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  1. 1. LEARNING<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br /> Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience.<br /> There are two primary elements in definition of learning:<br />1. Learning involves change.<br />2. The change must be relatively permanent.<br />
  3. 3. Significance of Learning<br />Learning can mould the behavior of employees to enhance their performance<br />Improves the skills of workers and the attitude of a manager<br />Helps the employees to work with more efficiency to earn profits <br />
  4. 4. Theories of Learning<br />Classical Conditioning<br />Operant Conditioning<br />Cognitive Learning<br />Social Learning<br />
  5. 5. Classical Conditioning<br />This theory was given by Ivan Pavlov<br />Classical conditioning is a simple form of learning in which conditioned response is linked with an unconditioned stimulus.<br />“A process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response."<br />
  6. 6. Operant Conditioning <br />Also known as reinforcement theory<br />Theory is associated with the work of B.F. Skinner<br />It suggests that behavior is a function of its consequences<br />The behavior that results in pleasant consequences are more likely to be repeated, and behavior that results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated<br />Future behavioral choices are affected by the consequences of earlier behaviors. Reinforcement, therefore, strengthens a behavior and increases the likelihood that it will be repeated<br />
  7. 7. DEFINITION<br />Operant conditioning is a learning process that involve an increase or decrease in the likelihood of some behavior as a result of the consequences.<br />The relationship between behavior and consequence is built around two principles:<br />Behavior that results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and that results in negative way tends not to be repeated<br />Based upon the consequences, behavior can be predicted and controlled<br />
  8. 8. Types of Reinforcement<br /> Managers can use various kinds of reinforcement to affect employee behavior. There are four basic forms of Reinforcement:<br />Positive reinforcement<br />Avoidance<br /> Extinction<br />Punishment<br />
  9. 9. Positive Reinforcement: Positive reinforcement occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior increases as a result of the presentation of something pleasant after the behavior. <br />Negative Reinforcement: Also known as ‘escape conditioning’ & ‘avoidance learning’. It occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior increases as the result of removing something unpleasant after the behavior. The employees work hard to avoid repercussion, reprimand and other negative aspects.<br />
  10. 10. Extinction : It occurs when a behavior that had previously been reinforced is no longer effective. This method is a suitable form of punishment in the form of with holding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behavior.<br />Punishment : The most controversial method of behavior modification and involves delivering an undesirable behavior. <br />
  11. 11. Cognitive Theory<br />This theory influenced many industrial programs in 1940’s and 1950’s<br />Its aim was to strengthen the relationship between cognitive cues (supervisory, job procedures) and workers expectations (monetary rewards)<br />It increases the productivity of workers by associating orders or instructions with financial rewards<br />
  12. 12. Social Learning Theory<br />Integrates the cognitive and operant approaches<br />It emphasizes that people acquire new behavior by observing or imitating others in a social setting<br />It an also be gained by discipline and self control irrespective of external rewards or consequences<br />Learning by others is known as ‘vicarious learning or modelling’,in which another person acts as a role model, whose behavior we tend to imitate<br />