Right to Equality is listed under Article 14 to Article 18 of the Indian
Right to equality falls under the category of Fundamental Rights.
The word Fundamental suggests that these rights are so important that
the constitution has separately listed them and made special provisions
for their protection.
These Fundamental Rights can only be changed by amending the
It is the core article under Right to Equality
Article 14 states that ‘ The state shall not deny to any person
equality before the law or the equal protection of laws within the
territory of India. i.e no man is above the law.
Equality before law Equal Protection of law
Absence of any special
Equality of treatment In equal
i.e Like should be treated alike
(English Origin) (Adopted from American Constitution)
Article 14 provides a general principle of equality
whereas the articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 provide for a
Most importantly article 14 provides classification but
prohibits class legislation
Classification: Different pay scales for trained teachers and
Class legislation: Higher pay scales for men and lower for women.
This affects a particular class of people.
No discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex etc
1. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on such grounds
2. Prohibits citizens as well as state to make such a discrimination with
regard to access to shops , hotels etc.
3. Empowers the state to make special provisions for protection of
women and children
4. Enables the state to make special provisions for the protection of
interests of backward classes and thus is an exception to article 15
ARTICLE 16 and ARTICLE 17
Article 16 : It guarantees the equality of opportunity in public
employment for all citizens and says that no citizen shall be
discriminated on basis of race, caste, creed etc in public
It doesn’t prevent the state from prescribing necessary
Article 17 : Abolishes untouchability and forbids its practice in any
Article 18: Prohibits the state to confer titles on any body whether a
citizen or a non citizen . Military and academic distinctions are
Academic distinctions include Bharat Ratna, Padma Vibhushan