Choosing the number of children in afamily and the length of time betweentheir births.
TYPES OF FAMILY PLANNINGNat ur al Family Planning Met hodAr t if icial Family Planning Met hod
NATURAL FAMILY PLANNINGMethod Natural Family Planning, also called fertility awareness or the Rhythm method, relies on abstinence from sexual intercourse during the most fertile phase of a woman’s menstrual cycle.
3 Methods used to predictovulation: 1. Basal Body Temperature method: A woman’s resting temperature rises between 0.4 F and 0.8 F on the day of ovulation and stays elevated until the next menstrual period. Using a special (Basal body) thermometer, a woman needs to take her temperature every morning before getting out of bed. When she sees her
2. Cervical Mucus Method: Right before ovulation, the mucus from the cervix changes from being cloudy and scanty to being clear and slippery. The consistency of ovulation mucus is like that of an egg white and it can be stretched between the fingers. After the ovulation, the mucus tends to dry up again.
3. Calendar Method: Woman with regular menstrual periods can guess when ovulation occurs by looking at a record of their cycles. If a reasonable estimates can be made of when the next menstrual cycle will begin, subtracting 14 days from the estimated date will give the approximate day of ovulation.
ARTIFICIAL METHOD ofFamily Planning In this method, the live sperm is prevented from entering the uterus either by killing them with spermicidal or by obstructing them through the use of condom and diaphragms.
Injectable Contraception (Depo-Provera) Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo- Provera or DMPA) is an injectable synthetic hormone that prevents pregnancy for 13 weeks at a time. The hormone is like the one produced by the body (progesterone) to regulate the menstrual cycle. DMPA works mainly by preventing ovulation - the process by which an egg is released from the ovary. It also thickens the cervical mucus which may keep sperm from joining with an egg.
IUD (Intrauterine Device) The IUD (intrauterine device) is a small device placed inside the uterus for birth control. It is thought to primarily prevent fertilization by creating an intense inflammatory reaction inside the uterus that is harmful for sperm, either destroying sperm or making it nearly impossible for sperm to reach the fallopian tubes. Secondarily, the IUD also makes the uterus unsuitable for implantation.
Birth Control Pills Birth control pills (oral contraceptives) are pills which are taken by mouth everyday to prevent pregnancy. Combined birth control pills are the most common type and contain both female sex hormones - estrogen and progesterone (in the form of progestin). The pill works mainly by preventing the ovaries from releasing eggs (ovulation). Secondarily, it may also prevent fertilization from occurring by thickening the cervical mucus which impedes the sperm.
Diaphragm The diaphragm is a dome-shaped latex cap that is first coated with a spermicidal gel or cream and then placed high in the vagina before intercourse. It is a physical barrier to sperm entering the cervix but, more importantly, it holds the spermicidal cream or gel against the cervix and thus immobilizes sperm near the cervical canal.
Condoms The condoms or sheath was known in Europe as early as the 16 century. It was then th made of animal gut or linen. Modern condoms are made of rubber
Female Condoms The female condom is a thin polyurethane sheath which lines the vagina and some of the external genitalia. It is a barrier method of birth control and does not contain a spermicide.
Cervical Cap The cervical cap is a soft rubber cup to which spermicide is added before it is placed snugly over the cervix. It presents a physical barrier to sperm and kills those sperm which do come in contact with the spermicide.
Spermicides Spermicides are chemicals which kill sperm. They are available in many different forms: suppository, foam, cream, gel, film and tablets. The active ingredient in most spermicidal is nonoxynol-9, which may also offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases.
Sterilization Sterilization is a simple operation for both men and women. It is a one-time method of birth control which is permanent and requires no effort other than getting the procedure done.
2 Kinds of SterilizationVasectomy for menTubal Ligation for women
FEMALE STERILIZATION Female sterilization is a permanent method of birth control which requires surgery. The surgery involves blocking the fallopian tubes by cutting them, electrically sealing them, or putting clips/rings (spring clip/Falope ring) on them. Pregnancy does not occur because the sperm cannot reach the egg (fertilization). The procedure is done under local or general anesthesia, usually using a laparoscope. The laparoscope makes it possible to do the surgery with an incision of only about 1/2". It has therefore been called the band-aid operation because of the minimal amount of disruption to the skin. Most women do not need to stay overnight.
Vasectomy Vasectomy is a permanent method of birth control for men. It is a surgicial procedure which is done under local anesthesia. The vas deferens is blocked - the tube that carries the sperm from the testicle to the opening of the penis. After a vasectomy, sperm will not be present in the semen and pregnancy cannot occur. The procedure is done under local anesthesia and takes only 15-20 minutes. There is no need of any overnight stay.
Wit hdr awal Withdrawal Withdrawal refers to a pregnancy prevention method where the man pulls the penis out of the vagina before ejaculation into the vagina.