ÆÀ¡“¬ Àâ“¡‰«â ·µà¡’¢âÕπà“ —߇°µª√–°“√Àπ÷Ëߧ◊Õ§”«à“ prescribe π’È¡—°®– ‰¡à§àÕ¬¡’°“√𔉪„™â „π√Ÿª¢Õߧ”π“¡ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°‡¡◊ËÕ‡ªìπ§”π“¡‡¢’¬π«à“ çprescriptioné ´÷Ëß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∑’Ë·µ°µà“ßÕÕ°‰ª§àÕπ¢â“ß¡“°‚¥¬§”«à“ prescription ®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∑’Ëæ∫‡ÀÁπ∫àÕ¬‡ªìπ°“√®à“¬¬“¢Õß·æ∑¬å ‡æ◊ËÕ√—°…“‚√§µà“ßÊ ‡™àπ „π§”«à“ prescription drug ®–À¡“¬∂÷߬“∑’Ë®– ®”Àπà“¬„Àⵓ¡„∫ —Ë߬“¢Õß·æ∑¬å À√◊ÕÀ“°‡ªì𧫓¡À¡“¬∑’Ë„°≈⇧’¬ß
  13. 13. 8 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม °—∫„π‡™‘ß°ÆÀ¡“¬Õ“®¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√Àâ“¡°“√°√–∑”∫“ߪ√–°“√À√◊Õ „π°ÆÀ¡“¬√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑»Õ“®®–À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√‰¥âÕ”π“®Õ∏‘ª‰µ¬‡Àπ◊Õ ¥‘π·¥π∫“ß·Ààß‚¥¬°“√‡¢â“§√Õ∫§√Õ߇ªìπ‡«≈“¬“«π“πÕ¬à“ßµàÕ‡π◊ËÕß ·≈–ª√“»®“°°“√‚µâ·¬âß °“√°≈à“«∂÷ß°“√∫—≠≠—µ‘°ÆÀ¡“¬„π√Ÿª¢Õߧ”π“¡®÷ß¡—°®–„™â §”Õ◊Ëπ¡“°°«à“°“√·ª≈ß®“°§”«à“ prescribe ‡™àπ§”«à“ promulgation ∑’Ë¡“®“°§”»—æ∑å∑Ë’‡ªì𧔰‘√‘¬“«à“ promulgate ´÷Ëß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬«à“ ‡ªìπ°“√ª√–°“»Õ¬à“߇ªìπ∑“ß°“√·≈–∑”„Àâ ß∑’ª√–°“»¡’º≈∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬ ‘Ë Ë ‚¥¬Õ“®„™â „π¢Õ∫‡¢µ∑’Ë°«â“ß°«à“°“√ª√–°“»∫—≠≠—µ‘‡ªìπ°ÆÀ¡“¬ ·µà Õ“®„™â°—∫°“√ª√–°“»°Æ‡°≥±åÕË◊π∑’Ë¡’º≈∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬¥â«¬‡™àπ°—𠇙àπ °“√ª√–°“»¢âÕ∫—ߧ—∫¢Õß»“≈ À√◊Õ°“√ª√–°“»§” —Ëß∑“ߪ°§√Õß ¢ÕßÀπ૬ߓπΩÉ“¬∫√‘À“√ §”Õ’°§”∑’Ë¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„°≈⇧’¬ß°—π§◊Õ §”«à“ enact ´÷Ë߇ªìπ°“√ª√–°“»∑”„Àâ¡’º≈∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬„π≈—°…≥–∑’Ë §≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π ‚¥¬§”»—æ∑å„π√Ÿª¢Õߧ”π“¡„™â§”«à“ enactment ´÷Ëß À¡“¬∂÷ß°√–∫«π°“√ª√–°“»„™â°ÆÀ¡“¬ µ—«Õ¬à“ß°“√𔧔»—æ∑委«à“ promulgate ·≈– enact ‰ª„™â „π∑“ߪؑ∫—µ‘‡™àπ q The Parliament has promulgated a new law prescribing the kinds of business that foreigners cannot engage. [√—∞ ¿“‰¥âÕÕ°°ÆÀ¡“¬„À¡à∑’Ë∫—≠≠—µ‘ ‡°’ˬ«°—∫ª√–‡¿∑¢Õß∏ÿ√°‘®∑’Ë™“«µà“ß™“µ‘‰¡à “¡“√∂∑”‰¥â] q The Central Intellectual Property and International Trade Court enacts a new rule governing the adduction of electronic evidence in the court.
  14. 14. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 9 [»“≈∑√—æ¬å ‘π∑“ߪí≠≠“·≈–°“√§â“√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑»°≈“ß ‰¥âª√–°“»„™â¢âÕ∫—ߧ—∫„À¡à∑’Ë°”À𥇰’ˬ«°—∫°“√π” ◊∫欓π À≈—°∞“πÕ‘‡≈Á°∑√Õπ‘° å„π»“≈] ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม „πª√–‚¬§∑’Ë ¬ °¡“¢â “ ßµâ π πÕ°‡Àπ◊ Õ ®“°§”«à “ prescribe ·≈⫬—ß¡’§”»—æ∑å∑’Ëπà“ π„®Õ’°§”Àπ÷Ëߧ◊Õ§”«à“ punishment ´÷Ëß„π ∫√‘∫∑π’ÈÀ¡“¬∂÷ß‚∑…∑’Ë°ÆÀ¡“¬°”Àπ¥À√◊Õ∫—≠≠—µ‘‰«â ”À√—∫°“√°√–∑” §«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“·µà≈–¢âÕÀ“À√◊Õ∞“𧫓¡º‘¥ ‚¥¬‡ªì𧔻—æ∑å∑Ë’¡“®“° §”°‘√‘¬“«à“ punish ´÷ËßÀ¡“¬∂÷ß°“√≈ß‚∑… §”«à“ punish π’ÈÕ“®„™â ‰¥â „𧫓¡À¡“¬·≈–¢Õ∫‡¢µ∑’Ë°«â“ß¡“°°«à“°“√≈ß‚∑…„π°“√°√–∑” §«“¡º‘¥∑“ßÕ“≠“ ‰¡à«à“®–‡ªìπ°“√≈ß‚∑… ”À√—∫°“√°√–∑”„¥Ê ∑’ˇªìπ  ‘Ë ß ∑’Ë ‰¡à∂Ÿ°µâÕß À√◊Õæ÷ß°√–∑”  ”À√—∫§”§ÿ≥»—æ∑å (adjective) ∑’Ë¡’ ∑’Ë ¡ “®“°§”«à “ punish π—È π ¡’   Õߧ”´÷Ë ß ·µà ≈ –§”®–¡’ § «“¡À¡“¬ ·≈–≈—°…≥–°“√„™â∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß°—πÕÕ°‰ª §”·√°§◊Õ§”«à“ punishable À¡“¬§«“¡«à“¡’≈°…≥–∑’Õ“®µâÕß∑”„Àâ√∫‚∑…‰¥â  à«πÕ’°§”Àπ÷ߧ◊Õ§”«à“ — Ë — Ë punishing ´÷Ëßµ“¡√Ÿª»—æ∑å·≈â«¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ‡ªì𧔰‘√‘¬“≈—°…≥–Àπ÷Ëß ·µà Õ“®®–„™â„π≈—°…≥–‡ªì𧔧ÿ≥»—æ∑å ‰¥âÕ’°¥â«¬ ‚¥¬‡¡◊ËÕ„™â‡ªì𧔧ÿ≥»—æ∑å ·≈â«®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬«à“‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–√⓬·√ß √ÿπ·√ßÀ√◊Õ∑”„Àâ ÕàÕπ·Õ®π·∑∫®–‡°‘π°“√™à«¬‡À≈◊Õ‡¬’¬«¬“ ´÷ËßÀ“°‡√“𔧔»—æ∑åµà“ßÊ ‡À≈à“π’È¡“„™â‡¢’¬π„π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§Õ“®‡¢’¬π‰¥â„π≈—°…≥–¥—ßµàÕ‰ªπ’È q The punishment for robbery prescribed by the Criminal Code is imprisonment for 5 to 10 years or fine for 10,000 to 20,000 baht. [‚∑… ”À√—∫ §«“¡º‘¥∞“π™‘ß∑√—æ¬å∑∫≠≠—µ‰«â‚¥¬ª√–¡«≈°ÆÀ¡“¬Õ“≠“ ’Ë — ‘
  15. 15. 10 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH q q ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม q §◊Õ®”§ÿ°µ—Èß·µà 5 ∂÷ß 10 ªïÀ√◊Õª√—∫µ—Èß·µà 10,000 ∂÷ß 20,000 ∫“∑] Harry is punished for breaking into Helenûs house last month. [·Œ√’Ë∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…®“°°“√∫ÿ°‡¢â“‰ª„π∫â“π¢Õß ‡Œ‡≈π‡¡◊ËÕ‡¥◊Õπ∑’Ë·≈â«] Under the draft bill submitted to the Parliament, illegally acting as a nominee of a foreigner in prescribed business is punishable by imprisonment and fine. [µ“¡√à“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬∑’ˇ πÕµàÕ√—∞ ¿“ °“√ °√–∑”°“√‡ªìπµ—«·∑π¢Õß™“«µà“ß™“µ‘„π°“√∂◊Õ§√Õß∏ÿ√°‘®∑’Ë °ÆÀ¡“¬°”À𥂥¬¡‘™Õ∫¥â«¬°ÆÀ¡“¬‡ªì𧫓¡º‘¥∑’ËÕ“® ∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…®”§ÿ°·≈–ª√—∫] The terrorists suffered a punishing defeat last night when the army attacked their training camp in the jungle. [ºŸâ°àÕ°“√√⓬µâÕߪ√– ∫°—∫§«“¡æà“¬·æâ Õ¬à“߬—∫‡¬‘π‡¡◊ËÕ§◊ππ’ȇ¡◊ËÕ°Õß∑—扥⠂®¡µ’§à“¬Ωñ°∑’Ë µ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà „πªÉ“] „πª√–‚¬§ ÿ¥∑⓬¢Õß∫∑§«“¡´÷Ë߇¢’¬π«à“ “The substantive law will clearly define the elements of the crime ... and the range of punishment (five to ten years’ imprisonment) that may be handed ¡’§”∑’Ëπà“ π„®§”·√°§◊Õ§”«à“ crime ´÷Ëß ‡ªìπ§”∑’Ëæ∫‡ÀÁπ∫àÕ¬¡’§«“¡À¡“¬«à“‡ªì𧫓¡º‘¥Õ“≠“ ·µàÀ“°‡√“ µâ Õ ß°“√„™â „ π≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë ‡ ªì π ¢â Õ À“À√◊ Õ ∞“𧫓¡º‘ ¥ ·µà ≈ –¢â Õ À“À√◊ Õ out upon conviction.”
