The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.
Time Period: 1915 -1916, Ottoman Empire. Campaignagainst Armenians living in the eastern portion ofAnatolia (modern day turkey).
• Nationalism started affecting the Turkish mentality. The Turks placed themselves above everybody else claiming they were superior. As the Ottoman Empire began to crumble, however, the Turks became frustrated and began to have conflicting views with the Armenians. The conditions in the empire had turned from their former glorious sate to chaos and failure. Young Turk leaders felt that the lack of environmental changes was the cause of their issues. The only source holding the empire up was their European allies. Around this time, the Ottoman empire had lost land in both Europe and Africa and the Turks were embarrassed. The Turks had plans to expand their empire into a society that was completely Turkish and Muslim.
• The Turks feared their empire was falling because of Christian Armenians. The Armenians were oblivious to the attacks on their cultural group. They did nothing to try to stop the Turk’s harmful reformations that would soon put them at risk. The Turks were able to impose their reforms and policies on the people with complete cooperation.
Scapegoats The Turkish government confiscated all of the Identified Target Devalued- Dehumanized Armenian peoples weapons. Turks told the New Ideology Developed Armenians that they needed their hunting weapons to fuel the war efforts. (WWI) The Armenians were loyal and worked to come up with as many weapons as they could, striving to meet the Turk’s ideal quota. The Turkish government used the large quantity of weapons to claim that the Armenians were devising a plan to rebel and the they must take action to stop the madness. The Turks began their three stages of extermination (discussed in the next section) to work towards a Turkish, Muslim, homogeneous society.
The Turkish Committee of Union Progress, or CUP, came up with a plan to Steps increase in Violence exterminate the Armenians in order to change and expand their empire. What began as simple suppression of the Armenians with high taxes, isolation from Social Morals Lessen Toward the Muslims, and second class citizenship reached entirely new levels. Turks Group decided to dispose of the defenseless Armenians in three stages to quicken the development of their reformed empire. Stage one included recruiting all men Perpetrators Selected between the ages of 15 and 45 to the army and then killing them in sets ranging from 50-100 innocent men. If the men were not killed they were worked to their death. The second phase included the arresting of prominent political and military leaders in Constantinople, or Istanbul. The leaders were arrested, tortured and executed. Lastly, phase three, was the extermination of elders, women, and even children. The leaders started pogroms and marches that were said to be relocations to camps, but instead ended in death. The innocent Armenians faced rape, starvation, dehydration, kidnappings, and murder by the Kurdish during these “relocation” marches. Some marchers were lucky enough to reach their destination of Syria and Mesopotamia, but were killed upon arrival. Some young children were given to non-Armenian non-Christian families, and older children were forced to convert to Islam.
Nationalism The issues that occurred in the Ottoman Empire where triggered by Respect for Authority Monolithic Culture nationalism. The Turks agreed upon developing a Muslim, Turkish Ideology empire that excluded the Christian Armenians, a homogeneous society. The xenophobic nationalists believed the multi- cultural society had led to the empire’s loss of territory and near collapse. The Armenians remained unaware of the genocide and their relocation, they had trust in their Turkish government. They had no obvious reason to fear the Turks whom they had lived harmoniously with for some time. They respected their rule, but the Turks were now against this Christian minority and believed that their relocation, which turned into extermination, would turn the empire around into a marvelous Turkish empire.
Public Support/Early Opposition The Turkish government would use the destruction of WWI Other nations to exterminate the Armenian race without the intrusion of Just World Theory foreign defenders. The allies did not intrude on the genocide and the Turkish government got away with their treacherous actions. Any foreigners who did witness the genocide did nothing to stop the massacre. Great Britain, France, Russia, and the US became aware of the genocide but did little to stop the cruelty. They simply "commanded" the Turks to stop the killing and made efforts to save the starving people, but not nearly enough to save the population. America was the first to know and took the most action raising money and working towards a resolution, but nothing truly took flight. Talat Pasa, a Turkish leader stated when the German Ambassador persistently complained about the genocide, "with a smile…What on earth do you want? The question is settled. There are no more Armenians.”
