‘TERAFIL’ green technology- Low cost & sustainable water purification systems S.Khuntia Chief Scientist & Head Design & Rural Technology DepartmentInstitute of Minerals and Materials Technology (council of Scientific & Industrial Research) Bhubaneswar-751013 E-Mail ID: firstname.lastname@example.org
Innovation for masses: ‘TERAFIL’ water purification systems TERAFIL media (disc) : Porous terracotta disc, made from red clay (pottery clay), sand & wood saw dust TERAFIL water filter discPrinciples: Pores in Terafil, 5,000 lit/day Terafil plant increated by saw dusts, separated by Karnatakaultra-fine clay walls, but connectedeach other by capillaries (0.2 to 0.3µm). Sediments, iron, bacteriaremoved on top surface of Terafildisc, and pH, tastes improves throughfiltration without clogging its core,resulting 5 yrs life of Terafil disc Domestic filer 5,000 LPD plant in KarnatakaLow cost device for removal ofexcess iron from water alongwith turbidity and bacteriawithout electricity & chemicals. Terafil production Iron sludge
0.2 - 0.3 µm Pores (without Cross section of Terafil Capillaries direct connectivity) (connecting pores) Silver impregnated Impregnation of nano-silver in Terafil disc: By ARCI, Hyderabad ( Not yet commercialized ) Silver loading : 0.3 gm per 100 mm dia. Terafil candle Silver leaching in product water : 0.01 – 0.03 mg/Ltr Distribution of silver (WHO : <0.1 mg/Ltr)particles on micro-platelets Removal of micro-organisms : 100 % ( ARCI - Hyd.)
‘TERAFIL’- Red clay filtration media (disc)For treatment of ground water:-Quality of product water:- Turbidity : Within BIS limits Bacteria : Within BIS limits Iron : Within BIS limits pH : Within BIS limits Correction of pH for acidic raw water Color & odor reduces drastically and improves taste. Cost of product water: Rs.2/- per ton (considering total cost) Life of Terafil filtration disc: 5 years Life of Terafil stand-alone plant: 10 to 50 yr.For treatment of surface water:-Mild chlorination (2mg/ltr. bleaching power) to getpathogen free product water from contaminated raw water.Capacity: 1 lit/hr to 1,00,000 lit/day, (No scale-up limitation)Waste management: Insoluble sludgeRejection of water: NilSludge removal: Top wash by water jets or scrubbingOperation : Without electricity & chemicals TERAFIL water filtersMaintenance: Almost NIL
Hypothesis for removal of soluble iron from raw water and increase of pH in product water during filtration through TERAFIL clay media
Hypothesis : (Ref. : D. V. Halem, Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engg., Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, November 2006)(A)Removal of Iron:• Clay minerals have a negative surface charge & its magnitude is relatively constant.• Reactive surface of clay particles interacts with ions & molecules in aqueous solution.• Interaction between negatively charged clay particle surface and cations in top layer pore water generate an electric double layer, which is an important phenomenon for Ion exchange.• Therefore iron from raw water is removed, and some other minerals from Terafil clay is released to product water, which results in increase of pH & TDS of product water.• Precipitation of iron oxide/ hydroxide occurs on top surface of Terafil disc.(B) Increase of pH of product water:• Release of ions of Calcium (Ca2+), Aluminum (Al3+), Monosilicic acid (H4SiO4) & Hydroxide (OH-) from Terafil materials into water responsible for increment of pH of product water.• Many sorption mechanism & precipitation all results removal & release of metals from water, which is very difficult to distinguish.
Terafil based water purification Technology:Gravity Filtration:• Point - of - use: Domestic Terafil water filter (20 to 70 LPD)• Community Terafil water filter: 1000 to 1,00,000 LPD (No scale-up limitation)• Removal of sludge deposit: manual scrubbing or water sprayer• Frequency of cleaning: once in 15 to 30 days, depending on turbidity and iron of raw water.• Life: 10 to 50 yrs.• Low cost ( Rs.10/- to 12/- per liter capacity community plant with RCC chamber)• Rs.2/- per ton product water• Domestic filter: Plastic chamber, Community filter: RCC chamber• Floor area: 1.25 sq.ft / 200 liter per day capacity: for community filterPressure filtration:• On-line Terafil water filter: 100-200 lit/ hr (depending on turbidity)• Community pressure filter: 1000 to 10,000 lit/ hr• Automatic cleaning & removal of sludge from top surface of Terafil disc.• Life: 5 to 20 yrs (depending on materials of chambers)• Low cost ( depending upon material of construction of filter)• Rs.2/- per ton product water or less.• High capacity , compact and requires very less surface area.• Domestic on-line: Plastic chamber, Community filter: Stainless steel
Some TERAFIL based water treatment systems:1.Domestic filter: Capacity: 50 lit/day (Gravity filtration) Unit cost: Rs.500/- Life : 10 years2. Ferro-cement Low cost filter: Terafil with plastic container (Gravity filtration) TOP LID Capacity: 1,000 lit/day 1" TAP FOR 3ft 2 inch ID Raw water 1/2" DIA PIPE FOR AIR VENT 3ft (Placed below RCC slab) REMOVAL OF TERAFIL CANDLE Unit cost: Rs.15,000/- (piping extra) SLUDGE Life : More than 10 yrs Filtered water 3ft 1/2" TAP FOR FILTERED WATER (Feeding of raw water: 2" 3ft 2 inch 3ft 6 inch 2" piped supply preferable) SECTIONAL VIEW Ferro-cement - Terafil Filter COMMUNITY TERAFIL WATER FILTER Capacity: 1,000 liter per day3. Domestic on-line Filter: Water spray through nozzle (Pressure filtration with Overhead tank) Capacity: 200 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs.2,000/- Life : More than 5 yrs (Auto-cleaning & require overhead tank for feeding raw water)