  16. 16. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 11 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ·µà≈–∞“𧫓¡º‘¥‡√“¡—°®–„™â§”«à“ offense À√◊Õ offence (·≈â« ·µà«à“®–‡¢’¬πµ“¡·∫∫Õ‡¡√‘°—πÀ√◊ÕÕ—ß°ƒ…) ´÷Ëß®–¢Õπ”¡“°≈à“«∂÷ß ‚¥¬≈–‡Õ’ ¬ ¥¢÷È π „π‚Õ°“ µà Õ ‰ª ·µà  ”À√— ∫ §”«à “ crime π’È ¡’ §”∑’Ë „°≈⇧’¬ß°—πÕ’°À≈“¬§” §”·√°§◊Õ§”«à“ criminal ´÷ËßÀ“°„™â‡ªì𠧔§ÿ≥»—æ∑å (adjective) ®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬«à“¡’≈—°…≥–À√◊Õ‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫ §«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“ ·µà§”Ê ‡¥’¬«°—ππ’ÈÕ“®®–„™â‡ªìπ§”π“¡ (noun) ‰¥â Õ’°¥â«¬ ·µà‡¡◊ËÕ„™â‡ªìπ§”π“¡·≈â«®–∑”„À⧫“¡À¡“¬‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈߉ª Õ¬à“ß¡“°‚¥¬®–°≈“¬‡ªìπ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ß∫ÿ§§≈∑’Ë°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“ §«“¡·µ°µà“ß„π°“√„™âß“π∑—Èß Õß≈—°…≥–Õ“®®–· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ„π√Ÿª ª√–‚¬§‰¥â¥ßµàÕ‰ªπ’È — q The act of negligently damaging property of other persons is not a criminal offense. [°“√∑” „Àâ∑√—æ¬å ‘π¢Õß∫ÿ§§≈Õ◊Ëπ‡ ’¬À“¬‚¥¬ª√–¡“∑‰¡à‡ªìπ∞“𠧫“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“] q A criminal has escaped from the custody of the police last night. [ºŸâ°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥§πÀπ÷Ë߉¥âÀ≈∫Àπ’ ®“°°“√§«∫§ÿ¡¢Õ߇®â“æπ—°ß“πµ”√«®‡¡◊ËÕ§◊ππ’È]  à « π ÿ ¥ ∑â “ ¬¢Õߪ√–‚¬§®–‡°’Ë ¬ «°— ∫ Punishment À√◊ Õ ‚∑…∑’Ë®–≈ß·°àºâŸ°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥ §”«à“ Punishment π’ÈÕ“®®–„™â „𠧫“¡À¡“¬¢Õß‚∑…∑“ßÕ“≠“¥—ß∑’Ë„™â „π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§π’È°Á ‰¥â À√◊ÕÕ“®®–„™â „𧫓¡À¡“¬¢Õß°“√≈ß‚∑…‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª°Á‰¥â §”¥—ß°≈à“«π’È¡“®“°§”°‘√‘¬“ §”«à“ Punish ´÷Ëß·ª≈«à“ ç≈ß‚∑…é À“°‡√“𔧔∑—Èß Õߧ”π’È¡“„™â„π √Ÿªª√–‚¬§Õ“®®–„™â ‰¥â¥—ßµàÕ‰ªπ’È
  17. 17. 12 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH q The punishment that the defendant receives is suspension of the right to vote in a political election for the period of five years. [‚∑…∑’Ë®”‡≈¬‰¥â√—∫§◊Õ°“√ √–ß—∫ ‘∑∏‘≈ߧ–·ππ‡ ’¬ß„π°“√‡≈◊Õ°µ—Èß∑“ß°“√‡¡◊Õ߇ªì𠇫≈“À⓪ï] The defendant is punished for committing fraud in an election. [®”‡≈¬∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…®“°°“√‚°ß„π°“√ ‡≈◊Õ°µ—Èß] ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม q §”Õ’°§”Àπ÷Ëß∑’Ë¡’∑’Ë¡“®“°§”«à“ çPunishé §◊Õ§”«à“ Punishable ´÷Ëß®–∑”„Àâ°≈“¬‡ªì𧔧ÿ≥»—æ∑å (adjective) ‚¥¬¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„π ∑”πÕß∑’Ë«à“Õ“®∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…À√◊Õ¡’≈—°…≥–Õ—πÕ“®∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…‰¥â πÕ°®“°π—Èπ Õ“®®–„™â ‰¥â„𧫓¡À¡“¬∑’«“°“√°√–∑”∫“ßÕ¬à“ß¡’‚∑… (µ“¡∑’°”Àπ¥) Ëà Ë ´÷Ëß®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„°≈⇧’¬ß°—∫«≈’∑Ë’«à“ çcarry a punishment ofé À√◊Õ çbe liable to be punished byé §”∑—Èß “¡·∫∫π’ÈÕ“®π”¡“„™â ‰¥â„π≈—°…≥–¥—ßπ’È q Murder is punishable by death, life imprisonment or imprisonment for fifteen to twenty years. [°“√¶à“ºŸâÕË◊πÕ“®∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…ª√–À“√™’«‘µ ®”§ÿ°µ≈Õ¥™’«‘µ À√◊Õ®”§ÿ°µ—Èß·µà ‘∫À⓪ï∂÷߬’Ë ‘∫ªï] q Murder carries a punishment of death, life imprisonment or imprisonment for fifteen to twenty years. [°“√¶à“ºŸâÕ◊ËπÕ“®∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…ª√–À“√™’«‘µ ®”§ÿ° µ≈Õ¥™’«‘µ À√◊Õ®”§ÿ°µ—Èß·µà ‘∫À⓪ï∂÷߬’Ë ‘∫ªï]
  18. 18. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 13 A defendant who commits murder is liable to be punished by death, life imprisonment or imprisonment for fifteen to twenty years. [®”‡≈¬ ∑’覈ҼŸâÕ◊ËπÕ“®¡’§«“¡√—∫º‘¥ (∑“ßÕ“≠“) ∑’Ë®–∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑… ª√–À“√™’«‘µ ®”§ÿ°µ≈Õ¥™’«‘µ À√◊Õ®”§ÿ°µ—Èß·µà ‘∫À⓪ï ∂÷߬’ ∫ªï] Ë‘ ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม q ®“°√Ÿªª√–‚¬§∑—Èß “¡·∫∫®–‡ÀÁπ‰¥â«à“¡’§«“¡§≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π §àÕπ¢â“ß¡“°·≈–‰¥â„®§«“¡∑’Ë ‰¡à·µ°µà“ß°—π ‡æ’¬ß·µàÕ“®®–¡’√ªª√–‚¬§ Ÿ À√◊Õ≈—°…≥–°“√‡¢’¬π∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß°—π∫â“ß À“°∑à“π —߇°µ„π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§ ·∫∫∑’Ë “¡®–µà“ß®“° Õß·∫∫·√°µ√ß∑’˪√–∏“π¢Õߪ√–‚¬§∑’Ë “¡ ®–‡ªìπµ—«∫ÿ§§≈ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°‡√“‰¡à “¡“√∂𔧔«à“ çmurderé ´÷Ëß À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√¶à“¡“‡ªìπª√–∏“π„π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§∑’Ë “¡‰¥â‡æ√“–‚¥¬µ—«¢Õß °“√¶à“‰¡à “¡“√∂‡°‘¥¡’§«“¡√—∫º‘¥‰¡à«à“∑“ß„¥Ê ‰¥â ºŸâ∑’Ë®–‡°‘¥§«“¡ √—∫º‘¥‰¥â®÷ßµâÕ߇ªìπµ—«∫ÿ§§≈  à«π„π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§ Õß·∫∫·√°‡√“„™â „π ≈—°…≥–¢Õß°“√∫àß∫Õ°«à“°“√¶à“ºŸâÕ◊Ëππ’È¡’‚∑…∑’Ë°ÆÀ¡“¬°”À𥉫â‡∑à“„¥ ∫â“ß ¢âÕ —߇°µª√–°“√Àπ÷Ëß„π∑’Ëπ’ȧ◊Õ§”«à“‚∑…ª√–À“√™’«‘µ´÷Ëß„™â§”«à“ death ∑—Èßπ’ȇæ◊ËÕ„Àâ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫§”·ª≈∑’Ë¡—°®–æ∫‡ÀÁπ„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ·µà „πµà“ߪ√–‡∑»§”»—æ∑凩擖∑’ËÀ¡“¬∂÷ß°“√≈ß‚∑…ª√–À“√™’«‘µ∑’Ë æ∫‡ÀÁ π ‰¥â ¡ “°°«à “ §◊ Õ §”«à “ çCapital punishmenté ‚¥¬§”«à “ capital ‡Õß¡’ § «“¡À¡“¬‰¥â ¡ “°¡“¬´÷Ë ß ‡°‘ π °«à “ ®–π”¡“°≈à “ «∂÷ ß „π∑’Ëπ’È ·µà°“√𔧔«à“ capital ¡“„™â§Ÿà°—∫§”«à“ punishment ®–∑” „Àâ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„π∑”πÕß∑’Ë«à“‡ªìπ‚∑…∑’Ë¡’√–¥—∫§«“¡√⓬·√ßÕ¬à“ß∑’Ë ÿ¥ (extremely serious) ´÷Ëß‚∑…∑’Ë°√–∫«π°“√¬ÿµ‘∏√√¡∑“ßÕ“≠“®–
  19. 19. 14 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม  “¡“√∂≈߉¥âÕ¬à“ß√⓬·√ß∑’Ë ÿ¥§◊Õ‚∑…ª√–À“√™’«‘µπ—Ëπ‡Õß πÕ°®“°π—È𠧔«à“‚∑…ª√–À“√™’«‘µÕ“®®–„™â§”«à“ çdeath penaltyé Õ’°°Á‰¥â §”µàÕ¡“∑’Ëπà“ π„®„πª√–‚¬§¢â“ßµâπ§◊Õ§”«à“ Imprisonment ∑’ËÀ¡“¬∂÷ß‚∑…®”§ÿ° §”¥—ß°≈à“«π’È¡“®“°§”°‘√‘¬“§”«à“ Imprison ´÷Ëß ∂◊Õ‰¥â«“‡ªìπ§”∑’∑”§«“¡‡¢â“„®À√◊Õ·¡â·µà‡¥“§«“¡À¡“¬‰¥â ‰¡à¬“°‡¬Áππ—° à Ë À“°‡√“ —߇°µ§”«à“ prison ´÷ËßÀ¡“¬∂÷ߧÿ°À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ®”∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà„π§”Ê π’È ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√“𔧔«à“ çImé ´÷Ëß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬‡¥’¬«°—∫§”«à“ çIné ∑’Ë·ª≈«à“ ç„πé ¡“‡µ‘¡‰«âÀπⓧ”«à“ Prison ¥—ß°≈à“«®÷ß∑”„Àâ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„π ∑”πÕß∑’ˇ√“𔄧√§π„¥§πÀπ÷Ë߇¢â“‰ª‰«â „π§ÿ°À√◊Õ‡√◊Õπ®” ®÷ß∑”„Àâ §”«à“ Imprison ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬«à“®”§ÿ° §”∑—Èß Õߧ”π’ÈÕ“®π”¡“„™â„π √Ÿªª√–‚¬§¥—ßπ’È q Somchai is imprisoned for committing a murder. [ ¡™“¬∂Ÿ°®”§ÿ°‡π◊ËÕß®“°‰¥â¶à“ºŸâÕ◊Ëπ] q Somchai is punished by imprisonment for committing a murder. [ ¡™“¬∂Ÿ°≈ß‚∑…¥â«¬°“√®”§ÿ°‡π◊ËÕß®“° ‰¥â¶à“ºŸâÕ◊Ëπ] §”µàÕ‰ª∑’Ë®–¢Õπ”¡“°≈à“«∂÷ß„π∑’ËπÈ’§◊Õ§”«à“ Conviction ´÷Ëß ®–‡ªì π Õ’ ° §”Àπ÷Ë ß ∑’Ë æ ∫‡ÀÁ π ‰¥â §à Õ π¢â “ ß∫à Õ ¬„π∫∑§«“¡À√◊ Õ Àπ— ß  ◊ Õ ‡°’ˬ«°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬Õ“≠“ §«“¡À¡“¬‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª¢Õߧ”Ê π’È §◊Õº≈ ÿ¥∑⓬ „π°“√¥”‡π‘π§¥’Õ“≠“∑’Ë®”‡≈¬∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘π«à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥µ“¡∑’Ë‚®∑°åøÑÕß ‰¡à «à “ °“√∑’Ë ®”‡≈¬∂Ÿ ° µ— ¥  ‘ π «à “ ¡’ § «“¡º‘ ¥ π—È π ®–‡°‘ ¥ ®“°°“√∑’Ë‚ ®∑°å π” 欓πÀ≈— ° ∞“π¡“π” ◊ ∫ µà Õ »“≈®π∑”„Àâ ª √“»®“°§«“¡ ß — ¬ µ“¡  ¡§«√«à “ ®”‡≈¬‡ªì π ºŸâ ° √–∑”§«“¡º‘ ¥ µ“¡∑’Ë ‚ ®∑°å øÑ Õ ß À√◊ Õ Õ“®®–
