Acculturation Perspective Of Global Leadership Hangzhou, 2010 Teng Shentu & Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra
More than go to another country Are you searching for a “Plug and Play” oversea manager? Today with globalization, business success has increasingly come to depend on understanding a variety of cultural outlooks (Bhawuk & Brislin, 1992; McCall & Hollenbeck, 2002). You Need Change Inside!
Agenda 1 Acculturation Models 4 Fourfold Acculturation Model 5 Further development of fourfold model 7 2 Mechanism of Acculturation 8 3 Reference 13 4 Project information 15
What is acculturation? Acculturation may occur when group of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact. Culture encounter may cause stress for newcomers, studies have been done to indicate how to deal with the stress. John Berry (1980) proposed a fourfold acculturation model which distinguished four different acculturation “strategies” or “attitudes”.
Fourfold Acculturation Model The Fourfold Acculturation Model outlined by Berry(1980) focus on the strategies with respect to two major issues: cultural maintenance (to what extent are cultural identity and characteristics considered to be important, and their maintenance strived for); contact and participation (to what extent should they become involved in other cultural groups, or remain primarily among themselves).
Different Strategies <ul><li>According to positive or negative response to each question, 4 possible strategies may be applied: </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation is defined as relinquishing one’s cultural heritage and maintaining relations with autochthons. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration implies maintenance of the own culture as well as having relations with autochthons. </li></ul><ul><li>Separation is defined by a lack of relations with autochthons accompanied by maintenance of the heritage culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Marginalization refers to the situation whereby individuals lose cultural and psychological contact with both their traditional culture and members of the majority group. </li></ul>
Further Development of Fourfold Model The Interactive Acculturation Model(IAM) was proposed by Bourhis, Moïse, Perreault, and Senécal (1997). Essentially it takes both host and immigrant sides in to account. So the issue of contact and participation is replaced by the issue of culture adoption. By a combination of the attitudes toward culture maintenance and culture adoption, Bourhis et al. differentiated the same acculturation orientations as Berry: integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. The Bidimensional Identification Model by Hutnik’s (1986, 1991) is also developed to explain acculturation. Hutnik describes four strategies of self-categorization that are determined by the degree to which individuals define themselves within the bounds of the minority and the majority group.
5 Step Model of Acculturation Choice Although different conceptualizations of acculturation orientations are given in previous research, it’s clear that for oversea assignee, they need to find the balance of home and host culture. Tadmor and Tetlock (2006) built up a 5 step model to illustrate the underlying mechanisms that determine acculturation choice.
The Way to Acculturation Step 1: Increase in Attention Scope A person will switch from automatic to conscious attention in new situations Step 2: Accountability Determinants of Acculturation Strategy Different types of accountability pressures will lead to the adoption of different acculturation strategies. The one accountable to a single audience will adopt a separated strategy, and the one accountable to a mixed will adopt a bicultural strategy. Step 3: Experiencing Dissonance Accountability to a single audience will lead to a low level of dissonance. Accountability to a mixed audience will lead to a high level of dissonance.
The Way to Acculturation Step 4: Resolving Dissonance through Integrative Complexity when a person feels only low dissonance, cognitively simple solutions will alleviate the negative emotions created by the cultural differences. When the felt dissonance is high, more cognitively complex solutions must be used. Step 5: Generalizing Integrative Complexity-Repeated Experiences of Dissonance Within the context of acculturation, the resolution style is learned in situations that evoke cultural dissonance. Through successive encounters with dissonance-evoking situations, repeated enactments and positive reinforce-ment of the resolution style will evoke an automatic dominant response in a person’s repertoire of coping mechanisms.
Integration of IS and Acculturation The theoretical approach Berry takes is to construct a “process” model of acculturation utilizing the stress-coping paradigm (Schonpflug, 1997). This approach assumes that the stress is mainly from majority to minority, and internal change occurs when people cope with this stress, thereby achieving acculturation. But in most international operations, lower level employees tend to be host country nationals, while managers tend to be parent country expatriates. This kind of imbalance between size of group and influence power is more salient in Asia where the power distance is relatively high. The uniqueness of acculturation of expatriate in Asia working environment An integration of intercultural sensitivity and acculturation is emerged to explain how the intercultural exposure will lead to the experience of dissonance.
Reference Bell M. P. & Harrison D. A. (1996) Using intra-national diversity for international assignments: A model of bicultural competence and expatriate adjustment. Human resource management review vol. 6, 1 Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A. M. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings (pp. 9-25). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Berry J. W. (1997) Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation . Applied psychology: an international review , 46 (1). 5-68 Bhawuk, D. P. S. & Brislin, R. (1992). The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 16, 413-436. Bourhis, R. Y.,Moïse, L. C., Perreault, S., Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturationmodel: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32, 369-386. Lee S., Sobal J. & Frongillo E. A. (2003) Comparison of Models of Acculturation : The Case of Korean Americans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 34: 282 Ryder A. G., Alden L. E. & Paulhus D. L.(2000) Is Acculturation Unidimensional or Bidimensional? A Head-to-Head Comparison in the Prediction of Personality, Self-Identity, and Adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 79, No. 1, 49-65 Schonpflug U.(1997). Acculturation: Adaptation or Development? Commentary on “Immigration, Acculturation. and Adaptation” Applied psychology: an international review , 46 (1). Snauwaert B., Soenens B., Vanbeselaere N. & Boen F. (2003) When Integration Does Not Necessarily Imply Integration : Different Conceptualizations of Acculturation Orientations Lead to Different Classifications. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 34: 231 Sommerlad, E., & Berry, J.W. (1970). The role of ethnic identification in distinguishing between attitudes toward assimilation and integration. Human Relations , 23, 23-29. Tadmor C. T. & Tetlock P. E. (2006). Biculturalism: a model of the effects of second-culture exposure on acculturation and integrative complexity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology . 37: 173
Global Competence for Asian Leaders <ul><li>An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local co-workers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers accomplishments. </li></ul><ul><li>The principal investigators of the project are Dr. Hora Tjitra, Dr. Hana Panggabean, and the research team of the the Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), Zhejiang University of Technology (Hangzhou, China) and the Atma Jaya Indonesia Catholic University (Jakarta, Indonesia). </li></ul>Hora Tjitra Hana Panggabean Juliana Murniati Quan HE Jiewei ZHENG Chaohui ZHANG Teng SHENTU Jia ZHOU Xiaojuan WANG Dan ZHAO Xixie ZHANG Sebastian Partogi Yuanbo LIU Tayyibah Mushtaq Research Partners: Funding Partner: Zhejiang University China www.zju.edu.cn Zhejiang University of Technology China www.zjut.edu.cn Atma Jaya Catholic University Indonesia www.atmajaya.ac.id Human Capital Leadership Institute Singapore www.smu.edu.sg
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