4. Community on-line Filter: (Pressure filtration with Stainless Steel Chamber) Capacity: 500 to 5000 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 2,00,000/- Life : More than 50 yrs (Auto-cleaning & low pressure pump for feeding of raw water)5. LLDPE Tank Terafil water purification plant: (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Community On-line Tentative unit cost: Rs.15,000/- (piping extra) Terafil water filter Life: more than 10 yrs (Feeding raw water: piped supply preferable)6. Community Terafil water purification plant: (Gravity filtration with RCC chambers) Capacity: 5000 to 1,00,000 LPD Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 10,00,000/- Life : More than 50 yrs (Semi-auto cleaning & low pressure pump Community Terafil water filter with LLDPE Chamber for feeding of raw water)
Inauguration of 25,000 Lit/ day Terafil water purification plant by Director General of CSIR at IMMT, Bhubaneswar during March 2009large capacity Terafilwater purificationplant for communityapplications ( 5,000to 1,00,000 lit/day)
Community On-line Terafil water filter (5000 lit/ hr capacity)
Domestic On-line Terafil water Filter (200 Ltr/hr capacity) Terafil disc• Operates by overhead tank or pump• Auto- cleaning of sediments from Terafil disc
Nozzle Water spray through nozzle inside filter Removal of sediments by circular water jet sprayer
Domestic ‘Terafil’ water filter (POU):• Capacity: 50 lit/day• Containers: Polypropylene (food grade plastic)• Nos. of Terafil candles: 3 (100 mm diameter) Lid• Rate of filtration: 4 – 5 lit/hr• Life of containers: 8 – 10 yrs. Top• Life of Terafil candles: 3 – 5 yrs. container• Unit cost: Rs.500/- Terafil• More than 1,00,000 units disseminated in Support ring J&K, Sikkim, Himachal, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand’ Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, UP, Odisha etc at present. Bottom container• Plastic Containers produced by CIPET-GOI Tap centers at Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Ahmadabad & Luknow. DOMESTIC TERAFIL WATER FILTER More than 1,00,000 Sets of Terafil water filter used at present
Terafil filter in slum and SC & ST houses in Orissa
Use of Terafil Water filter in primary schools in Jajpur Dist of Orissa
Community TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI programme1,000 LPD TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI More than 50, 000 units in operation in various states
Iron contaminated raw waterTerafil water filter with ferro-cement chambers in JALAMANI programme. in schools of Odisha, installed by RWS&S, Govt of Odisha
Training of high level delegates of Arunachal Pradeshon construction of 1,000 LPD Terafil water filter withpre-fabricated RCC rings at IMMT-Bhubaneswar
FW FW pH RW TDS RWIron RW FW 10,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar (Sept. 2010 – Oct 2011) Turbidity RW Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product FW water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water.
pH FW FW RW TDS RW IronRW FW 1,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: Utkal University School, RW Bhubaneswar under JALMANI (Oct. 2009 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Turbidity Terafil surface and some minerals of FW Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water.
FW RW RW FW pH IronPerformance of 1,500 sets Domestic Terafil Water filters Installed in few villages of Odisha (August 2009 – September 2011)
pH FW Iron RW RW FW TurbidityTDS RW FW FW RW Performance of domestic online Terafil water filters in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar Campus( Aug 2009 to Aug. 2011)
Raw water FW (without chemicals): LRV: 3 FW (from RW + 1mg/lit Bleaching powder): LRV: 4 FW (from RW + 2 & 3 mg/lit Bleaching powder)Total coliform count in Raw & Filtered water ( with/ without chemical treatment)
Total coliform in raw water Total coliform in filtered water (treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching (Raw water treated with 2 mg/lit powder (30% Chlorine) bleaching powder prior to filtration)Total Coliform count in Input water: 2.8 – 3.5 X 106 CFU/mlReduction through Terafil (without chemical treatment): 99.9% (Log10 Reduction = 3)Reduction through Terafil ( Raw water treated with 2mg/lit Bleaching powder): 100%
Efficiency of removal of microorganisms by filtration through Terafil disc (without chemical treatment )
Conclusion:• Contaminated raw water can be treated with 2 mg. / Ltr. bleaching powder followed by filtration through TERAFIL Water Filtration Media (Disc) to obtain pathogen free clean & iron safe drinking water.• Excess iron & turbidity reduces significantly and pH increases substantially for purification of contaminated surface and ground water.• Domestic & Stand-Alone TERAFIL water purification plant is efficient, affordable and sustainable for supply of drinking water without use of electricity in rural sector.• Online Terafil water filters is an affordable and sustainable technology for instant purification and supply of clean drinking water for urban & semi-urban areas and for disaster management.• Terafil water purification disc and filters can be easily produced by small and micro industries in each part of the country.• Terafil water purification systems is a green technology which functions without chemicals & electricity for long period.