Root canal sealers
A device or substance which is used to seal something specially with
a hermetic or an impervious seal……
Hermetic = air tight / fluid tight
act as a binding agent, to the dentin and to the core
helps to fill irregularities and minor discrepancies
discloses the presence of accessory canals, resorptive
areas, root fractures, shape of the apical foramen
(high flow rate)
Acts as lubricant
REQUIREMENTS FOR AN IDEAL ROOT CANAL SEALER
Tacky when mixed -to provide good adhesion
between it and the canal when set
Make a fluid tight seal
Radiopaque – so that it can e visualized in the
Should have ample setting time
Particles of powder should be very fine
Not shrink upon setting
Not stain tooth structure
Bacteriostatic, or at least not encourage bacterial
Insoluble in tissue fluids
Tissue tolerant that is non-irritating to periradicular
Soluble in a common solvent if it is necessary to
Not provoke an immune response in periradicular
Neither mutagenic nor carcinogenic.
KERR’S SEALER (Rickert’s formula)
Rickert’s formula (1931) was an early ZnO containing sealer.
because GP based sealers (choloropercha and europercha)
lacked dimensional stability after setting so, Rickert’s
formula was developed to eliminate this problem.
Zinc Oxide 41.2 parts
Precipitated silver 30.0 parts
White resin 16.0 parts
Thymol iodide 12.8 parts
Oil of clove 78 parts
Canada balsam 22 parts
Half an hour
Germicidal action and biocompatibilty
Greater bulk than any sealer
Working time more than 30 min (1:1 ratio)
Staining of tooth structure due to presence of silver.
Any Surplus of the cement in the crown of an anterior
tooth should be removed immediately after root
Prolonged spatulation during mixing is needed to
break up particles and reduce viscosity due to large
It can be used as sealer during obturation with silver
Warm vertical condensation of gutta percha when
lateral canals are anticipated. Since the silver present
in the powder is radio opaque, the lateral canal with
the sealer is the silver rather than the mass of sealer
mix or any softened gutta percha.
Weine has observed that lateral canals demonstrated
with Kerr’s sealer remained noticeable
radiographically for longer than do such canals with
Sealer not advised in anterior. If used, the pulp
chamber should be washed out with xylol after
condensation of gutta percha to ensure removal of
sealer. (cause staining)
Supplied as pellets or bulk (powder) and the liquid in
a dropper bottle. One drop of liquid to one pellet of
powder (1:1 ratio) is taken and mixed with a heavy
spatulation until relative homogeneity is obtained.
Because of the precipitated silver, some granular
appearance remains even when the spatula is
Due to the relatively rapid setting time of Rickert’s
sealer, Grossman’s formula appeared in 1936, with the
purpose of developing a sealer that allowed more
working time .
PROCOSOL RADIOPAQUE SILVER CEMENT
Zinc oxide - 45.0%
Silver (precipitated) - 17.0%
Hydrogenated resin - 36.0%
Magnesium oxide - 2.0%
Eugenol - 90.0%
Canada Balsam - 10.0%
causes staining of tooth due to silver. So it was revised in 1958 by
elimination of silver content.
PROCOSOL NON STAINING ROOT CANAL CEMENT
Zinc oxide (reagent) - 40.0%
Stabelite resin - 27.0%
Bismuth sub-carbonate - 15.0%
Barium sulfate - 15.0%
Eugenol - 80.0%
Sweet oil of Almond - 20.0%
Again it was revised by the addition of sodium borate to
the powder component and by the elimination of all in
ingredient except eugenol from the liquid component.
Not more than 3 drops of liquid should be used at a
time, because excessive time and effort would be
required to spatulate a large amount. Small
increments of powder is added to liquid and mixed to
a creamy consistency.
Spatulation time – 1 minute/drop
The cement will not harden for 6-8 hrs if left on
the glass slab.
The use of Grossman’s sealer reduced leakage
Good plasticity and slow setting time.
There is small volumetric change upon setting.