  20. 20. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 15 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ‡°‘¥®“°°“√∑’Ë®”‡≈¬‡Õß„Àâ°“√√—∫ “√¿“æ·≈â«»“≈µ—¥ ‘π«à“®”‡≈¬¡’ §«“¡º‘ ¥ ‚¥¬Õ“»— ¬·µà ‡ æ’ ¬ß§”√— ∫  “√¿“æπ—È π À√◊ Õ Õ“®®–¡’ ° “√π” ◊ ∫ 欓πÀ≈—°∞“πª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬°Á ‰¥â ¢Õ‡æ’¬ß«à“‡¡◊ËÕ°“√¥”‡π‘π§¥’Õ“≠“ ¬ÿµ‘·≈⫪√“°Ø«à“®”‡≈¬„𧥒πÈ—π∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘π«à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥°ÁÕ“®„™â§”«à“ Conviction ‰¥â µ—«Õ¬à“ߢÕß°“√π”¥—ß°≈à“«π’È ‰ª„™â‡™àπ q Daeng appealed against his conviction on the charge of murder, but the Court of Appeal affirmed the conviction. [·¥ß¬◊ËπÕÿ∑∏√≥åµàÕ°√≥’ ∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘π«à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥∞“π¶à“ºŸâÕ◊Ëπ ·µà»“≈Õÿ∑∏√≥å æ‘ æ “°…“¬◊ 𠵓¡§”æ‘ æ “°…“»“≈≈à “ ß∑’Ë µ— ¥  ‘ π «à “ ·¥ß¡’ §«“¡º‘¥] §”«à“ conviction ¢â“ßµâππ’È¡“®“°§”°‘√‘¬“§”«à“ Convict ´÷ß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√µ—¥ ‘πÀ√◊Õæ‘æ“°…“„π§¥’Õ“≠“«à“®”‡≈¬¡’§«“¡º‘¥ Ë ¢âÕ —߇°µ∑’Ë ”§—≠ª√–°“√Àπ÷Ë߇°’ˬ«°—∫§”«à“ convict π’ȧ◊Õ«à“§”‡¥’¬« °—ππ’Ȭ—ßÕ“®„™â „π∞“π–∑’ˇªìπ§”π“¡‰¥âÕ’°¥â«¬ ·≈–‡¡◊ËÕ„™â „π∞“𖇪ìπ §”π“¡·≈â«®–∑”„À⧫“¡À¡“¬‡ª≈’¬π‰ªæÕ ¡§«√ ®“°‡¥‘¡∑’¡§«“¡À¡“¬ Ë Ë’ ‰ª„π∑”πÕ߇°’ˬ«°—∫§”µ—¥ ‘πÀ√◊Õæ‘æ“°…“«à“®”‡≈¬¡’§«“¡º‘¥®–°≈“¬ ‡ªì π ¡’ § «“¡À¡“¬∂÷ ß µ— « ∫ÿ § §≈´÷Ë ß ¬à Õ ¡‰¥â · °à ®”‡≈¬∑’Ë ∂Ÿ ° µ— ¥  ‘ π À√◊ Õ æ‘æ“°…“«à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥ À√◊Õ∫“ߧ√—ßÕ“®®–„™â„𧫓¡À¡“¬‡¥’¬«°—∫§”«à“ È π—°‚∑…∑’Ë∂Ÿ°®”§ÿ°Õ¬Ÿà¥â«¬¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫∫√‘∫∑∑’Ëπ”§”Ê π’È ‰ª„™â µ—«Õ¬à“ß °“√𔧔«à“ convict ∑—Èß Õߧ«“¡À¡“¬‰ª„™â¡’¥—ßπ’È q Surachai was convicted of libel. [ ÿ√™—¬∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘π «à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥∞“πÀ¡‘πª√–¡“∑] Ë
  21. 21. 16 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH q q The Criminal Court convicted Sanya of contempt of the court. [»“≈Õ“≠“æ‘æ“°…“«à“ —≠≠“¡’§«“¡º‘¥∞“π ≈–‡¡‘¥Õ”π“®»“≈] A convict escaped from the prison when the prison guard fell asleep. [π—°‚∑…§πÀπ÷ËßÀ≈∫Àπ’ÕÕ° ®“°‡√◊Õ𮔇¡◊ËÕºŸâ§ÿ¡À≈—∫] At the first moment when the jury found John guilty as charged and he officially became a convict, he was so embarrassed that he wanted to commit suicide. [≥ ¢≥–·√°∑’Ë≈Ÿ°¢ÿπµ—¥ ‘π«à“®ÕÀåπ¡’§«“¡º‘¥ µ“¡∑’Ë ∂Ÿ ° °≈à “ «À“·≈–∑”„Àâ ‡ ¢“°≈“¬‡ªì π ºŸâ ∑’Ë ∂Ÿ ° µ— ¥  ‘ π «à “ ∑”º‘¥Õ¬à“߇ªìπ∑“ß°“√ ®ÕÀåπ√Ÿâ ÷°Õ—∫Õ“¬¡“°®π°√–∑—Ëß µâÕß°“√∑’Ë®–¶à“µ—«µ“¬] ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม q §”«à“ convict „𧫓¡À¡“¬∑’Ë·ª≈«à“‡ªìππ—°‚∑…π—Èπ ∫“ߧ√—Èß Õ“®‡√’¬° —ÈπÊ «à“ Con ´÷Ëß®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬‡¥’¬«°—π«à“‡ªìπºŸâµâÕß‚∑… ∑’Ë∂Ÿ°®”§ÿ°„π‡√◊Õπ®” πÕ°®“°π—ÈπÕ“®„™â§”Õ◊Ëπ·∑π‰¥â‡™àπ§”«à“ Inmate À√◊Õ§”«à“ Prisoner  ”À√—∫„𧫓¡À¡“¬∑’Ë·ª≈«à“ºŸâ∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘π«à“¡’ §«“¡º‘¥π—Èπ§”Õ◊Ëπ∑’Ë¡’§«“¡À¡“¬§≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π ·µà ‰¡à∂÷ß°—∫‡À¡◊Õπ°—π ‡ ’¬∑’‡¥’¬«‡™àπ§”«à“ Offender ·≈–§”«à“ Wrongdoer ´÷Ëß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬ ∑’ËÀ¡“¬∂÷ߺŸâ∑Ë’°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—π ·µà§”«à“ Wrongdoer ®– ‡ªì 𠧔∑’Ë ¡’ § «“¡À¡“¬°«â “ ß∑’Ë  ÿ ¥ ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°Õ“®π”‰ª„™â „ π∫√‘ ∫ ∑Õ◊Ë π Ê ‰¥â¡“° ‰¡à®”°—¥·µà‡©æ“–°√≥’∑‡°’¬«°—∫°“√°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“‡∑à“π—π Ë’ Ë È ‚¥¬Õ“®π”‰ª„™â°—∫°√≥’‡™àπ∑’˵âÕß°“√À¡“¬∂÷ߺŸâ∑’Ë°√–∑”≈–‡¡‘¥∑”„Àâ
  22. 22. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 17 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ºŸâÕ◊Ëπ‡ ’¬À“¬∑“ß·æà߉¥âÕ’°¥â«¬  à«π§”«à“ Offender π—Èπ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª Õ“®À¡“¬∂÷ߺŸâ∑’Ë°√–∑”°“√„¥Ê ∑’ˇªìπ°“√≈–‡¡‘¥À√◊ÕΩÉ“ΩóπµàÕ°ÆÀ¡“¬ À√◊Õ»’≈∏√√¡Õ—π¥’ ·µàÀ“°π”¡“„™â„π∫√‘∫∑∑’ˇ°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬Õ“≠“ ®–∑”„Àâ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬·§∫‡¢â“¡“«à“À¡“¬∂÷ßµ—«ºŸâ∑’Ë°√–∑”º‘¥°ÆÀ¡“¬ ·µà‡¡◊ËÕ‡∑’¬∫°—∫§”«à“ convict ·≈â« §”«à“ offender ®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬ ∑’Ë ° «â “ ß°«à “ ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°Õ“®π”‰ª„™â ‰ ¥â ∑—È ß „π°√≥’ ∑’Ë ºŸâ ∑’Ë ° √–∑”§«“¡º‘ ¥ °ÆÀ¡“¬π—Èπ∂Ÿ°»“≈µ—¥ ‘π«à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥·≈â«À√◊Õ‰¡à°Á ‰¥â „π¢≥–∑’ˇ¡◊ËÕ ‡√“„™â§”«à“ convict ¡—°®–¡ÿà߉ª„𧫓¡À¡“¬∑”πÕß∑’Ë«à“µ—«∫ÿ§§≈ ∑’Ë ° √–∑”§«“¡º‘ ¥ °ÆÀ¡“¬π—È π ∂Ÿ ° »“≈µ— ¥  ‘ π À√◊ Õ æ‘ æ “°…“·≈â « «à “ ¡’§«“¡º‘¥®√‘ß §”µà“ßÊ ¢â“ßµâππ’ÈÀ“°π”¡“„™â „πª√–‚¬§Õ“®„™â ‰ ¥â ¥—ßµ—«Õ¬à“ßµàÕ‰ªπ’È q Regardless of the seriousness of his offense of which he was convicted, an inmate is entitled to medical treatment when he becomes ill. [‰¡à«à“¢âÕÀ“∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘π«à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥π—Èπ®–√⓬·√߇撬߄¥ π—°‚∑…¬—ߧߡ’ ‘∑∏‘∑Ë’®–‰¥â√—∫°“√√—°…“欓∫“≈‡¡◊ËÕπ—°‚∑… π—πªÉ«¬] È q Prisoners in a remote prison held a demonstration after a prisoner had been physically abused by prison guards. [π—°‚∑…®”π«π¡“°„π‡√◊Õπ®”·ÀàßÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ë µ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà„π∑’ËÀà“߉°≈‰¥â°àÕ°“√ª√–∑â«ß¿“¬À≈—ß®“°∑’Ëπ—°‚∑… §πÀπ÷ß∂Ÿ°∑”√⓬√à“ß°“¬‚¥¬ºŸ§¡„π‡√◊Õπ®”π—π] Ë â ÿ È q The wrongdoer in this case who negligently drove the car into the gift shop agreed to compensate
  23. 23. 18 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม q for all damages that the owner of the shop incurred. [ºŸ°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥„𧥒π´ß‰¥â¢∫√∂‚¥¬ª√–¡“∑ â È’ Ë÷ — ‡¢â “ ‰ª„π√â “ π¢“¬¢Õߢ«— ≠ ‰¥â µ °≈ß∑’Ë ® –™¥„™â §à “ ‡ ’ ¬ À“¬ ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ°—∫‡®â“¢Õß√â“π¥—ß°≈à“«] An offender who committed a premeditated murder may face death penalty if he is found guilty. [ºŸâ°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥´÷Ë߉¥â∑”°“√¶à“ºŸâÕ◊Ëπ‚¥¬‰µ√àµ√Õß ‰«â °à Õ πÕ“®µâ Õ ß√— ∫ ‚∑…ª√–À“√™’ «‘ µ À“°∂Ÿ ° µ— ¥  ‘ π «à “ ¡’ §«“¡º‘¥]
  24. 24. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 19 is usually the wise policy, because in most matters it is more important that the applicable rule of law be settled than it be settled right ... The Court bows to the lessons of experience and the force of better reasoning, recognizing that the process of trial and error, so fruitful in the physical science, is appropriate also in the judicial function. ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม Stare decisis Judge Brandeis À≈—°§”æ‘æ“°…“∫√√∑—¥∞“πµ“¡ª°µ‘∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìππ‚¬∫“¬Õ—π™“≠©≈“¥ ‡æ√“–«à“„π‡√◊ËÕß à«π„À≠à °“√∑’ËÀ≈—°°ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë„™â∫—ߧ—∫¡’¢âÕ¬ÿµ‘∑’Ë ·πàπÕπ¡’§«“¡ ”§—≠‡Àπ◊Õ°«à“°“√∑’Ë°ÆÀ¡“¬¥—ß°≈à“«¡’¢âÕ¬ÿµ‘ ∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µâÕß ... »“≈µâÕ߬ա√—∫µàÕ∫∑‡√’¬π·Ààߪ√– ∫°“√≥å ·≈– æ≈—ß·Àà߇Àµÿº≈∑’Ë¥’°«à“ µ√–Àπ—°«à“°√–∫«π°“√¢Õß°“√∑¥≈Õß ·≈–¢âÕº‘¥æ≈“¥∑’ˇªìπª√–‚¬™πåÕ¬à“߬‘Ëß„π«‘™“øî ‘° å ‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’ˇÀ¡“– ¡‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—π„π°“√∑”Àπâ“∑’˵ÿ≈“°“√ ºŸâæ‘æ“°…“·∫√π‰¥ å
