Better understanding of animal breeding and care leads to increased quantities of milk and meatAncient farmers found growing the same crops in the same position caused a buildup of pests and a reduction in fertility. So the solution was to grow a winter crop, and then summer crop, and finally leave the ground for one growing season to recover.
Sheep farmers needed fewer workers than other types of farms, so lack of work led to cottage industries
Most english farmland was open, and many could use it for grazing their livestock. Land enclosure, however, prevented common use.Many poor farmers were unable to support their families on the small plots of land
Enabled a farmer to grow more crops using much less seed. Also paved the way for use of other farming inventions since it produced evenly spaced rows.
Enabled farm land that had not been farmed to be able to be farmed due to the composition of the soil
Before 1 person could process 1 pound of cotton a day…with the cotton gin, 50 pounds of cotton a day.Why were all these new machines sprouting up? To keep pace with the speed at which the landowners could provide the raw materials
Enabled more acres to be harvested in less time
Before this the wheat and grans were harvested and separated by hand. It was exhausting and required many laborers.
Reduced the number of laborers needed and replaced teams of horses or oxen with steam engines
Improvements in one industry often led to growth and job opportunities in many other industries
A drought or flood could shut down a mill or factoryThey needed a more reliable source of power
Patents – prevented others from making a similar device for several yearsThis gives the inventor time to recover the cost of developing his invention and to make a profit…once the patent expires, anyone can then make and sell the product without braking the law
Ch 13 sec 1
• Farmers developed methods that resulted in
an increased food supply
– Crop rotation – rotating crops so the nutrients in
the land are not depleted.
• As more land became available, landowners
raised more sheep
• Sheep’s wool was a cash crop
• Cottage Industries – wool was spun into cloth
in a person’s home
• Landowners began to enclose their land to
• Many were forced to seek work in the cities
• Seed Drill
– Developed by Jethro Tull
– Placed seeds in rows across a plot of land