The sealer has the ability to be absorbed in case of
apical extrusion of the sealer during canal obturation
Possess minimal level of irritation and high level of
Zinc eugenolate can be decomposed by water
through a continuous loss of eugenol making zinc
oxide eugenol a weak, unstable material.
Toxicity studies have shown that a small amount
when extruded may first cause an inflammatory
reaction, nevertheless it is well tolerated by the
Wach’s paste, a variant of zinc oxide eugenol.
Formula was originally formulated in 1925, but did
not receive widespread adoption until its publication
and reintroduction in 1955.
It first became popular in Chicago. Creosote is added
as a medical component. It is highly desirable sealer
for use with gutta-percha.
All lateral condensation methods , when chance of
overfilling is present
When heavy lubrication is needed.
Medium working time
Medium lubricating quality
Minimal periapical irritation
Should be mixed to smooth creamy consistency ,
should string out at least 1 inch when spatula raised
from glass slab
Increasing thickness of sealer lessens lubricating
effects , so indicated when there is possibility of over
Available as powder and liquid in separate bottles
Wach’s paste has a smooth consistency, useful in
small curved canals of minimal calibre as this light
body does not deflect the small gutta percha used to
fill these canals.
It is very sticky and tacky due to the presence of
Canada balsam as it remains on the reamer during
placement until it is spun off
good germicidal ,relatively low tissue irritant
The sealer is biocompatible to the periapical tissue.
It has a good setting time.
Odor of liquid
Less lubricating quality
This sealer was introduced by Kerr manufacturing
company in 1961, as an alternative to Rickert’s
formula. Tubliseal is a two paste system as opposed to
the powder liquid system of other zinc oxide types.
Tubliseal sealer is contained in two collapsible tubes
containing a base and accelerator which when mixed
together to about half an inch (which is sufficient in
most cases) forms a creamy mix.
The sealer does not stain the tooth structures.
It is extremely lubricating has a high rate of flow
giving a thinner film.
It allows maximal condensation in packing.
Since the sealer is white in colour it provides a good
contrast to the flapped tissue during surgical
has a very low viscosity it makes extrusion through
the apical foramen more likely
Short working time
Irritant to periapical tissue
Tubliseal sealer is used in instance when shorter
setting time is required (eg) where a root filling is to
be followed immediately by apicectomy.
This sealer is used in cases where master cone
becomes difficult to reach last millimeter of the
preparation, due to its lubricating property.
introduced in 1939 in Norway
obtained by mixing gutta percha with chloroform.
sealers appear vague on radiograph. radio-density is
NON-EUGENOL SEALER CEMENTSNON-EUGENOL SEALER CEMENTS
Chloro percha is carcinogenic
Chloro percha products undergo shrinkage of during
the evaporation of chloroform.
It acts as an irritant to the periapical tissues.
Chloro percha has been shown to be associated with a
greater degree of leakage than other materials.
Produces excellent result in the filling of unusual
curvatures or where the apical part of root canal is
inaccessible and also in cases of perforation and ledge
It is used in case of canals, which divide in the apical
part of the root into two major branches.
This was developed to overcome the irritating quality
of eugenol. The product is an outgrowth of a non-
eugenol periodontal pack
Zinc oxide , barium sulfate as a raiopacifer along with
hydrogenated rosin, methyl abeitate, lauric acid,
chlorothymol and salicylic acid
Nogenol is a less irritating sealer
The sealer expands on setting and may improve its
sealing efficacy with time
Modified zinc oxide powder nad aqueous solution of
Chelating action , bonding to both enamel and dentin .
Because of its adhesive and antibacterial properties tested
Inflammatory response , when axtruded into periapical
Apical seal inferior to other sealers
Bonds well to dnetine , antibacteral property
Fluoride and calcuim hydroxide can be added.
Special plastic plugger required for insertion since
great adhesiveness too steel instruments.
Calcium phosphate cement
Browne ( 1983) showed this cement penetrated on
occluded radicular dentinal tubules and enhanced
hydroxyapatite formation .
wefel (1984) found it effectively plugged apical
foramen and penetrated dentinal tubules upto 10 mm
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE SEALERS
CALCIBIOTIC ROOT CANAL SEALERS (CRCS)
It is essentially a zinc oxide eugenol/eucalyptol
sealer to which calcium hydroxide has been added
for its so-called osteogenic effect.
