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Vocabulary of Interior Design



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Vocabulary of Interior Design

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Our ability to focus on and perceive detail is restricted to a fairly narrow cone of vision. • To make sense of what we see, the brain interprets the visual data gathered by our eyes and assembles the information into visual patterns that we can recognize.
  3. 3. FORM • The point is the generator of all form. • As a point moves, it leaves a trace of a line-the first dimension. • As the line shifts in direction, it defines a plane-a two- dimensional element. • The plane, extended in a direction oblique or perpendicular to its surface, forms a three-dimensional volume. • Point, line, plane, and volume- these are the primary elements of form. POINT LINE PLANE VOLUME
  4. 4. POINT • A point marks a location in space. • It has no length, width, or depth and therefore its directionless. • But, however it defines, centers, reinforces and accentuates the plane.
  5. 5. • The point serves as the focus of a visual, highlighting or drawing attention to important information. • Several points in combination may represent a more complicated object or idea. For example, constellations can be thought of as points in the sky representing the figure we "see." • A series of points can attract attention, especially as they move closer together.
  6. 6. LINE • A line represents the tension that exists between any two points. • Line gives a sense of direction to the plane. – Vertical – Represents dignity, formality, stability, and strength – Horizontal – Represents calm, peace, and relaxation – Diagonal – Represents action, activity, excitement, an d movement – Curved – Represents freedom, the natural, having the appearance of softness, and creates a soothing feeling or mood
  7. 7. PLANE • A line shifts in a direction other than its intrinsic direction, defines a plane. • Conceptually, a plane has two-dimensions, width and length and no depth. • It represents:- Visual weight Stability Size, proportion, Position in space.
  8. 8. SHAPE • Shape is the primary means by which we distinguish one form to another. • Have two dimensions, length and width. • Organic shapes are natural shapes, which can symmetrical or asymmetrical. • Geometric shapes are man-made or machine- made shapes, with clear sharp edges.
  9. 9. Pure and rational. Regularity and visual clarity. Stable- configuration cant be altered. Dynamic. Combined to form other shapes. Compact. Centre point – natural focus. Represents unity, continuity and economy.
  10. 10. VOLUME • a plane extended in a direction other than along its surface forms a volume. • As the 3D element of an architectural and design element it can either be a solid or a void. • It is important to perceive this duality of containment and displacement. • The duality of solid forms and spatial voids represents the essential unity of opposites that shapes the reality of architecture or design.
  12. 12. COLOR • Color is the hue, shade or tone of an object. • Color is the part of light that is reflected by the object we see. • Has 3 properties : Hue, Value and Saturation.
  13. 13. HUE •Primary, Secondary and Tertiary colors on a color wheel are hues. Black - authority White – innocence and purity Red – passion, anger, and appetite Green – wealth, nature, relaxing Blue – peace, royal Purple – luxury, wealth, sophistication
  14. 14. Warm Colors Reds, oranges, yellows Cool Colors Blues, purples, greens HUE © ©
  15. 15. VALUE • Measure of lightness or darkness of a color. • Contrast of value separates objects in space, while gradation of value suggests mass and contour of a contiguous surface.
  16. 16. SATURATION • The brilliance or dullness of a colour, this depends on the amount of hue in a colour.
  17. 17. TEXTURE The surface quality or "feel" of an object, its smoothness, roughness, softness, etc. Textures may be actual or implied.
  18. 18. Texture is the visual surface quality of an object.
  19. 19. TEXTURE • The two types of textures are : 1. Tactile (real) • Tactile textures can be felt by touch All tactile textures provide visual texture as well. 2. Visual (only for sight). • Visual texture is seen by the eye. It may be illusionary or real.
  20. 20. TEXTURE AND SCALE • Scale, viewing distance and light are important aspects of the perception of texture. • All materials will have some degree of texture, the finer the scale of the textured pattern, the more smoother it appears to be. • The relevant scale of a texture can affect the apparent shape and position of the plane in space.
  21. 21. TEXTURE AND LIGHT Light influences our perception of texture and, in turn, is affected by the texture it illuminates.
  22. 22. Direct light falling across a surface with physical texture will enhance its visual texture.