  25. 25. 20 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH Procedural law °ÆÀ¡“¬«‘ ∏’   ∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ „ ™â∫— ß §— ∫ µà Õ °√–∫«π°“√∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬ ‡√“„Àâ §«“¡Àà«ß°—ß«≈°—∫«‘∏’°“√∑’Ë°ÆÀ¡“¬ ∂Ÿ°π”‰ª„™â∫—ߧ—∫¡“°æÕÊ °—∫ “√– ¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬π—È π ‡Õß ¥â « ¬‡Àµÿ πÈ’ ‡√“®÷ß„Àâ°“√√—∫ª√–°—π°—∫∑ÿ°Ê §π ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß∫√√¥“ºŸâ∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µ—Èß ¢â Õ À“«à “ °√–∑”§«“¡º‘ ¥ Õ“≠“„Àâ ‰¥â√—∫°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘Õ¬à“߇ªìπ∏√√¡µ“¡ °ÆÀ¡“¬ ‡√“„Àâ ° “√√— ∫ ª√–°— π π’È ‡æ√“–«à“√–∫∫√—∞¿“¬„µâ√—∞∏√√¡πŸ≠ ¢Õ߇√“«“ßÕ¬Ÿ∫πæ◊π∞“π¢Õߧ«“¡§‘¥ à È ∑’Ë«à“Õ”π“®·Ààß√—∞¡’¢’¥®”°—¥·≈–·¡â °√–∑—ËߺŸâ∑√ßÕ”π“®∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬∑—Èߪ«ß ¬—ßµâÕ߬÷¥∂◊Õµ“¡À≈—°π‘µ‘√—∞ ‡√“ ª√“∂π“∑’Ë ® –ªÑ Õ ß°— π ¡‘ „ Àâ √— ∞ °√–∑” °“√„¥ÊµàÕ‡√“„π≈—°…≥–µ“¡Õ”‡¿Õ„® ·≈–¥—ßπ—Èπ ‡√“®÷߇™◊ËÕ«à“·¡â°√–∑—Ëß ∫ÿ§§≈∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µ—ÈߢâÕÀ“«à“°√–∑”§«“¡ º‘¥Õ“≠“∑’Ë√⓬·√ß∑’Ë ÿ¥¬—ߧߡ’ ‘∑∏‘ ∑’Ë®– ç¡’«—π¢Õßµπ‡Õß„π»“≈é ´÷Ëß ®–Õ¬Ÿà ¿ “¬„µâ ∫— ß §— ∫ ¢Õ߰Ƈ°≥±å ·Ààߧ«“¡¬ÿµ‘∏√√¡∑’Ë°”À𥉫â≈à«ß Àπâ“ ¥—ßπ—Èπ ‡√“®÷ß„Àâ°“√√—∫ª√–°—π µà Õ ºŸâ ∂Ÿ ° °≈à “ «À“„Àâ ¡’  ‘ ∑ ∏‘ ∑’Ë ® –‰¡à „ Àâ °“√µàÕÀπ⓺Ÿâ∑Ë’‡ªìπºŸâ°≈à“«À“∫ÿ§§≈ ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม Procedural law governs the process of the law. ...[We] are as much concerned about how the law is applied as about the substance of the law itself. ... Consequently, we guarantee everyone, especially those charged with criminal offenses, due process of law. We make this guarantee because our system of constitutional government is based upon the idea that there are limits to governmental power and that even those in authority must adhere to the rule of law. We wish to prevent government from acting toward us in an arbitrary fashion, and so we believe that even a person charged with the most heinous crime is entitled to çhave his or her day in courté governed by a set of preordained rules of fairness. Thus, we guarantee the accused the right to remain silent before his or
  26. 26. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 21 ‡À≈à“π’È  ‘∑∏‘∑’Ë®–‰¥â√—∫°“√æ‘®“√≥“ ‚¥¬§≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ ·≈– ‘∑∏‘∑®–ª√÷°…“ Ë’ ∑𓬧«“¡ ·¡â¿“¬À≈—ß°“√µ—¥ ‘π «à“¡’§«“¡º‘¥√—∞∏√√¡πŸ≠¬—ߪ°ªÑÕß ∫ÿ§§≈∑’Ë∂Ÿ°ª√–≥“¡®“°°“√∂Ÿ°≈ß ‚∑…Õ—π‚À¥√⓬·≈–º‘¥∏√√¡¥“ ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม her accusers, the right to a trial by jury, and the right to counsel. Even after a conviction, the Consti-tution protects the condemned person from cruel and unusual punishment. Legal Vocabulary Charge Offense Due process of law µ—ÈߢâÕÀ“ ¢âÕÀ“ °“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘Õ¬à“߇ªìπ ∏√√¡µ“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬ Preordained Accused Right to remain silent Government Adhere Rule of law √—∞ À√◊Õ√—∞∫“≈ ¬÷¥∂◊Õ À≈—°π‘µ‘√—∞ Trial Jury Right to counsel Arbitrary µ“¡Õ”‡¿Õ„® Heinous ∑’°”À𥉫â·≈â« Ë ºŸ∂°°≈à“«À“ ⟠ ‘∑∏‘∑’Ë®–‰¡à„Àâ°“√ °“√æ‘®“√≥“§¥’ §≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ  ‘∑∏‘∑’Ë®–ª√÷°…“ (∑𓬧«“¡) Cruel and unusual °“√≈ß‚∑…∑’Ë‚À¥√⓬ punishment ·≈–º‘¥∏√√¡¥“ √⓬·√ß §”»—æ∑å∑’Ëπà“ π„®∑’Ë®–¢Õπ”¡“°≈à“«∂÷߇ªì𧔷√°„π∫∑§«“¡ ¢â“ßµâππ’ȧ◊Õ§”«à“ Charge „π∑’Ëπ’ȇªì𧔰‘√‘¬“∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà„π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§Õ¬à“߬àÕ ´÷Ëß¡“®“°ª√–‚¬§‡µÁ¡«à“ çthose who are charged with criminal offensesé ‚¥¬¡’§«“¡À¡“¬«à“ çµ—ÈߢâÕ°≈à“«À“é2 «à“¡’°“√°√–∑” §«“¡º‘¥Õ“≠“¢÷Èπ ·µàπÕ°®“°π’ȧ”Ê ‡¥’¬«°—ππ’Ȭ—ßÕ“®„™â‡ªìπ§”π“¡‰¥â 2 To accuse. Black Law Dictionary (6th Ed.).
  27. 27. 22 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม Õ’°¥â«¬ ´÷Ë߇¡◊ËÕ„™â‡ªìπ§”π“¡®–À¡“¬∂÷ߢâÕÀ“À√◊Õ∞“𧫓¡º‘¥∑’Ë∂Ÿ° °≈à“«À“«à“¡’°“√°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥¢÷Èπ3 °“√π”∑—Èß Õߧ«“¡À¡“¬¡“„™â Õ“®∑”‰¥â¥—ßπ’È q Danny is charged with committing perjury. [·¥ππ’Ë ∂Ÿ°°≈à“«À“«à“°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥∞“π‡∫‘°§«“¡‡∑Á®] q The charge that Danny is accused of committing is perjury. [¢âÕÀ“∑’Ë·¥ππ’Ë∂Ÿ°°≈à“«À“«à“°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥ §◊Õ¢âÕÀ“‡∫‘°§«“¡‡∑Á®] πÕ°®“°π—È𠧔«à“ charge π’Ȭ—ßÕ“®À¡“¬∂÷ߧ” —ËßÀ√◊Õ§”·π–π”∑’Ë ºŸâæ‘æ“°…“‰¥â „Àâ·°à§≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ‡¡◊ËÕ°“√ ◊∫欓πÀ≈—°∞“π„𧥒‡ √Á® ‘Èπ ·≈–§≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ®–‰ªæ‘®“√≥“µ—¥ ‘π4 ´÷Ëߧ”·π–π”∑’Ë®–„ÀâπÈ’Õ“®®– ‡ªìπ°“√ √ÿª “√– ”§—≠¢Õߧ¥’·≈–¢âÕ°ÆÀ¡“¬À√◊ÕÀ≈—°‡°≥±åµà“ßÊ ∑’Ë §≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ®–µâÕß„™âª√–°Õ∫°“√æ‘®“√≥“µ—¥ ‘π™’È¢“¥ q The charges that the judge gave to the jury prior to their deliberation comprise the criteria under which the defendant can be judged committing perjury. [§”·π–π”∑’˺âŸæ‘æ“°…“‰¥â „Àâ·°à§≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ°àÕπ ∑’Ë®–µ—¥ ‘π™’È¢“¥§¥’ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬À≈—°‡°≥±åµà“ßÊ ∑’Ë®”‡≈¬ Õ“®®–∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘π«à“°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥∞“π‡∫‘°§«“¡‡∑Á®] 3 The specific crime that the defendant is accused of committing. Black Law Dictionary (6th Ed.). 4 The final address by judge to jury before verdict. Black Law Dictionary (6th Ed.).
  28. 28. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 23 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม §”»—æ∑委µàÕ¡“∑’Ëπà“ π„®§◊Õ§”«à“ Offense ≈—°…≥–°“√  –°¥·∫∫π’È®–‡ªìπ«‘∏’°“√‡¢’¬π¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…·∫∫Õ‡¡√‘°—π ·µàÀ“°‡¢’¬π ·∫∫¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…∑’Ë„™â„π À√“™Õ“≥“®—°√®–‡¢’¬π«à“ Offence §«“¡À¡“¬ ∑—Ë«‰ª¢Õߧ”¥—ß°≈à“«π’È®–À¡“¬∂÷ߢâÕÀ“À√◊Õ∞“𧫓¡º‘¥∑“ßÕ“≠“ ∑’˺Ÿâ∂Ÿ°°≈à“«À“À√◊Õ®”‡≈¬∂Ÿ°°≈à“«À“«à“°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥5 q Danny committed the offense of perjury. [·¥ππ’Ë ‰¥â°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥∞“π‡∫‘°§«“¡‡∑Á®] §”µà Õ ‰ª∂◊ Õ ‡ªì 𠧔∑’Ë æ ∫‡ÀÁ 𠉥â ∫à Õ ¬§√—È ß ·≈–¡’ § «“¡ ”§— ≠ „π °“√∑”§«“¡‡¢â“„®∫∑§«“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õßµà“ߪ√–‡∑»§àÕπ¢â“ß¡“°§◊Õ§”«à“ Due process of law ´÷Ëß®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√µ’§«“¡·≈–°“√∫—ߧ—∫ „™â°ÆÀ¡“¬„π≈—°…≥–∑’Ë ‰¥â„À⧫“¡§ÿ¡§√Õß„π‡™‘ß°√–∫«π°“√∑“ß°ÆÀ¡“¬ â ·°à∫§§≈ºŸ‡°’¬«¢âÕß∑ÿ°ΩÉ“¬·≈–∑”„Àâ∫§§≈·µà≈–§π‰¥â√∫°“√ªØ‘∫µÕ¬à“ß ÿ â Ë ÿ — — ‘ ‡ªìπ∏√√¡µ“¡∑’·µà≈–§π¡’ ∑∏‘®–‰¥â√∫µ“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬ ‚¥¬§«“¡‡ªìπ∏√√¡ Ë ‘ — „π∑’Ëπ’Ȭ—ß¡‘‰¥â‡ªìπ°“√°≈à“«∂÷ß çº≈é ¢Õߧ¥’À√◊Õ‡√◊ËÕß·µà≈–‡√◊ËÕß À“° ·µà¡ÿà߇πâπ„π·ßà°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘µàÕ∫ÿ§§≈µà“ßÊ ∑’ˇ¢â“¡“‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß„π§¥’‡ªìπ  ”§—≠6 ‡™àπ À“°‡ªì𮔇≈¬„π§¥’Õ“≠“ ®”‡≈¬π—Èπ§«√®–‰¥â√—∫‚Õ°“  „π°“√ª√÷°…“∑𓬧«“¡ ¡’ ‘∑∏‘∑Ë’®–‰¡à„Àâ°“√ª√—°ª√”µπ‡Õß ‡ªìπµâπ πÕ°®“°π—È π ¬— ß Õ“®„™â ‰ ¥â · ¡â · µà „ 𧥒 · æà ß ∑’Ë §Ÿà § «“¡§«√®–‰¥â √— ∫ °“√ 5 A breach of the criminal laws. Black Law Dictionary (6th Ed.). 6 Such an exercise of the powers of the government as the settled maxims of law permit and sanction, and under such safeguards for the protection of individual rights as those maxims prescribe for the class of cases to which the one in question belongs. Black Law Dictionary (6th Ed.).