Leaders with Extreme Views Leaders speak to Core Values of The tragic genocide was headed by young Turks of various Society groups. They came together as one because of their desire for Followers Buy In modernization and reform. Three key leaders were Jemal Pasa, Enver Pasa, and Talat Pasa. Jemal Pasa was a military commander, Enver Pasa was a skilled military leader, and Talat Pasa was a telegraphist and member of the CUP who worked in planning movements. The three men were responsible during the time of Ottomanization by separating the Armenians from the Ottomans and coming up with ways to easily dissolve the group. "The Ottoman Empire should be cleansed of the Armenians... We have destroyed the former by the sword, we shall destroy the latter through starvation." -- Enver Pasha, May 1916 Jemal followed by Enver and then Talat
Execution by the State Power It was the Turkish government that headed the Influences Socialization mass extermination. The Turkish leaders Elevate individual Actions envisioned a homogeneous society and abused their power in doing so. They oppressed the entire Armenian race, taking away their rights, and making them second class to all Turks. The "You are greatly alienation was solely the governmentsmistaken. We have this responsibility, but they refused to accept thecountry absolutely under reality. They claim that the genocide wasour control. I have no simply an action taken by the government fordesire to shift the blame protection.onto our underlings and Iam entirely willing toaccept the responsibilitymyself for everything thathas taken place." EnverPasa
There were around 600,000 to 1.5 million deaths. This number includes both men and women and even children. Not one country was able to stop the cruelty. The Armenians whom had lived in the empire for over 2,000 years were now nearly invisible. The Armenians that survived predominantly converted to the Muslim faith or fled from the empire. Some Armenians fled with Russians who were returning to Russia to fight. Later the battle of Sardarabad, other battles, the collapsing Ottoman Empire, and Turkeys loss in WWI led to the end of the genocide. There was mass destruction of the empire including towns, villages, churches, and schools. Today the Armenian genocide is remembered on April 24th, the day of the arrests in Istanbul. The Armenian Genocide is a perfect example of a genocide, fitting into the definition of a mass killing of a specific group systematically.
Occurring during 1928, 1932-1933, and1936-1939 in the Soviet Union, Ukraine.
War A leader of this genocide had a vision for an Economic Hardship industrialized nation. This man was Stalin Feeling Threatened by Violence Rapid Changes in Society who devised a five year plan creating a Lack of Diversity in Society (Monolithic) socialist state free of capitalism, and with a prosperous agricultural industry. Stalin wished for the farmers to produce more food in order for the Soviet Union to focus on an industrial economy. He also wanted to sell grain abroad to raise funds. Under Stalin, grain production increased by 150%, but other food production did not increase as much. Stalin wanted all peasants to farm on state owned farms called collectives. The government would proved tractors, fertilizers, and seed for the peasants to farm using modern techniques. They forced peasants to turn over their farm animals and tools to the collective. The state regulated prices and access to farm supplies.
Sense of Self and Way Life Threatened Stalin became frustrated because some Feeling of Frustration peasants did not agree with his collective policies. Many peasants were not in favor of giving up their land and selling their crops at low prices. The peasants killed their farm animals, destroyed tools, and burned crops. Stalin was furious and thought Kulaks, rich farmers, were leading this resistance. This triggered his plans for extermination. Stalin stated, “liquidate the Kulaks as a class.”
Scapegoats Identified Stalin was a totalitarian and wished to gain Target Devalued- Dehumanized complete control over the peasants and the New Ideology Developed working class along with the Soviets. He produced propaganda and used terror as his weapon. Stalin eliminated any opposing ideas, forced Russian culture on all groups, and replaced religion with communists ideology. Stalin made himself appear as god- like. He used propaganda to increase his popularity. Radios, speakers, movie theaters, school, billboards, and posters encouraged his policies to all groups and ages. His new ideas were to be the only ideas recognized by the Soviet population. “Print is the sharpest and the strongest weapon of our party.” -Stalin
Steps increase in Violence Stalin used his weapon of terror on the Kulaks. He wished to Social Morals Lessen teach them a lesson for rebelling against his collective farm Toward Group policies. He had around 1,000,000 Kulak homes, or 5,000,000 Perpetrators Selected people, deported from the country. These people were never heard back from after their deportation. He imposed collectivization on any and all of the remaining peasants. He used this genocide to prevent independence from occurring. His destruction caused famine along with exterminating anyone who opposed his views. He caused starvation of 7-10 million people. Many military leaders, authors, and government officials would also be killed because of their unique views. Stalin also created Gulags, or brutal working camps, which imprisoned people who“Cannibalism did not agree with Stalin. The Great Purge “cemented his controlcame later. Fresh of the government.”corpses were dugup and boiled forstew.” Witness ofthe effects of Stalin
Nationalism People aware for costs of disloyalty and took this Respect for Authority into account. Stalin demanded for a society that Monolithic Cultural followed his beliefs and ideals, thus there would Ideology be no possible way for him to lose control. People did not respect Stalin’s authority, although some areas were better off. Stalin’s forced monolithic culture was imposed in every direction. Schools taught his ideas and they were advertised everywhere. The only benefits that came about under Stalin, increasing peoples’ loyalty were, children attending state supported schools, cultural activities, sports, free medical care and daycare, inexpensive housing, public recreation and greater womens rights. There was little room for nationalism for Stalin ruled by purely fear.
Public Support/Early Opposition People were confused with what was Other nations occurring in the Soviet Union and allowed the Just World Theory reforms to unfold. The word of famine in the Soviet Union spread across Europe and to the United States. The US and Europe attempted to ship food supplies to the Ukraine in efforts to help the starving victims. The food shipments were rejected by the authorities and outside help was refused. Journalists were forbidden to enter the Ukraine because the government did not want their crimes to be exposed. The US and Britain took no further action in the genocide because they were more focused on winning the war against Nazi Germany, Italy, and Japan, which would also require Stalin’s assistance.