  23. 23. Diffused lighting deemphasizes physical texture and can even obscure its three-dimensional structure.
  24. 24. Smooth, shiny surfaces reflect light brilliantly, appear sharply in focus, and attract our attention.
  25. 25. Surfaces with a matte or medium-rough texture absorb and diffuse light unevenly and, therefore appear less bright than similarly coloured but smoother surfaces.
  26. 26. Very rough surfaces, when illuminated with direct lighting, cast distinct shadow patterns of light and dark.
  27. 27. TEXTURE AND CONTRAST • Contrast influences how strong or subtle a texture will appear to be. • Thus contrasting of surface textures can be used to create interest in what would otherwise be a dull plane.
  28. 28. A texture seen against a uniform or smooth background will appear more obvious than when placed in juxtaposition with a similar texture. When seen against a coarser background, the texture will appear to be finer and reduced in scale.
  29. 29. TEXTURE AND PATTERN • Pattern is the decorative design or ornamentation of a surface that is almost always based on the repetition of a motif – a distinctive and recurring shape, form or colour in a design. • A pattern may be structural or applied. A structural pattern results from the intrinsic nature of a material and the way it is processed, fabricated, or assembled. An applied pattern is added to a surface after it is structurally complete.
  30. 30. TEXTURE AND SPACE • Texture is an intrinsic characteristic in a material we use to define, furnish, and embellish interior spaces. • How we combine and compose different textures is just as important as the composition of colour and light and should suit the desired character and use of a space. • The scale of a textured pattern should be related to the scale of a space and its major surfaces, as well as to the size of secondary elements within the space. Example: Texture used in small rooms should be subtle used sparingly. In a large room, texture can be used to reduce the scale of the space or to define a more intimate area within it. • A room with little textural variation can be bland. Combinations of hard and soft, even and uneven, and shiny and dull textures can be used to create variety and interest. MINIMAL TEXTURE COMPETING TEXTURES TEXTURE FILLING SPACE
  31. 31. SCALE AND PROPORTION • Both are closely related. • Relate to size and shape of things.
  32. 32. PROPORTION  Proportion refers to the relationship of one part to another or to the whole, or between one object and another. This relationship may be one of magnitude, quantity or degree.  Example: the relationship of a chair seat or back to it’s base.  Chair rails  It is s either called “satisfactory” or “unsatisfactory”.
  33. 33. Furniture should be scaled to fit the room. Always consider human scale when planning an interior. This bed has an odd proportion. Furniture should be scaled to fit the room. Always consider human scale when planning an interior. This bed has an odd proportion when compared to the room.
  34. 34. GOLDEN SECTION  Refers to proportions of parts to one another and to the whole  3 to 5, 8 to 13, 21 to 34 etc are considered pleasing ratios.  Multiples of this are also considered pleasing: ie: 12 x 20 is a multiple of 3 x 5. 3 x 4=12 and 5 x 4 = 20  Great way to figure proportioned rooms.
  35. 35. SCALE (In scale and out of scale)  deals with the absolute size, character and visual weight of an object or space compared to other objects in the same space. (spindly table next to a massive sofa is out of scale)  Described as large or small as compared to something else. The types of scale are:- mechanical, visual and human scale.  “Grand scale” describes a space that is oversized and massive. A space of grand scale needs very careful attention to scale, because people could easily feel lost and intimidated.  Public spaces are often designed on a grand monumental scale.
  36. 36. SCALE • Mechanical scale is the calculation of something’s physical size according to a standard system of measurement. • Visual scale refers to the size of something appears to have when measured against other things around it. • Human scale refers to the feeling of bigness something gives us.
  37. 37. BALANCE • Interior spaces is an enclosure of various interior elements of different shapes, colors, sizes and textures. • Thus the perfect arrangement of these elements is called balance. • A well balanced room is one which is affected minimally during the changes of the light during the transition of day to night or vice verse. • Types of balance are:- symmetrical balance, asymmetrical and radial balance.
