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organizational behavior
2nd chapter : communication and perception

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  1. 1. Chapter #2 Communication & Perception SYED KHURSHEED BUKHARI M.COM (final) GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES PESHAWAR Contact # : 03452460252 prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 1
  2. 2. Communication   Origin: the word communication has been derived from Latin word “communis” which means to share the experience. Definition: the exchange of idea’s between human beings is known as communication. We can exchange our idea’s through words, pictures, signs or body language. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 2
  3. 3. Perception  The dynamic psychological process responsible for attending to organizing and interpreting sensory data. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 3
  4. 4. Communication Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sender: a person who sends the message. Encoding: putting your idea’s in some codes. Message: it is the actual physical product from the sender. Channel: it is a medium, selected by the sender through which he sends the message. Receiver: he is a person who receives the message. He may be a listener, viewer or reader. Decoding: it is the art or process of getting idea’s out of the message. Noise: it represents the communication barrier that distort the clarity of the message. Feed Back: it is the response of the receiver which indicates success or failure if the communication. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 4
  5. 5. Communication Process Message Sender Noise Receiver Feed back prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 5
  6. 6. Barriers In Communication         Language Prejudgment Gender Role Information Overload Filtering (changing idea’s ) Selective Perception Communication Apprehension Emotions prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 6
  7. 7. The Significance Of Non-verbal Communication    Non-verbal communication is the process of coding meaning through behavior that do not involve the use of words. It is neglected area but, it is true that 75% of our communication comes through this area. Gesture, posture, thoughts, signs and body language are the examples of non verbal communication. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 7
  8. 8. Gurdham Behavior Categories 136 in 9 Eye brow Eye gaze 9 Head moment Arm moment Mouth moment Limb moment Trunk moment Face expression Other body moment prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 8
  9. 9. Selectivity Attention  It is the ability to choose from the stream of sensory data, to concentrate on particular elements and to ignore others. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 9
  10. 10. Perceptual Organization   It is the process through which incoming stimuli are organized or patterned in systematic and meaningful ways. OR An unconscious process of mind through which we organized or make groups and give shape to meaningful data. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 10
  11. 11. Impression Management  Impression management is the process where by people seeks to control the image, others have of them. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 11
  12. 12. Perceptual Sets  A perceptual set is an individual’s predisposition to respond to particular events in a particular manner. It is also known as mental set. As we tend to perceive, this can also be called perceptual expectation. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 12
  13. 13. Perceptual World  The individual perceptual world is simply their personal image, map or picture of their social, physical and organizational enviroment. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 13
  14. 14. Principles Of Perceptual Organization  1. 2. 3. There are three principles through which one perceptual organization operates Proximity Principle Similarity Principle Principle of closure prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 14
  15. 15. Proximity Principle  This principle notes that we tend to group together or to classify stimuli that are physically close to each other and which thus appear to belong together. For example often we assume that people are similar just because of that they live in same neighborhood or work in same section of factory. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 15
  16. 16. Similarity Principle  This principle notes that we classify or group together stimuli that resemble each other in appearance in some respect. for example if we assume that they are similar just because they wear same clothes etc. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 16
  17. 17. Principle Of Closure  The fact that we are able to make use of incomplete or ambiguous information by “filling in gaps” from our own knowledge or experience. for example if we take incomplete information about some one and draw influence from this incomplete information, is called the principle of closure. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 17
  18. 18. Perceptual Set And Assumption About Human Behavior 1. 2. Halo Effect: A halo effect is a judgment of someone based on the striking characteristics such as an aspect of their dress, speech or posture. It can be positive or negative. Stereotyping: A stereotyping is a category or personality type, to which we consign people on the bases of their membership of some known groups. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 18
  19. 19. Errors In Person Perception        The main errors in the person perception are as under: Not collecting enough information about other people. Basing our judgment on information that is irrelevant or insignificance. We judge people on our own characteristics. Accepting stereotype uncritically. Self bias. Prejudices. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 19
  20. 20. Avoidance Of Errors In Perception  Following are the remedies of such errors: Take more time in judgment about others. Get out your self from stereotyping. Avoid halo effect. Get out bias from your judgment. Collecting more relevant information about others. Avoid attributions such as sex appearance etc. prepared by: Syed Khursheed Bukhari 20