Leaders with Extreme Views Stalin was the mastermind behind the Leaders speak to Core Values of Society Ukrainian genocide. He was paranoid that Followers Buy In someone else would steel his power, and plotted against all people with views that may-“Death solves all one day override his. He felt that terror wasproblems - no man, the only way to get his message across to theno problem.” people. As previously mentioned, he was a totalitarian seeking complete domination.-“Ideas are more Stalin not only targeted the Kulaks because of their opposing views on farming, but becamepowerful than so obsessed with power and expanded hisguns. We would policies to differing minded citizens and evennot let our enemies high-class officials. He felt that his work was ahave guns, why “revolution from above”, and wouldshould we let them transform the Soviet Union into a successful industrial giant. He never gained truehave ideas.” followers, only those who joined his campaign in fear of otherwise being killed.-Stalin
Execution by the State Power The government disposed of people who Influences Socialization did not follow Stalins beliefs. Censorship Elevate individual Actions was increased along with the power of the secret police. This secret police arrested millions of citizens, they cracked down on the Bolsheviks, army heroes, industrial managers, and writers. These people were all accused of plotting against Stalin’s revolution. Stalin reinforced his control of the government through the Great Purge and also called for trials that would force people to confess in his favor. He strengthened his governmental control giving the state more and more power through every act he initiated.
Thousands of military leaders were killed or sent off to camps. Millions of Kulaks, ordinary citizens, and other groups faced the same fate. Stalin was responsible for the deaths of more than 20,000,000 people before the time of his own death. Stalin faced no consequences nor regretted his actions. Although this event did not focus on killing a single group of people, it began by targeting the Kulaks and then expanded into all people with opposing ideas. This would be considered a genocide because it was a massive, systematic killing of Soviet citizens because of Stalin’s paranoia.
War Japan and their military was looking to complete their Economic Hardship conquest of China. Japan had been modernizing since Feeling Threatened by Violence WWI, their exports were soring, and they were an Rapid Changes in Society industrial giant. With the civil war in China, they viewed Lack of Diversity in Society this as a key time to invade. They planned to take over (Monolithic) China in as little as three months. The Great Depression had hurt Japan greatly causing some economic troubles. The economic disasters powered the military and extreme nationalists to take action. Politicians were frustrated with other countries’ demands for Japan to stop expansion, and they were tired of racial discrimination from other countries. The Japanese simply felt restricted. Nationalists demanded for continued expansion and felt taking over China would provide them with raw materials and a region for their growing population. After the Manchurian incident, Japan claimed Manchuria and set up a puppet state. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations so they could pursue their conquests. Japan’s frustration was fueling their desire to take a stand against western powers.
Sense of Self and Way Life Threatened Japan felt as though other Western Feeling of Frustration powers were holding them back from reaching their full potential and becoming a dominant Asian power. They were frustrated and tired of feeling threatened. They pursued conquest of China after breaking away from the League of Nations, but were once again irritated by the Chinese troops resistance to their ruling. The Chinese army fought a tough battle during Shanghai, delaying Japan’s plans for a quick conquer. This only made Japan more angry and hungrier for conquest. During their reign of expansion they invaded Nanking.
Scapegoats Identified Japan was looking to take over China in search of Target Devalued- Dehumanized resources and more land for their people. The New Ideology Developed Chinese people stood in their way. As the Japanese army entered Nanking they carried orders to kill all captives. They targeted POW’s, or prisoners of war, who surrendered to the Japanese soldiers. The Japanese saw the POW’s as harmless and scared. They were far better trained than the Chinese and killed all of the POW’s. Along with this initial group they started an extermination of the remaining population. The Japanese truly had no motives to begin the genocide, they were simply doing as they were told. "They [Japanese soldiers] smash open windows and doors and take whatever they like.... I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling.... Of the perhaps one thousand disarmed soldiers that we had quartered at the Ministry of Justice, between 400 and 500 were driven from it with their hands tied. We assume they were shot since we later heard several salvos of machine-gun fire. These events have left us frozen with horror.” I witness
Steps increase in Violence The genocide lasted for a brutal 6 weeks. In December 1937, the Japanese army entered Nanking and murdered 300,000 out of Social Morals Lessen Toward Group 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city. After the massacre and Perpetrators Selected torturing of the POWs was finished, the Japanese shifted their focus to the women of Nanking. Women over the age of 70, andLi Ke-hen-"There are so many young girls under the age of 8 were taken away to be sexuallybodies on the street, victims of abused. Over 20,000 females faced gang-rapes by Japanesegroup rape and murder. They soldiers. After they were brutally raped the Japanese would stabwere all stripped naked, their them to death so the genocide would never be heard of. Pregnantbreasts cut off, leaving a terrible women were also raped, and then had their stomachs cut open anddark brown hole; some of them the unborn child ripped out. If the Japanese found an entire familywere bayoneted in the abdomen, in a house, they forced Chinese men to rape their daughters, sonswith their intestines spilling out to rape their mothers, and brothers their sisters. The family had toalongside….” watch in terror and could do nothing to stop the brutality. The soldiers committed many more acts of murder, randomly shooting their guns at crowds, and sporadically killing people. They also raided stores, and burned buildings with people still inside. People who were not killed were forced to dig their own graves along with caring out live burials. The Japanese took pleasure in their acts and sought to teach that the Chinese were lesser human being who did not deserve to live. As time passed the soldiers backed off and focused more on the war.