  29. 29. 24 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ∫Õ°°≈à“«„Àâ∑√“∫∂÷ß°√–∫«πæ‘®“√≥“∑’®–∑”¢÷π ´÷ßÕ“®®–¡’º≈°√–∑∫µàÕ Ë È Ë °“√¥”‡π‘𧥒¢Õßµπ °“√‰¥â√—∫‚Õ°“ „π°“√µàÕ Ÿâ·≈–𔇠πÕ欓π À≈—°∞“π„𧥒  à«π‡¡◊ËÕ‰¥â√—∫‚Õ°“ „π°“√µàÕ Ÿâ§¥’·≈â« §Ÿà§«“¡π—Èπ®– „™â‚Õ°“ ¢ÕßµπÀ√◊Õ‰¡àπ—Èπ‡ªìπÕ’°ª√–‡¥ÁπÀπ÷Ëß °“√𔧔¥—ß°≈à“«π’È ‰ª„™â Õ“®· ¥ß‰¥â®“°µ—«Õ¬à“ߥ—ßµàÕ‰ªπ’È q The right to be heard is one of the fundamental elements of the principle of due process of law. [ ‘∑∏‘∑Ë’®–µàÕ Ÿâ§¥’‡ªìπÀπ÷Ëß„π∫√√¥“Õߧåª√–°Õ∫æ◊Èπ∞“π ¢ÕßÀ≈—°°“√‡√◊ËÕß ç°√–∫«πæ‘®“√≥“Õ—π‡ªìπ∏√√¡µ“¡ °ÆÀ¡“¬é] q It is against the principle of due process of law if the defendant is forced to incriminate himself. [°√≥’‡ªìπ°“√¢—¥µàÕÀ≈—°°“√‡√◊ËÕß ç°√–∫«πæ‘®“√≥“Õ—π ‡ªìπ∏√√¡µ“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬é À“°®”‡≈¬∂Ÿ°∫—ߧ—∫„ÀâµâÕß„Àâ°“√ ª√—°ª√”µπ‡Õß] §”«à“ Government ‡ªìπÕ’°§”Àπ÷Ëß∑’Ëπà“ π„®·≈–¡’∑Ë’ „ ™â ∑Ë’ À≈“°À≈“¬ À“°‡√“查∂÷ß çGovernmenté ‚¥¬∑—Ë«Ê ‰ªµ“¡§«“¡ ‡¢â“„®∑’ˇ√“¡—°æ∫‡ÀÁπ„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ‡√“¡—°®–À¡“¬∂÷ß√—∞∫“≈∑’Ë¡’ 𓬰√— ∞ ¡πµ√’ ‡ ªì π À— « Àπâ “ ·≈–¡’ § ≥–√— ∞ ¡πµ√’ ∑Ë’ ∑”Àπâ “ ∑’Ë µ— ¥  ‘ π „®„𠇙‘ ß π‚¬∫“¬¥â “ πµà “ ßÊ ≈— ° …≥–°“√„™â ß “π·∫∫π’È ® –∑”„Àâ §”«à “ çGovernmenté À¡“¬∂÷ß çΩÉ“¬∫√‘À“√À√◊Õ√—∞∫“≈é ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»∑’Ë¡’ °“√·∫à ß ·¬°Õ”π“®Õ∏‘ ª ‰µ¬ÕÕ°‡ªì π 3 ΩÉ “ ¬§◊ Õ ΩÉ “ ¬π‘ µ‘ ∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ ΩÉ“¬∫√‘À“√·≈–ΩÉ“¬µÿ≈“°“√ °“√„™âÕ”π“®¢Õß Government „π
  30. 30. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 25 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม §«“¡À¡“¬π’È®÷߇ªìπ°“√„™âÕ”π“®∫√‘À“√À√◊Õ∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“‡ªìπ Executive power ‡∑à“π—Èπ „πÕ’°§«“¡À¡“¬Àπ÷Ëߧ”«à“ Government π’ÈÕ“®®–∂Ÿ°„™â „𠧫“¡À¡“¬∑’Ë°«â“ߢ«“ß°«à“π—Èπ‰¥âÕ’° ‚¥¬„𧫓¡À¡“¬≈—°…≥–∑’Ë Õßπ’È ®–À¡“¬∂÷ß√—∞∑’Ë¡’Õߧåª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬Õ”π“®Õ∏‘ª‰µ¬∑—Èß “¡¥â“π‰¡à®”°—¥ ‡©æ“–·µà√—∞∫“≈À√◊ÕΩÉ“¬∫√‘À“√‡À¡◊Õπ¥—߇™àπ„π°√≥’¢Õߧ«“¡À¡“¬ ª√–°“√·√°‡∑à“π—Èπ ‚¥¬ Government „π∑’ËπÈ’®–‡ª√’¬∫‡ ¡◊Õπ‡ªìπ µ—«·∑π∑’· ¥ßÕÕ°∂÷߇®µ®”πߢÕß√—∞„π¥â“πµà“ßÊ ‰¡à«“®–‡ªìπ°“√ÕÕ° Ë à °ÆÀ¡“¬ °“√∫√‘À“√ª√–‡∑» À√◊Õ°“√∫—ߧ—∫„™âµ’§«“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬ ´÷Ëß Õߧå°√Õ¬à“߇™àπ√—∞ ¿“ §≥–√—∞¡πµ√’ À√◊Õµÿ≈“°“√‡ªìπºŸâ∑’Ë∑”Àπâ“∑’Ë „™âÕ”π“®Õ∏‘ª‰µ¬· ¥ßÕÕ°∂÷߇®µ®”πߢÕß√—∞„π√Ÿª·∫∫·≈–‚¥¬Õ“»—¬ ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ°≈‰°∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà „π¢Õ∫Õ”π“®¢Õßµπ §”«à“ çGovernmenté π’È ¬—ßÕ“®√«¡∂÷ßÀπ૬ߓπ∑’Ë„™âÕ”π“®„π°“√ª°§√Õß„π√–¥—∫µà“ßÊ µ—Èß·µà √–¥—∫ Àæ—π∏√—∞ (Federal) √–¥—∫¡≈√—∞ (State) À√◊Õ«à“„π√–¥—∫ ∑âÕß∂‘πµà“ßÊ Ë À“°‡√“°≈à“«∂÷ß„π≈—°…≥–¢Õߧ”°‘√‘¬“∑’Ë· ¥ß∂÷ß°“√ª°§√Õß ‚¥¬‡©æ“–„πÀπà « ¬ß“πÀ√◊ Õ Õß§å ° √¢Õß√— ∞ ∫“ߧ√—È ß ‡√“®÷ ß „™â §”«à “ çGoverné ´÷Ëß¡’∑Ë’¡“∑’˧≈⓬§≈÷ß°—∫§”«à“ çGovernmenté ·µà§”«à“ çGoverné π’È Õ“®®–„™â „π≈—°…≥–∑’Ë ‘Ëß„¥ ‘ËßÀπ÷Ëß¡’Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈À√◊Õ¡’Õ”π“® §«∫§ÿ¡‡Àπ◊ÕÕ’° ‘ËßÀπ÷ËßÀ√◊Õ‡Àπ◊Õ°“√°√–∑”Õ¬à“ß„¥Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷Ëߥ⫬ ‡™àπ °ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë„™â∫—ߧ—∫À√◊Õ§«∫§ÿ¡‡Àπ◊Õ°“√°√–∑”∫“ß≈—°…≥– µ—«Õ¬à“ß ¢Õß°“√„™â§”‡À≈à“π’ȇ™àπ q The government may not intrude into the realm of privacy of an individual unless the laws
  31. 31. 26 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH q ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม q specifically provide for such intrusion. (√—∞‰¡àÕ“® ≈à«ß≈È”‡¢â“‰ª„πÕ“≥“∫√‘‡«≥§«“¡‡ªìπ à«πµ—«¢Õßªí®‡®°™π À“°°ÆÀ¡“¬‰¡à ‰ ¥â „ÀâÕ”π“®·°à°“√≈à«ß≈È”¥—ß°≈à“«‰«â ‚¥¬ ‡©æ“–) The new government has been set up after the Labour Party wins the election and its leader becomes the prime minister. (√—∞∫“≈„À¡à ‰¥â∂Ÿ°®—¥ µ—Èߢ÷Èπ¿“¬À≈—ßæ√√§·√ßß“π™π–°“√‡≈◊Õ°µ—Èß·≈–ºŸâπ”¢Õß æ√√§‰¥â°≈“¬‡ªìπ𓬰√—∞¡πµ√’) The laws on foreign business govern the types of business in which foreigners can engage in Thailand. (°ÆÀ¡“¬«à “ ¥â « ¬∏ÿ √ °‘ ® §πµà “ ߥ⠓ «®– §«∫§ÿ ¡ ∏ÿ √ °‘ ® ∑’Ë ™ “«µà “ ß™“µ‘ ® – “¡“√∂¥”‡π‘ π °“√‰¥â „ π ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬) µ—«Õ¬à“ß∑—ß “¡¢â“ßµâππ’®–· ¥ß«‘∏°“√𔧔«à“ çgovernmenté È È ’ ·≈– §”«à“ çgoverné „π·µà≈–§«“¡À¡“¬‰ª„™â √â“߇ªìπ√Ÿªª√–‚¬§„À¡à ‚¥¬µ— « Õ¬à “ ß·√°®–‡ªì π °“√„™â „ 𧫓¡À¡“¬Õ¬à “ ß°«â “ ß∑’Ë À ¡“¬∂÷ ß Õߧå√«¡¢ÕßÕ”π“®Õ∏‘ª‰µ¬¿“¬„π√—∞ µ—«Õ¬à“ß∑’Ë Õß®–‡ªìπ°“√„™â „𠧫“¡À¡“¬¢Õß°“√∑”Àπâ“∑’ˇªìπΩÉ“¬∫√‘À“√„π√—∞  à«πµ—«Õ¬à“ß∑’Ë “¡ ‡ªì𧔰‘√‘¬“∑’Ë „™â „π≈—°…≥–§«“¡À¡“¬∑’Ë Ë‘ß„¥ ‘ËßÀπ÷Ëß¡’Õ”π“®§«∫§ÿ¡ À√◊ÕÕ‘∑∏‘æ≈‡Àπ◊ÕÕ’° ‘ËßÀπ÷Ëß ®“°§”°‘√¬“¥—ß°≈à“«π’∑”„À⇰‘¥§”Õ’°§”Àπ÷ß∑’𔧔«à“ çgoverné ‘ È Ë Ë ‰ª„™â §◊Õ§”∑’Ë· ¥ß∂÷ßµ”·ÀπàߺŸâ∫√‘À“√„πÀπ૬ߓπ¢Õß√—∞∫“ß·Ààß´÷Ëß
  32. 32. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 27 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ‡√“„™â‡√’¬°«à“‡ªìπ çGovernoré µ”·Àπàß∑’Ë „™â§”π’È·≈–æ∫‡ÀÁπ∫àÕ¬ §◊Õµ”·ÀπàߺŸâ«à“√“™°“√®—ßÀ«—¥ πÕ°®“°π—Èπ µ”·Àπà߇™àπºŸâ«à“°“√ ∏𓧓√·Ààߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬°Á„™â§”«à“ governor ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—π À“°‡ªìπ„π µà“ߪ√–‡∑» µ”·Àπà߇™àπºŸâ«à“°“√√—∞°Á„™â§”«à“ governor ·µà∫“ߧ√—Èß „π‡Õ° “√∫“ß©∫—∫Õ“®®–¡’§”‡√’¬°ºŸ«“°“√√—∞∑’·µ°µà“ßÕÕ°‰ª ‚¥¬Õ“® âà Ë ‡√’¬°«à“‡ªìπ çGubernatoré ´÷ËßÕ“®®–‰¡à„™à§”∑’Ë·æ√àÀ≈“¬‡À¡◊Õπ§”«à“ çGovernoré ·µà®–æ∫‡ÀÁπ‰¥â‡ªìπ√–¬–„π ◊ËÕ ‘Ëßæ‘¡æå¢Õßµà“ߪ√–‡∑» §”¥—ß°≈à“«¡“®“°∑’Ë¡“¢Õߧ”«à“ çGovernmenté „π¿“…“≈“µ‘π∑’Ë„™â §”«à“ çGubernaculumé ´÷Ë߇ªìπ§”∑’Ë· ¥ß‚¥¬ ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫√—∞À√◊Õ ª√–‡∑»°—∫‡√◊Õ ‚¥¬ Gubernator ‡ªìπ‡ ¡◊Õπ°—ªµ—πºŸâ§«∫§ÿ¡∑‘» ∑“߇√◊Õ ‡¡◊ËÕ𔧔¥—ß°≈à“«¡“„™â°—∫√—∞À√◊Õª√–‡∑»®÷ß∑”„Àâ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬ „π∑”πÕß∑’Ë«à“‡ªìπºŸâ§«∫§ÿ¡∑‘»∑“ߢÕß√—∞À√◊Õª√–‡∑»„À⇥‘π‰ª„π∑“ß„¥ ∑“ßÀπ÷ß À“°‡√“°≈—∫‰ª¬âÕπ¥Ÿª√–‚¬§„π∫∑§«“¡∑’Ë ‰¥âπ”¡“‡ªìπµ—«Õ¬à“ß Ë ®–„™â§”«à“ çGovernmenté „π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§¥—ßπ’È çWe make this guarantee because our system of constitutional government is based upon the idea that there are limits to governmental power and that even those in authority must adhere to the rule of law.é √Ÿªª√–‚¬§π’ȇªìπ°“√„™â§”«à“ çGovernmenté „π§«“¡À¡“¬ ¢Õß√—∞À√◊ÕÕߧå√«¡¢ÕßÕ”π“®Õ∏‘ª‰µ¬∑ÿ°ΩÉ“¬ ‡æ√“– ¿“槫“¡‡ªìπ √—∞∑’Õ¬Ÿ¿“¬„µâ√∞∏√√¡πŸ≠π’¬Õ¡À¡“¬∂÷ßÕ”π“®Õ∏‘ª‰µ¬∑ÿ°ΩÉ“¬ ‰¡à«“®– Ë à — Èà à ‡ªìπÕ”π“®π‘µ‘∫—≠≠—µ‘ Õ”π“®∫√‘À“√ À√◊ÕÕ”π“®µÿ≈“°“√
