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  1. 1. VSAT [Very Small Aperture Antenna] 5/16/2014 1
  2. 2.  11BEC1015 -KOTESWARA RAO  11BEC1034 -T.KRISHNA CHAITANYA  11BEC1035 -VIDYANATH.M  11BEC1074 -K.HARSHAVARDHAN 5/16/2014 2
  3. 3. VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal. It is a small satellite dish that is capable of both receiving and sending satellite signals. VSAT systems can be designed to serve both broadcast and interactive applications whether data, voice or video, which are now being served by terrestrial lines. 5/16/2014 3
  4. 4. Why VSAT? • Early Earth Stations in commercial systems were very large and expensive (30 m). • Need to make system more affordable to end user: • Increased transmit power from satellite. • Higher frequencies • Result: Smaller ES antenna size required 5/16/2014 4
  5. 5. The dish is small, easily transportable and installation lead-time is much shorter if compared to terrestrial links. In addition, VSAT network allows rapid, low-cost network re-configuration and expansion to meet new or unexpected business requirements. VSAT - 75 cm to 1.2 m.  Data rates - 4 kbit/s up to 4 Mbit/s sometimes up to a max downlink of up to 16 Mbit/s with some upgraded modules and enhancements. 5/16/2014 5
  6. 6. Cost effective transmission and network operations are made possible by use of the C-band satellite frequency and frequency times division multiple access (FTDMA), Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) or Time division multiple access (TDMA) transmission techniques. 5/16/2014 6
  7. 7. VSAT offers a wide of protocols and features, providing extraordinary flexibility and virtually unlimited expansion capabilities. In addition, VSAT network is typically engineered to achieve a minimum of 99.7% end-to-end availability for all locations 5/16/2014 7
  8. 8. Underlying objective of VSAT Systems: bring the service directly to the end-user Major reasons for doing this Reduce hierarchical distribution network (make more efficient and faster) Reduce distribution costs 5/16/2014 8
  9. 9. Fig. 2.5 in: INTELSAT VSAT Handbook, September 1998. Available from Application Support and Training, INTELSAT, 3400 International Drive, NW, Washington, DC 20008-3098, USA 5/16/2014 9
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  11. 11. There are several ways VSAT services might be implemented One-Way (e.g. TV Broadcasting satellites) Split-Two-Way (Split IP) Implementation (return link from user is not via the satellite; e.g. DirecTV) Two-Way Implementation (up- and down-link) 5/16/2014 11
  12. 12. There are basically two ways to implement a VSAT Architecture STAR VSATs are linked via a HUB MESH VSATs are linked together without going through a large hub 5/16/2014 12
  13. 13. Higher Propagation delay Used by TDMA VSATs High central hub investment Smaller VSAT antenna sizes (1.8 m typically) Lower VSAT costs Ideally suited for interactive data applications Large organizations, like banks, with centralized data processing requirements 5/16/2014 13 Lower Propagation delay (250 ms) Used by PAMA/DAMA VSATs Lower central hub investment larger VSAT antenna sizes (3.8 m typically) Higher VSAT costs Suited for high data traffic Telephony applications and point-to-point high-speed links
  14. 14.  Star network: The VSAT terminals communicate each other through Hub. 5/16/2014 14
  15. 15. 5/16/2014 15 Master Control Station (The Hub) VSAT Community All communications to and from each VSAT is via the Master Control Station or Hub Picture copyrights on introductory slides. Reproduction with permission only.
  16. 16. Outdoor Unit (ODU) Inter-facility link (IFL) Indoor Unit (IDU) 5/16/2014 16 Source:
  17. 17. 5/16/2014 17 • The VSAT Outdoor Unit (ODU) is located where it will have a clear line of sight to the satellite and is free from casual blockage by people and/or equipment moving in front of it. It includes the Radio Frequency Trasceiver (RFT). • The Inter Facility Link (IFL) carries the electronic signal between the ODU and the Indoor Unit (IDU) as well as power cables for the ODU and control signals from the IDU. • The IDU is normally housed in a desktop computer at the User’s workstation and consists of the baseband processor units and interface equipment (e.g. computer screen and keyboard). The IDU will also house the modem and multiplexer/demultilexer (mux/demux) units if these are not already housed in the ODU.
  18. 18. 5/16/2014 18 LNB Reflector LNB-F (Optional) (Front) (Rear) Feed-Assembly SSPA (HPC) LNB-F (Optional) LNB
  19. 19. 5/16/2014 19 Antenn aFee d LNC HPC DEM MO D To Data Terminal Equipmen t IFL Outdoor Unit (ODU) Indoor Unit (IDU) RFT Base Band Processor (BBP) RFT IFL IDU
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  23. 23. VSAT is an ideal satellite network that provides communications support for a wide range of applications: - Point-of-sales transaction - Order-Entry Billing - Inventory Control - Financial Management - Data processing - Reservation System - Telemetry & Data Collection - News Wire Services - Private-Line Voice - Virtual Private Networks - Distance Education - High Speed Internet Access 5/16/2014 23
  24. 24. VSAT presents new alternatives to the problems of conventional fixed terrestrial telecommunication beyond PSTN areas. VSAT can also help to design tailored communication business to the following sectors: - Finance and banking - Government Agencies - Manufacturing - Mining and explorations - News agency - Shipping and freight handling· - Travel and tourism - Agricultural companies 5/16/2014 24
  25. 25. Access in Remote Locations Internet Access Rapid deployment VPN Qos Mobile Access Bandwidth Allocation Scalable 5/16/2014 25
  26. 26. Cost Standards based Reliable Back-up to Terrestrial Networks Inter-operation with Terrestrial Networks Single Hop Bandwidth on Demand Cost per connection is independent of the location/ distance 5/16/2014 26
  27. 27. Like any other technology, VSAT has its limitations too. Some of them include the extremely high initial cost needed for building and launching satellites in the Geo-Synchronous orbit, higher initial cost and recurring monthly costs for terminal equipments needed for providing Internet over broadband when compared to terrestrial DSL networks, Bit Error Rate is common for satellite based technologies, Rain Attenuation might affect the performance of VSAT communications under rainy conditions, 5/16/2014 27
  28. 28. latencies (>200 ms) are still higher than their terrestrial equivalent technologies (<100 ms),careful direction of subscriber side terminals and dish antennas are critical for proper working,trained man power is required for installation and maintenance, other competitive technologies(Internet Leased Lines, 3G/HSDPA/4G Cellular technologies etc) offer much higher bandwidth at a lower cost than what is possible by VSAT based networks, the antennas need to be fixed outside the offices or homes hence making them susceptible to damage or theft, the cost of VSAT modules for Network Routers/ Video Conferencing systems are quite high, etc 5/16/2014 28
  29. 29. Thank you 5/16/2014 29