Nationalism The Japanese army led a nationalist movement Respect for Authority envisioning a Japanese dominated Asia. They had Monolithic Cultural no true reason for killing and raping the Chinese Ideology people, except the possible threat they could impose on Japan’s path of expansion. The Japanese"If I had not seen it with army respected the authority of their military runmy own eyes, I would not government’s demand for them to kill all prisoners.have believed it," wrote “They reflected a mentality in which the brutalthe committee chairman dominance of subjugated or so-called inferiorRabe in his diary on that peoples was considered just.”- History Placeday.It has been said that: “...modern nationalistsentiment, xenophobia, and military powercombined with the unforgiving code ofbushido created a military machine capable ofgreat acts of atrocity such as the “Rape ofNanking” (Michigan Museum of NaturalHistory)
Public Support/Early Opposition Other nations The genocide was broadcasted in Japanese Just World Theory newspapers and even the New York Times. The United States informed their people about the genocide in multiple other forms of the press. The American people were very curious about the violence and could not believe it was true. The Japanese army’s work was too brutal. The Americans did not have much interest in what was occurring in Asia. Politicians in the US and even Britain were more focused on the issues in Europe, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power and creation of the Nazi political group. China was left for the Japanese to continue their devastating actions.
Leaders with Extreme Views Hirohito was the emperor of Japan at the Leaders speak to Core Values of Society time, but his role in the Rape of Nanking is Followers Buy In unknown and quite questionable. The Execution by the State Power ultranationalists looked for military Influences Socialization domination and revival of ancient warrior Elevate individual Actions values and building a group that believed in the emperor’s godliness. They spread nationalism through teachings in schools. Ultranationalists believed Japan should have an empire that was equal to the Western powers. Japanese people turned their backs on peace and followed the ways of the military state. Peace was weakness and strength and action were the only method for success. Absolute obedience to the emperor and service to the state was the government’s message.
In the end, Japanese soldiers did not face prosecution for the crimes they committed. 300,000 out of 600,000 citizens were brutally raped, tortured, and murdered. Although the Rape of Nanking was devastating for China, Nanking was not entirely demolished. About 20 Americans and European missionaries, doctors, and businessmen worked towards developing an International Safety Zone. They carved out a 2.5 square-mile territory that was off-limits to the Japanese. These brave Americans and Europeans risked their lives to stop the violence and rapes. These Westerners were heroes to the Chinese. It is estimated that almost 300,000 Chinese people sought protection in the safe zone. I would not consider this a true genocide because they did not deliberately attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group by definition of genocide. There was no genocidal plan, the Chinese were simply in the way of Japanese expansion.
War In 1918 an economic crisis hit Economic Hardship Feeling Threatened by Violence Germany and the Nazi Party as Rapid Changes in Society Hitler came to power. After Lack of Diversity in Society (Monolithic) WWI Germany was in a “If the venerable state, left with war debt, land losses, and other international complications. Germany was Jewish financiers . not confident with their . . should again government structure that had succeed in come about during the Weimer plunging the Republic. Hitler declared that nations into a they were stabbed in the back world war the and not responsible for WWI. result will be . . . They were tired of the the annihilation of limitations imposed on the country during the Treaty of the Jewish race Versailles and ready for change. throughout Also, Anti-Semitism was arising Europe.”-Hitler and flowing through society even before Hitler came to power.
Sense of Self and Way Life Threatened Hitler expressed a strong Feeling of Frustration sentiment of anti-Semitism and the Nazi power directed their anger about the economy towards the Jews. They blamed the Jews for some of their economic misfortune, calling them a potential evil against governmental policies. The Nazis boycotted Jewish businesses as an act of revenge. Hitler saw the Jews as a “poisonous race that fed off the other races” weakening Germany.
Scapegoats Identified The Holocaust genocide was a Nazi plot for the Target Devalued- Dehumanized mass destruction of the Jewish people. Other New Ideology Developed groups were also targeted and dehumanized such as the Slavs, gypsies, homosexuals, the disabled and Poles. Even people who simply spoke against the Nazi party were targeted. Hitler sought out to establish the German identity as a strong Aryan race. The perfect person would have blond hair, blue eyes, and be tall. They used Jewish people as scapegoats for national problems they were facing. To prevent the Jewish population from growing, they stopped the Jews from having children, forcing sterilization. Other groups the party targeted were also sterilized. Hitler took measurements of the ideal Aryan figure and used these to determine the physical value of an individual.