  33. 33. 28 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม „πª√–‚¬§¢â“ßµâπ¡’Õ°§”Àπ÷ß∑’‡™◊Õ¡‚¬ß°—∫§”«à“ çGovernmenté ’ Ë Ë Ë ‰¥â · °à §”«à “ çGovernmentalé ´÷Ë ß ‡ªì 𠧔§ÿ ≥ »— æ ∑å (adjective) ∑’Ë „™â¢¬“¬§«“¡‡æ◊ËÕ ◊ËÕ§«“¡À¡“¬∑’ˇ°’ˬ«°—∫√—∞À√◊Õ√—∞∫“≈ §”«à“ Governmental power „πª√–‚¬§®÷ß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ßÕ”π“®¢Õß√—∞ ∑—Èߪ«ß‰¡à«à“®–‡ªìπÕ”π“®ΩÉ“¬„¥ §”«à“ çGovernmentalé π’ÈÕ“®®– 𔉪„™âª√–°Õ∫°—∫§”Õ◊Ëπ‰¥âÕ’°¡“° ‡™àπ q Governmental agency À¡“¬∂÷ßÕߧå°√À√◊ÕÀπ૬ߓπ ¢Õß√—∞ q Governmental body À¡“¬∂÷ßÕߧå°√À√◊ÕÀπ૬ߓπ ¢Õß√—∞‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫§”«à“ governmental agency q Governmental agent À¡“¬∂÷ß∫ÿ§≈“°√À√◊Õ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë „πÀπà « ¬ß“π¢Õß√— ∞ ∑’Ë ∑”Àπâ “ ∑’Ë „ Àâ ∫ √‘ ° “√À√◊ Õ ¥”‡π‘ π °“√ µà“ßÊ ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ¿“√°‘®¢Õß√—∞À√◊ÕÀπ૬ߓπ¢Õß√—∞π—Èπ∫√√≈ÿ µ“¡«—µ∂ÿª√– ß§å q Governmental act À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√°√–∑”∑’ˇªìπ°“√„™â Õ”π“®¢Õß√—∞ ´÷ËßÕ“®√«¡∂÷ß°“√„™âÕ”π“®Õ∏‘ª‰µ¬¥â“π µà“ßÊ ¥â«¬ ‰¡à«à“®–‡ªìπ°“√ÕÕ°°ÆÀ¡“¬ °“√∫√‘À“√ ª√–‡∑» À√◊Õ°“√„™âÕ”π“®µÿ≈“°“√ q Governmental activity À¡“¬∂÷ß°‘®°√√¡¢Õß√—∞À√◊Õ Àπ૬ߓπ¢Õß√—∞∑’‡ªìπ°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√µ“¡¿“√–Àπâ“∑’¢Õßµπ Ë Ë „π°“√„Àâ∫√‘°“√·°à “∏“√≥™πÀ√◊Õ°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√„À⇪ìπ‰ª µ“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬ q Governmental building/facility À¡“¬∂÷ ß Õ“§“√ À√◊Õ∑’∑”°“√¢ÕßÀπ૬ߓπ¢Õß√—∞À√◊ÕÕ“§“√À√◊ÕÀπ૬ߓπ Ë
  34. 34. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 29 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ∑’Ë√—∞®—¥µ—Èߢ÷Èπ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ∫√‘°“√ª√–™“™π¥â“πµà“ßÊ Õ—π‡ªìπ ª√–‚¬™πå “∏“√≥–À√◊Õ‡æ◊ËÕ¥”‡π‘π°“√„À⇪ìπ‰ªµ“¡¿“√°‘® ∑’Ë®”‡ªìπ¢Õß√—∞ ‡™àπ Õ“§“√¢Õß°√–∑√«ß∑∫«ß°√¡µà“ßÊ Õ“§“√∑’Ë∑”°“√¢Õß»“≈‡ÕßÀ“°‡√“„™â§”«à“ governmental „𧫓¡À¡“¬Õ¬à“ß°«â“ß°ÁÕ“®®–∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ governmental facility ª√–‡¿∑Àπ÷Ëß À√◊Õ·¡â·µà‡√◊Õπ®” ”À√—∫„™â¢—ß π—°‚∑…∑’Ë·¡âª√–™“™π∑—Ë«‰ª®–‰¡à ‰¥â‡¢â“‰ª‡°’ˬ«¢âÕßÀ√◊Õ„™â ∫√‘°“√ ·µà®–„™â‡©æ“–°—∫∫ÿ§§≈∫“ߪ√–‡¿∑‡∑à“π—π°Á∂Õ«à“‡ªìπ È ◊ governmental facility ¥â«¬ª√–‡¿∑Àπ÷Ë߇π◊ËÕß®“°‡ªìπ  ∂“π∑’∑Ë’„™â‡æ◊Õ¥”‡π‘π°“√µ“¡¿“√°‘®¢Õß√—∞„π°“√§ÿ¡§√Õß Ë Ë â ·≈–√—°…“§«“¡ ß∫‡√’¬∫√âÕ¬¿“¬„π√—∞ „π à«π¢Õߧ”«à“ çGoverné ´÷߇ªì𧔰‘√¬“π—π¬—ß¡’∑’Ë„™â„π≈—°…≥– Ë ‘ È µà“ßÊ ∑’Ëπà“ π„®Õ’° ‡™àπ À“°π”‰ª„™â „π√Ÿª¢Õߧ”«à“ çGoverning bodyé ®–À¡“¬∂÷ßÕߧå°√À√◊Õ§≥–∫ÿ§§≈∑’¡Õ”π“® Ÿß ÿ¥„πÀπà«¬ß“π„¥ Ë’ Àπà « ¬ß“πÀπ÷Ë ß ∑’Ë ® –∑”Àπâ “ ∑’Ë ‡ ªì π ºŸâ µ— ¥  ‘ π „®‡™‘ ß π‚¬∫“¬À√◊ Õ °”Àπ¥ °‘®°√√¡À√◊Õ°“√°√–∑”µà“ßÊ ¢ÕßÀπ૬ߓππ—𠇙àπ À“°‡√“®–°≈à“«∂÷ß È §≥–°√√¡°“√µÿ≈“°“√ (°.µ.) „π∞“π–∑’ˇªìπÕߧå°√∑’Ë¡’Õ”π“® Ÿß ÿ¥ „πÕß§å ° √»“≈¬ÿ µ‘ ∏ √√¡„π‡√◊Ë Õ ß∑’Ë ‡ °’Ë ¬ «°— ∫ °“√∫√‘ À “√ß“π∫ÿ § §≈¢Õß ¢â“√“™°“√µÿ≈“°“√»“≈¬ÿµ‘∏√√¡ ‡√“Õ“®®–°≈à“«∂÷ß„π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§∑’Ë«à“ çThe Judicial Commission is the governing body in terms of the personnel matters for judicial officers of the Court of Justice.é πÕ°®“°π—Èπ À“°π”§”«à“ çGoverné π’È ‰ª„™â„π°“√√à“ß —≠≠“ µà“ßÊ Õ“®®–æ∫‡ÀÁπ‰¥â∫àÕ¬§√—Èß„π à«π∑’Ë°≈à“«∂÷ߢâÕ —≠≠“∑’Ë§àŸ —≠≠“
  35. 35. 30 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม µ°≈ß°—π‡°’Ë¬«°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë®–„™â∫—ߧ—∫°—∫ —≠≠“∑’Ë∑”¢÷Èππ—Èπ ´÷Ëß®–‡√’¬° «à“‡ªìπ¢âÕ —≠≠“‡√◊ËÕß çGoverning lawé ¢âÕ —≠≠“¥—ß°≈à“«®–„™â „π°√≥’∑’Ë¡’ªí≠À“¢âÕæ‘æ“∑√–À«à“ߧŸà —≠≠“‡°’ˬ«°—∫¢âÕ —≠≠“∑’Ë∑”¢÷Èπ À√◊Õ°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√µà“ßÊ ‡æ◊ËÕ„À⇪ìπ‰ªµ“¡¢âÕµ°≈ß´÷ËßÕ“®®–‰¡à ‰¥â¡’ ¢â Õ  — ≠ ≠“∑’Ë °”À𥉫â Õ ¬à “ ß™— ¥ ‡®π®÷ ß ®”‡ªì π ®–µâ Õ ßÕ“»— ¬ ∫∑∫— ≠ ≠— µ‘ °ÆÀ¡“¬∑’ˇ°’ˬ«¢âÕß·∑π«à“‰¥â°”Àπ¥ ‘∑∏‘Àπâ“∑’Ë¢ÕߧŸà —≠≠“„π‡√◊ËÕß ¥—ß°≈à“««à“Õ¬à“߉√ ¢âÕµ°≈ß„π‡√◊ËÕߥ—ß°≈à“«π’ÈÕ“®®–‰¡à ‰¥âæ∫‡ÀÁπ„π  —≠≠“∑’Ë∑”¢÷Èπ√–À«à“ߧŸà —≠≠“∑’ËÕ“»—¬À√◊Õª√–°Õ∫∏ÿ√°‘®Õ¬Ÿà„πª√–‡∑» ‡¥’¬«°—π ·µà¡—°®–æ∫‡ÀÁπ„π —≠≠“∑’Ë∑”¢÷Èπ√–À«à“ߧŸà —≠≠“∑’Ë¡’¿Ÿ¡‘≈”‡π“ À√◊Õ ∂“πª√–°Õ∫∏ÿ√°‘®Õ¬Ÿà„πª√–‡∑»µà“ßÊ °—π ‡æ√“–„π°√≥’¥—ß°≈à“« ®–¡’°ÆÀ¡“¬¢ÕßÀ≈“¬ª√–‡∑»∑’ˇ°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫∏ÿ√°√√¡∑’Ë∑”¢÷È𠇙àπ °ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»¢ÕߧŸà —≠≠“·µà≈–ΩÉ“¬ °ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑» ∑’Ë¡’°“√¥”‡π‘π°‘®°√√¡µ“¡ —≠≠“´÷ËßÕ“®®–‡ªìπª√–‡∑»∑’Ë “¡∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß ®“°ª√–‡∑»¢ÕߧŸà —≠≠“·µà≈–ΩÉ“¬°Á ‰¥â „π°√≥’¥—ß°≈à“«À“°§Ÿà —≠≠“ ‰¡à ‰¥âµ°≈߉«â¬àÕ¡‡ªìπ‰ªµ“¡À≈—°«à“¥â«¬°“√¢—¥°—π·Ààß°ÆÀ¡“¬ À√◊Õ Conflict of Laws Rules ´÷ËßÕ“®®–∑”„À⇰‘¥§«“¡‰¡à·πàπÕπ«à“®– ‡ªìπ°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»„¥ §Ÿà —≠≠“®÷ß¡—°®–µ°≈ß°”Àπ¥‡æ◊ËÕ§«“¡ ™—¥‡®π«à“°√≥’∑Ë’¡’ªí≠À“„Àâ „™â°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»„¥∫—ߧ—∫°—∫ —≠≠“ ‚¥¬Õ“®‡¢’¬π„π√Ÿªª√–‚¬§«à“ çThis Contract shall be governed by the laws of Thailand.é ´÷Ëß®–‡ªìπ°“√µ°≈ß«à“„Àâ „™â°ÆÀ¡“¬ ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬∫—ߧ—∫°—∫ —≠≠“∑’Ë∑”¢÷Èπ „π∫“ߧ√—ÈßÕ“®„™â«≈’Õ◊ËπÕ’° ‡™àπ „™â«à“‡ªìπ çApplicable lawé ´÷Ë ß ¡’ § «“¡À¡“¬∑’Ë § ≈â “ ¬§≈÷ ß °— π «à “ À¡“¬∂÷ ß °ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë „™â∫—ߧ—∫ ‚¥¬ √Ÿ ª ª√–‚¬§∑’Ë Õ “®π”‰ª„™â Õ “®‡¢’ ¬ π·∫∫‰¡à   ≈— ∫ ´— ∫ ´â Õ π„π∑”πÕß«à “