  38. 38. VISUAL WEIGHTS  Does not necessarily relate to the physical weight of an object. It is determined more by the psychological impact it makes on us and the attention it demands.  Groupings of small objects can counterbalance a large mass.  Busy or heavy texture will hold more attention than a smooth plain surface  Objects placed above eye level appear heavier than those placed below  Brightly lit areas attract more attention than dim ones
  39. 39. SYMMETRICAL BALANCE  Formal Balance  Mirror Image  Easy to appreciate and create  Quiet and restful  Lends itself to classical and traditional interiors  Creates a logical focal point
  40. 40. ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE  Informal Balance  Visual weights are equal  Elements differ on each side of the axis  Suggest movement, arouses our curiosity  Provokes thought  Has more lasting appeal  Less obvious than symmetrical balance  Found in contemporary rooms  Relies totally on a “sense or feeling of being balanced.”
  41. 41. RADIAL BALANCE  All parts are balanced and repeated around a center point.  Offers a refreshing counterpoint to rectangularity.  spokes on a bicycle  Chairs around a circular table  Chandeliers
  42. 42. HARMONY • Harmony can be defined as consonance or the pleasing agreement of parts or combination of parts in a composition.
  43. 43. HARMONY • while the principle of harmony involves the careful selection of elements that share a common trait or characteristic, such as shape, color, texture or material. • it’s the repetition of a common trait that produces unity and visual harmony among the elements in the setting.
  44. 44. HARMONY (UNITY AND VARIETY)  Results when two aspects, unity and variety are combined.  Unity without variety is considered monotonous and variety without unity is over stimulating and confusing.
  45. 45. UNITY  Unity is achieved through repetition.  One type of flooring throughout a space can create a unified interior.  One color for walls and trim work.  Matching patterns and textures.
  46. 46. VARIETY  Brings diversity and stimulation to design.  Can be subtle as in slight differences in color, texture and light.  Can be surprising contrast, such as old furniture mixed with contemporary.  Excessive variety without some unity will be chaotic, cluttered and confusing.
  47. 47. RHYTHM • The design principle of rhythm is based on the repetition of elements in space and time. • This not only creates visual unity but also induced a continuity and movement. • More intrinsic patterns of rhythm can be produced by taking into account the tendency for elements to be visually related by proximity or common trait.
  48. 48. FOUR METHODS TO ACHIEVE RHYTHM  Repetition  Progression  Transition  Contrast
  49. 49. REPETITION  Simplest method of rhythm  Repeated use of various elements (color, pattern, line, ornament, texture, etc.)  Can be more interesting if alternated with other elements.  Too little repetition lacks unity and leads to confusion  Be careful not to repeat the elements too much.
  50. 50. The room appears over unified and monotonous. The room appears to be extensively decorated by a particular element and is balanced.
  51. 51. PROGRESSION/ GRADATION  A sequence produced by increasing or decreasing one or more qualities.  Shape/Mass: size large to small  Color: light to dark  Ordered, systematic change that suggest movement toward a goal  More dynamic than simple repetition.
  52. 52. EXAMPLES OF GRADATION  Flour Canisters  Rugs with borders from dark to light  Nesting tables  Stair step design in windows
  53. 53. TRANSITION  More subtle form of rhythm  Lead the eye in a gentle, continuous, uninterrupted visual flow  Often achieved through curved lines.
  54. 54. OPPOSITION/ CONTRAST  Deliberate placing of forms or colors to create opposition by abrupt change instead of gradual.  Exciting  Old and new  Ornate with plain  Vertical lines meeting horizontal lines
  55. 55. EMPHASIS • The principle of accentuation and masking of two or more elements in the design. • A harmonic rhythm is created when the play between two elements, where one is dominant and the other is subdued in a way where the entire design is arranged interestingly.
  56. 56. EMPHASIS • Deals with focal points • Considered in terms of dominance and subordination • Without emphasis, interiors are monotonous • Avoid too many focal points that compete for attention. • Limit to 3-4 and vary dominance levels • View out of window, fireplace, artwork, expensive piece of furniture etc.
  57. 57. CONCLUSION The elements and principles of design are seldom applied self-consciously. It will take much practice to achieve good design through the use of the elements and principles. By studying designs that work for different situations, we can start to develop a sense of good design.
  58. 58. THE END
  59. 59. Presented by – Aishwarya Hari Khushboo Sood Shubhra Sadanand Michael Joshua Amarnath