Steps increase in Violence Hitler and his Nazi party established ghettos, or Social Morals Lessen Toward Group secluded parts of cities for Jews, in Poland, The Perpetrators Selected ghettos led to starvation, sickness, and death. Einsatzgruppen, special task forces, killed Jewish men and later women and children. All Jews were forced to wear the star of David to identify their religion. In September and October of 1941, Hitler called for the final solution, or mass execution of Jews, predominantly by gas chambers. Hitler and the Nazis soon transported the Jews throughout Europe to work camps or even extermination camps. Jews were kidnapped off the streets and put on crowded trains, some people would die before they even reached the camps. At these camps the Jews would be worked to death, given little to no food or water. Other means of death included being gunned down and put in gas chambers. The Jews were told to line up expecting showers, but instead, walked right into their suffocating, gaseous deaths. Escaping was almost impossible. Nearing the end of the Holocaust the Jews were sent on death marches. These marches covered far distances and most were either too weak to survive or murdered along the way. Not many Jews saw the end of the genocide.
Nationalism Hitler and the Nazi party made Respect for Authority Monolithic Cultural their beliefs the government’s Ideology ideology and spread their messages to the public. Posters, the radio, movies, and newspapers voiced the new laws and ways of thinking for Germans. The Nazis replaced the current materials in schools with those that broadcasted their opinions on racial purity and other ideals. Schools became segregated along with other public places. Material was now censored for content“All propaganda has to be popular and has that may go against Hitler andto accommodate itself to the the state. Hitler dreamed of acomprehension of the least intelligent of single party, Aryan state, and people respected his authority,those whom it seeks to reach.”-Hitler especially as his reign continued.
Public Support/Early Opposition The United State was hesitant to welcome Other nations the few Jews that escaped from Europe into Just World Theory this country. With the Great Depression hurting their economy, the government feared that foreigners would compete for work with the Americans and drain them of their resources needed to support the poor. When an American governmental department first heard about the killings, they failed to pass the message on to their leaders. The Holocaust was spoken about in American news and media, but the severity of the violence was often downgraded. Some sources claim that the US was in denial of the extermination of the Jewish race and killing of other races, explaining why they did not take action until much of the damage had already been done.
Leaders with Extreme Views Hitler was an extreme racist who opposed Leaders speak to Core Values of Society all other ethnicities except the Aryan race. Followers Buy In Hitler was an extremely influential speaker and attracted the German population. He promised to bring back economic strength in Germany and improved ways of life. The Nazi party enforced Hitler’s views and appealed to the unemployed Germans, younger citizens, and members of the middle class. At first, the Germans saw Hitler has their only hope to bring back national strength. Hitler led the Nazi party and Germany through terror, and was determined to turn Germany into a one party state. No one would dare go against Hitler in fear of being killed.“After fifteen years of work I have achieved, as a common German soldier andmerely with my fanatical will-power, the unity of the German nation, and have freedit from the death sentence of Versailles.” -Hitler
Execution by the State Power Germany, led by the Nazis, continued to carry Influences Socialization out the killing of the “non-superior” ethnic Elevate individual Actions groups, especially the Jews. The Germans took over Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Yugoslavia, Greece, and a portion of Italy in order to further their plans and build more extermination and labor camps. One of the worst extermination camps, Auschwitz, was built in Poland. The state supported the anti-Semitism campaign. As Germany called for the "Final Solution”, they executed the task of eliminating 2/3 of the Jewish population in Europe. Gassings, shootings, random acts of terror, disease, and starvation were state approved forms of killing.
11-17 million people, 6 million being Jews, were killed. Hitler committed suicide before he was able to be captured by Russia. Many other followers of Hitler and Nazis were “convicted for crimes against humanity” and put in jail. It was the Soviet soldiers who became the first successful people to liberate Hitler’s prisoners. British, Canadian, American, and French troops were also responsible for the liberations. The few survivors would be nursed back to health and reenter a society with scarce minorities. Overall, the Holocaust is undoubtedly a genocide. Hitler focused his extermination plans on races that he felt were not nearly as superior as the Aryans, especially the Jews, and did so in a systematic and planned out method.
War After gaining their freedom from France, Economic Hardship Feeling Threatened by Violence Cambodia became independent and Rapid Changes in Society moved from left to right on the political Lack of Diversity in Society (Monolithic) spectrum. During this time period, a man named Pol Pot led the communist party. The United States invaded Cambodia to force the North Vietnamese from their border encampments, and move deeper into the country. They bombed the North Vietnamese territories and supply routes in the east and killed about 150,000 Cambodians. Peasants fled the countryside and settled in Cambodias capital. These events led to economic and military destruction in Cambodia, along with a gain in popularity for Pol Pot. When the US left, the government was completely destroyed and Pol Pot seized control of Cambodia.