  36. 36. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 31 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม çThe applicable law of this Contract shall be the laws of Thailand.é πÕ°®“°π—Èπ „π°“√‡¢’¬π∫“ß≈—°…≥–Õ“®®–„™â§”Õ◊Ëπ·µà„Àâ §«“¡À¡“¬∑’˧≈⓬§≈÷ß°—𠇙àπ çThis Contract shall be construed in accordance with the laws of Thailand.é ´÷Ëß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„π ∑”πÕß∑’Ë«à“ —≠≠“©∫—∫∑’Ë∑”¢÷Èππ’È„Àâµ’§«“¡µ“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ Õ— π ®–¡’ º ≈„Àâ µâ Õ ßπ”°ÆÀ¡“¬¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬¡“„™â °— ∫ °“√æ‘ ® “√≥“  ‘∑∏‘Àπâ“∑’Ë¢ÕߧŸà —≠≠“∑’Ë∑”¢÷Èπ‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—π „πª√–‚¬§∑’Ë«à“ çWe make this guarantee because our system of constitutional government is based upon the idea that there are limits to governmental power and that even those in authority must adhere to the rule of law.é ¡’§”»—æ∑å∑’Ëπà“ π„®§”µàÕ‰ª§◊Õ§”«à“ çadhereé „π§«“¡À¡“¬∑—Ë«‰ª §”«à“ çadhereé À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√∑’Ë¢Õß ‘ËßÀπ÷Ë߬÷¥µ‘¥Õ¬à“ß·πàπÀπ“°—∫ ¢ÕßÕ’° ‘ËßÀπ÷Ëß ·µàÀ“°π”¡“„™â„𧫓¡À¡“¬∑’ˇ°’ˬ«°—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬ §”«à“ çadhereé ®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√µâÕߪؑ∫—µ‘µ“¡ ‘Ëß∑’Ë°ÆÀ¡“¬ √–‡∫’¬∫ À√◊հƇ°≥±å∑’ˇ°’ˬ«¢âÕ߉¥â°”Àπ¥‰«â‡ªìπ¡“µ√∞“π „πª√–‚¬§¥—ß°≈à“« ¢â“ßµâπ®÷ß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√∑’Ë√—∞À√◊ÕºŸâ∑’Ë„™âÕ”π“®¢Õß√—∞®–µâÕ߬÷¥∂◊Õ À√◊ժؑ∫—µ‘µ“¡À≈—°π‘µ‘√—∞ °“√¡’Õ”π“®¢Õß√—∞µ“¡√—∞∏√√¡πŸ≠‰¡à „ ™à Õ”π“®∑’Ë ‰¡à¡’¢Õ∫‡¢µÕ—π®”°—¥ À“°‡√“𔧔«à“ çadhereé π’È ‰ª„™â „π √Ÿªª√–‚¬§Õ◊πÕ“®„™â ‰¥â¥ßπ’È Ë — q Politicians who want to run in the next election must adhere to the regulations prescribed by the election commission, or they will risk being disqualified. (π—°°“√‡¡◊Õß∑’˵âÕß°“√®–≈ß ¡—§√√—∫‡≈◊Õ°
  37. 37. 32 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม q µ—ß„π°“√‡≈◊Õ°µ—ߧ√—ßµàÕ‰ª®–µâÕߪؑ∫µµ“¡√–‡∫’¬∫∑’ÕÕ° È È È — ‘ Ë ‚¥¬§≥–°√√¡°“√°“√‡≈◊Õ°µ—Èß À√◊Õ¡‘©–π—Èπ®–µâÕ߇ ’Ë¬ß µàÕ°“√∂Ÿ°µ—¥ ‘∑∏‘) Toy manufacturers who do not adhere to the safety standard lose a lot of money, because their toys have been returned from many retailers around the world. (ºŸâº≈‘µ¢Õ߇≈àπ∑’Ë ‰¡àªØ‘∫—µ‘µ“¡ ¡“µ√∞“𧫓¡ª≈Õ¥¿—¬ Ÿ≠‡ ’¬‡ß‘π®”π«π¡“°‡æ√“–«à“¢Õß ‡≈àπ¢ÕߺŸâº≈‘µ‡À≈à“π’È∂Ÿ° àߧ◊π®“°∫√√¥“ºŸâ§â“ª≈’°∑—Ë«‚≈°) πÕ°®“°°“√„™â „𧫓¡À¡“¬¢â“ßµâπ·≈â« §”«à“ çadhereé π’È ¬—ßÕ“®∂Ÿ°„™â „𧫓¡À¡“¬∑”πÕß∑’Ë«à“‡ªìπ°“√ π—∫ πÿπÀ√◊Õ¡’§«“¡§‘¥ §«“¡‡™◊ËÕÕ¬à“ß„¥Õ¬à“ßÀπ÷Ë߉¥âÕ’°¥â«¬ ‡™àπ °“√∑’ˇ√“µâÕß°“√®– ∫Õ°«à“‡√“¡’§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ«à“ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬¢Õ߇√“§«√®–µâÕß¡’√—∞∫“≈∑’Ë¡“ ®“°√–∫Õ∫ª√–™“∏‘ª‰µ¬„Àâ‡√Á«∑’Ë ÿ¥‡∑à“∑’Ë®–∑”‰¥â ‡√“Õ“®‡¢’¬π‰¥â«à“ çWe adhere to the view that this country should have a democratic government as soon as possible.é À√◊ÕÀ“°‡√“ µâÕß°“√∫Õ°«à“‡√“¡’§«“¡§‘¥∑’Ë«à“ªí≠À“‚≈°√âÕπ‡ªìπªí≠À“√à«¡°—π¢Õß ∑ÿ°ª√–‡∑»∑—Ë«‚≈°∑’Ë®–µâÕß√à«¡°—π·°â ‰¢ªí≠À“ ‡√“Õ“®‡¢’¬π„π∑”πÕß ∑’Ë«à“ çWe adhere to the opinion that the global warming is a mutual problem of all countries that should cooperate to solve this problem.é §”π“¡¢Õߧ”«à“ çadhereé §◊Õ§”«à“ çadhesioné ´÷Ëß¡’∑’Ë„™â ‰¥âÕ’°À≈“¬°√≥’ ∫“ß°√≥’Õ“®®–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß®“°√“°»—æ∑å
  38. 38. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 33 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ‡¥‘¡§”«à“ çadhereé æÕ ¡§«√ ·≈–¡’∑’Ë „™â∑—Èß„π à«π¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬ ¿“¬„π‡°’Ë¬«°—∫ —≠≠“·≈–°ÆÀ¡“¬√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑» „π à«π¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑»π—ÈπÀ¡“¬∂÷ß°“√‡¢â“‡ªìπ ¿“§’¢ÕßÕπÿ —≠≠“©∫—∫„¥©∫—∫Àπ÷Ëß ·µà§«“¡À¡“¬∑’Ë¡’°“√„Àâ ‰«â¡’§«“¡ ·µ°µà“ß°—π „π Black Law Dictionary (6th Edition) „À⧫“¡À¡“¬ ∑’Ë·¬°§«“¡·µ°µà“ß°—∫°“√‡¢â“‡ªìπ¿“§’¥â«¬«‘∏’°“√ Accession À“° ‡ªìπ°√≥’¢Õß adhesion Õ“®‡ªìπ°“√‡¢â“ºŸ°æ—π‡©æ“–∫“ß à«π¢Õß Õπÿ —≠≠“∑’˪√–‡∑»∑’ˇ¢â“ºŸ°æ—π‰¥â· ¥ß‡®µπ“®–„Àâ¡’º≈ºŸ°æ—π‰«â‡ªìπ °“√‡©æ“– ·µàÀ“°‡ªìπ°√≥’¢Õß çaccessioné ®–‡ªìπ°“√‡¢â“‡ªìπ¿“§’∑’Ë ®–∑”„À⡺≈ºŸ°æ—πµàÕÕπÿ ≠≠“∑—ß©∫—∫ „π¢≥–‡¥’¬«°—π ∫“ߧ√—ß°Á¡°“√ ’ — È È ’ „™â∑—Èߧ”«à“ çaccessioné °—∫ §”«à“ çadhesioné „π§«“¡À¡“¬¢Õß °“√‡¢â“‡ªìπ¿“§’Õπÿ ≠≠“∑’Ë ‰¡à·µ°µà“ß°—π·≈–„™â·∑π°—π¥â«¬ ·µà ‰¡à«“®– — à ‡ªìπ°“√‡¢â“‡ªìπ¿“§’Õπÿ —≠≠“¥â«¬«‘∏’°“√ çadhesioné À√◊Õ çaccessioné ®–µâÕ߇ªìπ°“√‡¢â“‡ªìπ¿“§’¿“¬À≈—ß®“°∑’ËÕπÿ —≠≠“π—Èπ¡’º≈∫—ߧ—∫„™â®“° °“√∑’Ë¡’ª√–‡∑»µà“ßÊ ‡¢â“‡ªìπ¿“§’§√∫µ“¡®”π«π∑’ËÕπÿ —≠≠“°”Àπ¥‰«â ·≈â« ·µà∫“ß°√≥’Õπÿ —≠≠“Õ“®‡ªî¥‚Õ°“ „Àâª√–‡∑»µà“ßÊ ‡¢â“‡ªìπ ¿“§’¥â«¬«‘∏’°“√ çaccessioné °àÕπ∑’ËÕπÿ —≠≠“¡’º≈„™â∫—ߧ—∫‰¥â¥â«¬7  ”À√—∫°ÆÀ¡“¬¿“¬„π‚¥¬‡©æ“–„π°ÆÀ¡“¬≈—°…≥– —≠≠“π—È𠧔«à“ çadhesioné ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∂÷ß —≠≠“ª√–‡¿∑Àπ÷Ëß∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“‡ªìπ çadhesion contracté  —≠≠“ª√–‡¿∑π’È®–‰¥â·°à —≠≠“∑’Ë¡’°“√∑”‡ªìπ ·∫∫øÕ√å¡¡“µ√∞“π∑’˺⟪√–°Õ∫∏ÿ√°‘®µà“ßÊ ∑”„Àâ≈Ÿ°§â“‡æ◊ËÕ„™â‡ªì𠇧√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ„π°“√°”Àπ¥ ‘∑∏‘Àπâ“∑’Ë¢ÕߧŸà —≠≠“·µà≈–ΩÉ“¬„π —≠≠“∑’Ë®– 7 http://untreaty.un.org/English/TreatyHandbook/glossary.htm.