It represents the first of the calcium hydroxide
based sealers. Contains 14% by weight of calcium
It takes 3 days to set
Delivered as paste to paste in collapsible tubes
Zinc Oxide 6.5 %
Calcium hydroxide 25.0 %
Barium sulfate 18.6 %
Titanium dioxide 51 %
Aerocil R 972.
It is a calcium hydroxide liner and pulp capping
material similar in formulation to Sealapex, has also
been suggested as a sealer.
(developed by vivadent, Liechtenstein)
It is a calcium hydroxide sealer with salicylates also
incoprated into formula.
It is a sealer which was developed in japan.
It contain not only calcium hydroxide but also 40
percentage idoform and silicone oil among other
RESINS based sealers
New sealers are mostly polymers or resin based.
The more common brands are Diaket, Endofill, AH-
26, AH- Plus.
first reported in 1951,
It is a resin reinforced chelate formed between zinc
oxide and a liquid, β-di-ketone.
A very tacky material,
It contracts slightly while setting, which is
subsequently negated by uptake of water.
AH-26 is not sensitive to moisture, and will even set
It will not set, however if hydrogen peroxide is
It sets slowly in 24 to 36 hours.
A new formulation of AH-26 is now available
called AH plus.
This is a paste and paste mixing system that
assures a better mixture.
It has an increasing radiopacity
shorter setting time,
It has better flow compared with AH-26.
The least irritating sealer
Endofill is virtually nontoxic
Bismuth sub nitrate as radio opacifier.
hydrophobic amorphous silica (10 -30 milli microns).
It is easy to prepare,
It has a adjustable working time, low viscosity and
rubbery in consistency.
The endofill cannot be used in the presence of
hydrogen peroxide and the canal must be absolutely
It also shrinks upon setting.
GLASS IONOMER CEMENT (Ketac-Endo)
cause less tissue irritation
low toxicity in vitro
Little biological data are available relative to its use as
an endodontic sealer
safety and efficacy not been established.
quality of the seal - not good
adhesive failures - common
Ease of preparation , adjustable working time , low
working viscosity , rubbery consistency , non
Canal must be absolutely dry , shrinks upon setting ,
bonding ability decreses not used within 20 min of
FORMALDEHYDE CONTAINING SEALERS
Endomethasone, Kri paste, Reblers paste and N2
N2 has been the material most commonly focused on.
Strong tissue coagulating property - toxic material
SERGENTI nad RITCHER ( 1961)
N2 refers to second nerve ( pulp is referred first
Two different types were available
N2 normal – root filling
N2 apical – medication of canal
Recently N2 universal – features of both N2 normal
N2 is basically a zinc oxide eugenol sealer.
The significant content of lead oxide and smaller
amount of organic mercury arethe major toxic
components of N2 ( often missing in recent formulas.)
However this material still contains large amount of
It seals well in combination with a core.
The tissue reaction normally is observed as a
coagulation necrosis within a very short time,
reaching its maximum in less than 3 days.
The coagulated tissue is altered to such an extent that
it cannot undergo any repair for months because it is
Zinc oxide 100 g
Bismuth subnitrate 100 g
Dexamethasone 0.019 g
Hydrocortisone 1.6 g
Thymoliodide 25 g
Paraformaldehyde 2.2 g
Sometimes it gives pain or discomfort after 6 -8
weeks of insertion.
Walkhoff ( 1928)
Alone or in combination with other substances used
as sealer with core materials
Idoform 60 parts , 40 parts of solution containing 45
% parachlorophenol , 49 %camphor and 6% menthol
Commercial prepaartion -Kri-1 paste
Stimulates periapical tissue and accelerate bone
Rise in blood level of iodine
Epiphany, to be used with Resilon
System consists of
Self etching primer
Dual cure resin based composite sealer
Resilon core-thermoplastic,synthetic polymer