Sense of Self and Way Life Threatened The Khmer Rouge were frustrated with Feeling of Frustration their current monarchy led by Prince Norodom Sihanouk. The prince was relieved of his duty by Lon Nol who supported the US and not Vietnam. He did not take action against the US’s violence towards the Vietnamese nor the chaos in Cambodia. The people of Cambodia believed the prince was betraying the country’s principles. Innocent Vietnamese people were being killed for no reason what so ever. The Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot would rise to power without force. The reign of the Rouge would begin a new era.
Scapegoats Identified When Pol Pot came to power, he wished to Target Devalued- Dehumanized experiment and develop agrarian, agricultural, New Ideology Developed society much like Mao Zedongs Cultural Revolution. He wanted communal farming and to re-educate people in the art of agriculture. People with Western educations, who wore glasses, or spoke a different language were targeted as unfit for his new Cambodia. Renaming Cambodia the Democratic Republic of Kampuchea, he began his reforms. He called this, “Year Zero,” declaring that society was to be “purified”. Capitalism, Western culture, city life, religion, and all foreign influences were dissolved and replaced by high levels of peasant communism.
Steps increase in Violence Cambodias cities were cleared by force, in Phnom Social Morals Lessen Toward Group Penh two million citizens were evacuated at gunpoint and led to the countryside. About 20,000 people died Perpetrators Selected along their journey on foot. These people were forced to work as slaves in Pot’s killing fields. They died from overwork, starvation, and disease. The workers lived off of a tin of rice, given to them twice a day. They worked long hours, from 4 in the morning until 10 at night and were given only two breaks. The Khmer Rouge, armed, supervised the workers and were excited when the opportunity to kill someone arose. People worked to produce fruit and rice which the Khmer Rouge collected after production. Killings were initiated to mask the remains of the "old society”. The educated, the wealthy, Buddhist monks, police, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and former government officials all fell as victims to murder. Ex-soldiers and their wives and children along with government“Since he is of no use anymore, there is no officials were also exterminated. If a person was seengain if he lives and no loss if he dies.”-Pot questioning their support for Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, they were shot or axed down without “I did not join the resistance movement to kill people, to kill the hesitation. nation. Look at me now. Am I a savage person? My conscience is clear.”-Pots
Nationalism Pol Pot changed the culture of Cambodia by having Respect for Authority foreigners shipped out, embassies closed, and any Monolithic Cultural foreign economic or medical assistance refused. He Ideology banned foreign languages, had newspaper and television stations shut down, radios and bicycles confiscated, and mail and telephone usage reduced and restricted. Money was even banned. Every business was closed up, religious practice was band, education ceased, and parent authority ended. Cambodia was isolated from the surrounding world. Pot wished to re-establish Cambodia’s former state. Many people were unfamiliar with who Pol Pot was and were forced under his authority believing he was a god-like figure.
Public Support/Early Opposition There were few bystanders during the Other nations Cambodian genocide because Pol Pots Just World Theory had killed off most foreigners. Few Americans, Chinese, and Vietnamese knew of the killings but showed no desire to help out or put an end to what was occurring.
Leaders with Extreme Views Led by a Western educated man with Leaders speak to Core Values of Society intentions to create a society based on Followers Buy In agriculture and the ways of the past. He Execution by the State Power Influences Socialization favored the young since they had not yet Elevate individual Actions been corrupted by Western ways. The young worked in the military instead of the slower, older men. The Khmer Rouge followed Pots commands and carried out the killings. Pot wished to reverse imperialism and did so by turning the entire country into a torturous labor camp in fear of losing power. “Im quite modest. I dont want to tell people Im a leader.”-Pots
Overall, about 2 million Cambodians were killed, around 25% of the population. They were eventually defeated by the Vietnamese ending the killings. In July 1997 Pol Pot was tried by the Khmer Rouge and found guilty. He was forced to live out the remainder of his life under house arrest. Pol Pot died on April 15, 1998 of a heart attack. I would consider this a genocide because it specifically targeted a Western influenced race and Western influence in general. It was an attack on imperialism in attempt to erase Western thinking.
War Rwanda was a Belgian colony with two Economic Hardship major classes or groups of people, the Feeling Threatened by Violence Tutsi, or upper class, and the Hutu, or Rapid Changes in Society Lack of Diversity in Society (Monolithic) lower class. The Hutu class made up the majority of the population. The elite Tutsi class, backed up by the Belgiums, ruled by hatred and fear towards the Hutus. They were power crazy and feared losing their ruling status. The Tutsi’s had better job and educational opportunities than the Hutus.