  39. 39. 34 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม ∑”¢÷Èπ ‚¥¬µ“¡ª°µ‘¢Õß°“√∑” —≠≠“ª√–‡¿∑π’È §Ÿà —≠≠“ΩÉ“¬Àπ÷Ëß´÷Ëß ¡—°®–‰¥â·°àΩÉ“¬ºŸâª√–°Õ∫∏ÿ√°‘®®–¡’Õ”π“®µàÕ√Õ߇Àπ◊Õ°«à“Õ’°ΩÉ“¬Àπ÷Ëß ¡“° ≈Ÿ°§â“´÷Ëß¡—°®–‡ªìπºŸâ∫√‘‚¿§∑—Ë«‰ª®–‰¡à¡’§«“¡√ŸâÀ√◊Õ·¡â·µà‚Õ°“ ∑’Ë ®–µàÕ√Õ߇ß◊ËÕπ‰¢¢Õß —≠≠“°—∫ΩÉ“¬ºŸâª√–°Õ∫∏ÿ√°‘®  ‘Ë߇¥’¬«∑’Ë≈Ÿ°§â“ ‡À≈à“π’È “¡“√∂∑”‰¥â§◊Õ°“√‡≈◊Õ°«à“®–∑” —≠≠“À√◊Õ‰¡à‡∑à“π—Èπ À“°‡≈◊Õ° ∑’Ë®–‡¢â“∑” —≠≠“°Á®–µâÕß„™â‡ß◊ËÕπ‰¢¢Õß —≠≠“µ“¡∑’˺⟪√–°Õ∫∏ÿ√°‘® °”À𥉫â‡∑à“π—Èπ (Take it or leave it) „πª√–‡∑» À√—∞Õ‡¡√‘°“À“° øí߉¥â§«“¡«à“ —≠≠“©∫—∫Àπ÷Ëß¡’≈—°…≥–∑’ˇªìπ adhesion contract ·≈â« »“≈Õ“®®–‰¡à∫ߧ—∫„Àⵓ¡‡ß◊Õπ‰¢¢Õß —≠≠“©∫—∫π—π°Á‰¥â „πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ — Ë È ‡√“®–‡√’¬°«à“‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–¢ÕߢâÕ —≠≠“∑’Ë ‰¡à‡ªìπ∏√√¡ (unfair contract terms) µ“¡æ√–√“™∫—≠≠—µ‘«à“¥â«¬¢âÕ —≠≠“∑’ˉ¡à‡ªìπ∏√√¡ æ.». 2542 §” à«πµàÕ‰ª∑’®–¢Õπ”¡“°≈à“«∂÷ß„π∑’π§Õ§”«à“ çRule of lawé Ë Ë ’È ◊ À√◊ÕÀ≈—°π‘µ‘∏√√¡ ´÷Ëߧ«“¡À¡“¬‚¥¬ √ÿªÀ¡“¬∂÷ßÀ≈—°°“√∑’Ë∂◊Õ«à“ °“√¥”‡π‘ π °“√µà “ ßÊ ®–µâ Õ ß‡ªì 𠉪µ“¡À≈— ° °“√∑’Ë ° ÆÀ¡“¬«“߉«â ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß°“√„™âÕ”π“®¢Õß√—∞∑’ËÀ“°®–°√–∑”°“√„¥∑’Ë°√–∑∫ °√–‡∑◊ÕπµàÕ ‘∑∏‘‡ √’¿“æ¢Õߪ√–™“™π √—∞®–µâÕߥ”‡π‘π°“√·≈–ªØ‘∫—µ‘ µ“¡À≈—°°“√·≈–Õ¬Ÿà „π¢Õ∫‡¢µ∑’Ë°ÆÀ¡“¬«“߉«â À≈—°°“√¥—ß°≈à“«π’È ∫“ߧ√—È߇√’¬°«à“‡ªìπÀ≈—° çthe supremacy of lawé À√◊ÕÀ≈—°§«“¡ ‡ªì π  Ÿ ß  ÿ ¥ ¢Õß°ÆÀ¡“¬ À≈— ° °“√¥— ß °≈à “ «π’È « “ßÕ¬Ÿà ∫ πæ◊È π ∞“π¢Õß §«“¡§‘¥∑’µÕß°“√ª°ªÑÕߪ√–™“™π„Àâæπ®“°°“√„™âÕ”π“®µ“¡Õ”‡¿Õ„® Ë â â ¢Õß√—∞·≈–‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë√—∞À“°ª√“»®“°À≈—°°“√À√◊Õ·π«∑“ß∑’Ë°”À𥉫â Õ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π«à“√—∞À√◊Õ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’√∞®– “¡“√∂°√–∑”°“√À√◊Õ„™âÕ”π“®‰¥â Ë— ¡“°πâÕ¬‡æ’¬ß„¥·≈–µâÕß„™âÕ”π“®π—Èπ„π ∂“π°“√≥åÕ¬à“߉√∫â“ß ¥—ßπ—Èπ ®÷ ß µâ Õ ß¡’ ° “√°”Àπ¥À≈— ° °“√À√◊ Õ ·π«∑“ß°“√„™â Õ”π“®„Àâ ™— ¥ ‡®π„π
  40. 40. ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH 35 ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม °ÆÀ¡“¬·≈–„Àâ√—∞À√◊Õ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë√—∞ªØ‘∫—µ‘µ“¡∑’Ë°”À𥉫â„π°ÆÀ¡“¬π—Èπ ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß„πª√–‡∑»∑’Ë¡’°“√ª°§√Õß„π√–∫Õ∫ª√–™“∏‘ª‰µ¬ °“√ÕÕ°°ÆÀ¡“¬®–µâÕ߉¥â√—∫§«“¡‡ÀÁπ™Õ∫®“°ΩÉ“¬π‘µ‘∫—≠≠—µ‘∑’ˇªìπ µ— « ·∑π¢Õߪ√–™“™π ∑”„Àâ ª √–™“™π‰¥â ¡’  à « π√à « ¡„π°“√°”Àπ¥ ¢Õ∫‡¢µ·≈–‡ß◊ËÕπ‰¢°“√„™âÕ”π“®√—∞¥â«¬ à«πÀπ÷Ëß ª√–‚¬§ à«πµàÕ‰ª§◊Õª√–‚¬§∑’Ë«à“ çWe wish to prevent government from acting toward us in an arbitrary fashion, and so we believe that even a person charged with the most heinous crime is entitled to çhave his or her day in courté governed by a set of preordained rules of fairness.é §”«à“ çarbitraryé „π∑’ËπÈ’¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„π∑”πÕß°“√∑”µ“¡Õ”‡¿Õ„® ´÷Ë߉¥â °≈à“«∂÷߉«â·≈â««à“‡ªìπ°“√°√–∑”∑’ËÀ≈—°π‘µ‘√—∞¡ÿàß®–ªÑÕß°—π¡‘„À⇰‘¥¢÷Èπ ®÷߉¥â°”Àπ¥„Àâ°“√°√–∑”¢Õß√—∞µâÕ߇ªìπ‰ªµ“¡°ÆÀ¡“¬∑’Ë∫—≠≠—µ‘‰«â À“°‡ªì𧔰√‘¬“«‘‡»…≥å (adverb) ®–„™â§”«à“ çarbitrarilyé µ—«Õ¬à“ß °“√„™â§”∑—ß Õ߇™àπ È q Police cannot arbitrarily arrest a person without an arrest warrant except for hot pursuit. (µ”√«® ‰¡à “¡“√∂®—∫∫ÿ§§≈„¥∫ÿ§§≈Àπ÷Ëß‚¥¬ª√“»®“°À¡“¬®—∫ ‡«âπ·µà„π°√≥’°“√°√–∑”§«“¡º‘¥´÷ËßÀπâ“) q An exercise of authority without any consideration to the proper procedure or without any predetermined plan is just another kind of an arbitrary exercise of power. (°“√„™âÕ”π“®‚¥¬ª√“»®“°°“√ §”π÷ß∂÷ß°√–∫«π°“√∑’ˇÀ¡“– ¡À√◊Õª√“»®“°°“√«“ß·ºπ
  41. 41. 36 ¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ…°ÆÀ¡“¬ LEGAL ENGLISH ≈à « ßÀπâ “ ‡ªì π ‡æ’ ¬ ß≈— ° …≥–Àπ÷Ë ß ¢Õß°“√„™â Õ”π“®µ“¡ Õ”‡¿Õ„®) ห้อ งส (w มุดอิเ ww ล็ก .lib ทรอ ra นิก ry ส์ศ .co าล j.g ยุต o.t ิธร h) ร ม §”«à“ çheinousé À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√°√–∑”∑’Ë¡’§«“¡√⓬·√ßÀ√◊Õ ¡’§«“¡™—Ë«√⓬լà“ß¡“°  à«π„π¢âÕ§«“¡∑’˵“¡¡“∑’Ë«à“ çhave his or her day in courté π—È π ‡ªì π «≈’ ∑’Ë ¡’ § «“¡À¡“¬‡©æ“–«à “ ‡ªì π  ‘ ∑ ∏‘ ¢Õߧπ‡√“∑’Ë®–‰¥â· ¥ß¢âÕÕâ“ßÀ√◊Õ¢âÕµàÕ Ÿâ¢Õßµπ„π»“≈°àÕπ∑’Ë»“≈À√◊Õ §≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ®–‰¥â«‘π‘®©—¬°“√°√–∑”¢Õ߇√“  à«π‡¡◊ËÕ‰¥â𔇠πÕ¢âÕÕâ“ß À√◊Õ¢âÕµàÕ Ÿâ¢Õ߇√“·≈â«»“≈À√◊Õ§≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ®–µ—¥ ‘π„π≈—°…≥–‡™àπ‰√ ¬àÕ¡‡ªìπ ‘∑∏‘·≈–Õ”π“®¢Õß»“≈À√◊Õ§≥–≈Ÿ°¢ÿπ‚¥¬‡©æ“– «≈’∑’Ë¡’ §«“¡À¡“¬„°≈⇧’¬ß°—π§◊Õ«≈’∑«“ çhave an opportunity to be heardé Ë’ à §◊ Õ °“√‰¥â √— ∫ ‚Õ°“ ∑’Ë ® –„Àâ » “≈À√◊ Õ §≥–≈Ÿ ° ¢ÿ 𠉥â √— ∫ øí ß ¢â Õ Õâ “ ßÀ√◊ Õ ¢âÕµàÕ Ÿâ¢Õßµπ°àÕπ°“√æ‘®“√≥“æ‘æ“°…“ §”µàÕ¡“§◊Õ§”«à“ çpreordainedé À“°‡√“æ‘®“√≥“®“° à«π ª√–°Õ∫¢Õߧ” ®–‡ÀÁπ«à“ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ 2  à«π  à«π·√°§◊Õ§”«à“ çordainé  à«π∑’Ë Õߧ◊Õ§”«à“ çpreé ‡ªìπ prefix ∑’Ëπ”¡“‡µ‘¡ ‰«â¢â“ßÀπâ“ §”«à“ ordain À¡“¬∂÷ß°“√ —Ëß°“√„À⥔‡π‘π°“√À√◊Õ„Àâ ‡ªìπ‰ª„π≈—°…≥–„¥≈—°…≥–Àπ÷Ëß ‡¡◊ËÕ𔧔«à“ pre ¡“‡µ‘¡‰«â¢â“ßÀπâ“ ·≈–‡µ‘¡ -ed ‰ª®–∑”„Àâ°≈“¬‡ªì𧔧ÿ≥»—æ∑å (adjective) ·≈– ∑”„Àâ¡’§«“¡À¡“¬„π∑”πÕß∑’Ë¡’°“√ —Ëß°“√À√◊Õ°”À𥉫â≈à«ßÀπâ“·≈â« «à“ ‘Ëß„¥ ‘ËßÀπ÷Ëߧ«√®–µâÕ߇°‘¥¢÷ÈπÀ√◊ÕµâÕ߇°‘¥º≈„π≈—°…≥–„¥≈—°…≥– Àπ÷Ëß ≈—°…≥–¢Õß°“√°”À𥉫â≈à«ßÀπâ“π’È∫“ߧ√—ÈßÕ“®®–¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ‡ªìπ ‚™§™–µ“ À√◊Õ™–µ“°√√¡∑’Ë®–µâÕ߇°‘¥‡Àµÿ°“√≥åÕ—π„¥Àπ÷Ëߢ÷Èπ ·µà„π  à « π¢Õߪ√–‚¬§„π∑’Ë π’È ® –À¡“¬∂÷ ß °Æ‡°≥±å À √◊ Õ À≈— ° ‡°≥±å „ π°“√

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