Sense of Self and Way Life Threatened The Hutus were growing angry Feeling of Frustration against the privileged Tutsis and began to riot in 1959. They felt that they had equal rights to the jobs and opportunities being presented to the upper class. Out of frustration, they began killing many Tutsis and some of the Tutsi population left the country. “All these people who were about to be killed had land and at times cows. And somebody had to get these lands and those cows after the owners were dead. In a poor and increasingly overpopulated country this was no a negligible incentive.” –Unknown Hutu
Belgium granted Rwanda its freedom in 1962 Scapegoats Identified and the Hutus were in control. In the past years, Target Devalued- Dehumanized the Tutsi’s had been considered the scapegoats New Ideology Developed for all issues. The economy was declining and the president, Habyarimana, was losing his popularity. The Tutsi civilians in Uganda were forming the RPF, or Rwandan Patriotic Front to attack the ruling Hutu government. They wanted to overthrow the president and gain back their ruling rights in Rwanda. In April the presidents plane was shot down, presumably by Tutsis. The effect of the killing granted the Hutus a reason to attack the Tutsis. “We had two French military who helped train the Interahamwe. A lot of other Interahamwe were sent for training in Egypt. The French military taught us how to catch people and tie them. It was at the Affichier Central base in the centre of Kigali. Its where people were tortured. Thats where the French military office was... The French also went with us Interahamwe to Mount Kigali, where they gave us training with guns. We didnt know how to use the arms which had been brought from France so the French military were obliged to show us.” – Unknown Hutu
Steps increase in Violence The Hutus began to murder Tutsis and Social Morals Lessen Toward Group moderate Hutus immediately after the Perpetrators Selected President’s death. The Hutus wanted a payback for the death of their president. An unofficial militia of Hutus, known as the Inerahamwe, or those who fight together, began going house to house killing the“All these people who moderates and Tutsis. The force was 30,000were about to be killed strong. Military officials, politicians, andhad land and at times businessmen joined in the killings. Soldierscows. And somebody and police officers wished for citizens to takehad to get these lands action and Hutus who killed their Tutsiand those cows after the neighbors earned benefits such as the Tutsi’sowners were dead. In a land and food. After the murdering of 10poor and increasingly foreign soldiers, the international communityoverpopulated country and United Nation’s troops left the genocidethis was no a negligible alone. The Hutu militia carried machetes,incentive.” –Unknown “Rule number one was to kill. There was nowhich they used to clubs, guns, and grenades rule numberHutu two.”-Unknown Hutu sporadically kill the Tutsis.
Nationalism Rwandan citizens were forced to carry cards that Respect for Authority identified their ethnicity. These cards were very Monolithic Cultural important for Hutus offered them protection. The Ideology idea for a monolithic society was taking hold amongst the Hutus who finally possessed the power. This respect for authority was not always the case, some Hutus were forced to kill Tutsis, but in these kill or be killed situations the Hutus did as the government requested. The Interahamwe used radio stations to arrange their movements and to alert the other Hutus when a Tutsi was attempting to escape. The Hutus used the phrase join in, “Do your Duty.” RTML (Radio Télévision des Milles Collines)broadcasted, “cut down the tall trees”, a signal for the Hutus to start killing the Tutsis.
Public Support/Early Opposition During the genocide, the UN, Church, Other nations and the media stood by and did nothing Just World Theory to stop the killing. Although Belgium, France, and the US did everything in their power to get their citizens out of Rwanda, they did nothing for the native population.
Leaders with Extreme Views Three major Hutu leaders of the Leaders speak to Core Values of Society Followers Buy In genocide included Mathieu Execution by the State Power Ngirumpaste, Edourd Karemera, Influences Socialization and Joseph Nzirorera. Mathieu Elevate individual Actions Ngirumpaste was the president of the Hutu extremists who were responsible for the national revolutionary movements in hopes of promoting democracy and further creation of a Hutu society. Edourd Karemera was the Hutu party’s past vice president and Joseph Nzirorera was the previous secretary-general. The Hutu state created a genocide with forced and voluntary participation. The number of perpetrators was enormous.
800,000 men, women, and children were killed during the 100 day genocide. This was about ¾ of the entire Tutsi population. Eventually the Tutsis, under the RPF, captured the capital, Kigali, the Hutu government collapsed, and the RPF called for a ceasefire. As word spread that Tutsis were victorious, the Hutus fled. A multi-ethnic government was set up at first. Rwanda now had a Tutsi run government, but the anger against the Hutus had not ceased. The leaders of the genocide pled not guilty to their horrible crimes. I would consider this a genocide because it specifically targeted one group of people for a single reason. The Hutus deliberately killed the Tutsis whom they felt were threatening their existence.
Occurring from 1922-1995 in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
War After WWII, the Balkan states of Bosnia- Economic Hardship Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Feeling Threatened by Violence Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia were Rapid Changes in Society incorporated into the multi-cultural Lack of Diversity in Society (Monolithic) Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavian leader Josip Broz Tito died in 1980 triggering nationalist movements. Tito had been a powerful communist leader who had formed alliances with superpowers such as the US and the Soviet Union, that occasionally provided Bosnia with money and other resources. Without a strong leader, political and economic destruction erupted. After the Soviet Union fell, Yugoslavia truly began to fall apart.
Sense of Self and Way Life Threatened Feeling of Frustration A Serbian communist named Slobodan Milosevic later rose to power. In these chaotic times, he used nationalism and religious prejudice to establish his presence in Bosnia. He increased the straining relationships between the Serbians and Muslims and spread a rumor that the Muslims were mistreating the other religious minorities. Milosevic provided money and arms in order for the Bosnian Serbs to successfully set up their own government. Bosnia’s independence frustrated Yugoslavia and triggered a Bosnian civil war between Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats.
Scapegoats Identified The United States and Europe began to recognize Bosnia as an independent country Target Devalued- Dehumanized in 1992, and Milosevic did not want Bosnia to New Ideology Developed separate. Bosnia was a predominantly Muslim country with only 32% of the population being Serbs. Milosevic decided to take action and attack Sarajevo, Bosnia’s capital city. Milosevic and his army claimed that the Muslims were mistreating the Serbs and they required their protection. Sarajevo was soon known as the location where Serbians shot innocent civilians , even children, in the streets. Bosnian Serbs began a system of “Ethnic Cleansing”, killing people of differing ethnicities and removing them from their homes in order to create a homogeneous society.
Steps increase in Violence The Muslims were hopeless as the Yugoslavian army began to gun down the Muslims. The Serbs Social Morals Lessen Toward Group established their presence and initiated a systematic capturing of Bosnian Muslims. Serbians Perpetrators Selected held “mass shootings”, relocated towns, established Muslim concentration camps, raped women and girls. Muslim mosques and architecture was destroyed. "Serbs and Muslims are like cats and dogs. They cannot live together in peace. It is impossible.”-Karadzic
Nationalism Milosevic of Serbia and Tudjman of Croatia used public media, transformed T.V. and radio into propaganda fueling Respect for Authority aggressive conflicts between the Serbs and Croats and simultaneously devaluing the Muslims. They were Monolithic Cultural censoring media for any support of multi-ethnic harmony. The people in Bosnia were forced to live under these Ideology conditions of civil war. The Serbs also targeted intellectuals, professionals, and political leaders in efforts to demolish the Muslim culture in Bosnia. The Muslim population was not in favor of Serbian authority, but were hopeless and could not fight back. “The Serb cause in the Bosnian war was just and holy”-Karadzic
Public Support/Early Opposition The world remained unaffected by the genocide. The U.N. put economic restrictions on Serbia and Other nations sent their army to protect the Muslims. Although, the UN restricted their troops from getting in the Just World Theory way of the Serbian military. Neutrality was maintained even when conditions worsened. The USA and Europe were other forces that neglected to stop the genocide. The Serbians were free to kill the Muslims. Under President Clinton the US strived to stop the madness, issuing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This requested that Serbians retreat from Sarajevo and they did indeed listen. The US then tried to unify Bosnian Muslims and Croats for protection from the Serbs. The Serbs continued to attack and the alliance did nothing. The Serbs eventually captured U.N. peacekeepers, taking them as prisoners and using them as defensive weapons. The killings and raping continued despite other powers weak, unplanned, and useless efforts.
Leaders with Extreme Views Radovan Karadzic, president of the illegitimate Bosnian Serb Republic, Leaders speak to Core Values of Society denied that the genocide was occurring. He led the Bosnian Serbs during the war. Followers Buy In He believed there was a group of Muslims in Bosnia who dreamed of 100% Execution by the State Power power and they needed to be stopped. He said, “I will defend that nation of ours Influences Socialization and their cause.” He was labeled as an ultranationalist leader of the Bosnian Elevate individual Actions Serbs. He was also a psychiatrist, poet, and writer. Some Serbs believe he was a hero. Milosevic gained popularity in Serbia. He was a nationalist and became president in 1989. He had a vision of creating a one ethnicity country. Milosevic would ethnically cleanse the Yugoslav Army of non-Serbs which was not popular with minorities. “For as long as multinational communities have existed, their weak point has always been the relations between different nations,” was a motto he followed.
Overall there were around 150,00-200,000 deaths along with 20,000rapes. In 1994, the genocide came to a close when NATO led air strikesagainst the Bosnia Serbs, forcing them to stop the murdering. Milosevicwas eventually put on trial for his criminal actions and would die from aheart attack in 1990. As for Karadzic, he was arrested and charged withwars crimes. Even in 2010, the Serbians celebrated and felt no remorse fortheir actions. The Bosnian Serbs honor their leaders and attemptedcleansings. He is waiting for his fate to be determined in trial. I wouldconsider this a genocide because it specifically focused on the ethniccleansing or extermination of Muslims, whom they felt were against theirown ethnic group.
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