SEMS NIMS ICS 2012 (2)

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SEMS NIMS ICS 2012 (2)

  1. 1. Basic TrainingSEMS Intro - NIMS (IS 700) - ICS 100 (A Combined Course)
  2. 2. Course Objectives• Provide an overview and comparison of the:  Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS)  National Incident Management System (NIMS)  Incident Command System (ICS)• Ensure a basic knowledge• Describe the key concepts and principles• Understand the benefits
  3. 3. Course Objectives (2)• Prepare participants to take the IS 700 (NIMS) and IS 100 (ICS) tests• Yes, there will be a test• HOWEVER, we will review the questions and answers at the end of the class – DON’T STRESS!!!!
  4. 4. Why Alphabet Soup?• SEMS – California requirement• NIMS – Federal requirement• ICS – required by NIMS and SEMS
  5. 5. Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS)
  6. 6. Why SEMS?• 1991 East Bay Hills fire in Oakland• SB 1841, Petris Bill• State law CA Govt. Code 8607 (1993)• Amends CA Emergency Services Act• CalEMA is administrative agency• SEMS is a way to manage emergenciesSEMS ─ Developed to improve the coordination of state and local emergency response in CA
  7. 7. SEMS Requirements• Use of ICS in field operations• Use of Multi / Inter- Agency Coordination• Use of the 5 SEMS functions at all levels• Personnel must have designated positions, with supervision, and safely carry out their assignment
  8. 8. State Law Says…STATE AGENCIES LOCAL GOVERNMENTSMUST USE SEMS! ARE STRONGLY ENCOURAGED TO USE SEMS…... … To be eligible for State funding of RESPONSE RELATED PERSONNEL COSTS!
  9. 9. SEMS Organizational Levels• Field Level: at the scene• Local Government: City or District EOC• Operational Area: County EOC• Regional Level: Regional EOC• State Level: State EOC
  10. 10. CoordinationBetween SEMS Levels
  11. 11. All disasters begin & endat the local level - Field and EOC
  12. 12. Field Response Level• Hands On Response• MUST use Incident Command System:  Incident Commander  Incident Command Post (ICP)  Unified Command or Area Command• Request support from the Local EOC
  13. 13. Local Government Level (EOC)Cities, counties & special districts:• Manage and coordinate the overall emergency response and recovery activities• Implements local emergency plans & SOPs• Supports field level activity• Requests support from Op Area
  14. 14. EOC Organizational Structure • At the EOC level, all incidents are being supported • The EOC has the big picture!! Command/ Management Finance/Operations Planning Logistics Administration Section Section Section Section
  15. 15. EOC Organizational Levels & TitlesOrganizational Level Title• Management (EOC) • Director• Command Staff • Officer• General Staff/Section • Section Coordinator/Chief• Branch • Coordinator• Unit • Leader
  16. 16. EOC Staffing• Consider skills that presently exist in your organization• Place personnel according to their skills into each function EOC Director City Mgr, CAO, CEO Safety Risk Manager Security Law or Security Public Information PIO or Public Affairs Liaison Emergency Management
  17. 17. EOC Staffing Operations Law, Fire, Public Works, others Plans/Intel Planning, Engineering, others Logistics General Services, PurchasingFinance/Admin Finance, Budget, Accounting
  18. 18. Management (EOC)• Sets policy for the jurisdiction• Directs the EOC activity• Overall coordination and support
  19. 19. EOC Director• Assigned by jurisdiction• Oversees:  Staffing for EOC positions  Development of jurisdictional policy  Overall coordination and support to incident• Communicates with Governing Board  Status, operational priorities, activities, etc.
  20. 20. Operational Area (OA) Level• Orange County and all political sub-divisions• Geographical boundary of the county• Establishes and maintains OA EOC• Coordinates information, resources and priorities• Makes requests to the Regional EOC• Intermediate level of the state emergency services organization
  21. 21. Region Level (OES)• Coordination between op areas and state level  3 Administrative Regions  6 Mutual Aid regions• Operates REOC• Implements state emergency plan Southern Region:• Coordinates resources Mutual Aid 1 & 6 between op areas within the region
  22. 22. State Level (OES) • Coordinates resources between regions • Federal response coordination Mo n o • Communicates with governor and In yoSa n Lu i s O b isp o legislature Sa nt a Ba rb a ra Lo s Ve nt u ra Ang e l e s Sa n Be rn a rd ino • Implements media Ora n ge Rive rsi de policy Sa n Die g o Im p e ri a l
  23. 23. Master Mutual Aid Agreements• Mutual aid systems form key links when local resources are inadequate• Voluntary & reciprocal agreements among public agencies provide:  Services  Resources  Facilities
  24. 24. Other Public Agency Reciprocal Agreements• California Fire Assistance• Automatic Aid• Regional Medical Health• Others
  25. 25. Private Sector & Non-Government Mutual Assistance Agreements• American Red Cross & Salvation Army• Water and Wastewater Agency Response Network (WARN)• California Utility Emergency Association (CUEA)• Private Sector Vendors
  26. 26. Interstate Agreements• Interstate Civil Defense Compact• Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC)Mutual Aid agreements and EMACs helpto facilitate the timely delivery ofassistance during incidents.
  27. 27. Resources Available to Your Agency Federal (Depts., Military, States)State OES - Resources from 58 counties Region - Resources from 12 counties Op Area - County Resources & 144 entities Neighboring Agencies Your Agency
  28. 28. National Incident Management System (NIMS)
  29. 29. Why NIMS?• September 11, 2001• Homeland Security Presidential Directive #5• NIMS is applicable at all jurisdictional levels and across disciplines NIMS ─ A comprehensive, national approach to incident management developed to improve the coordination of federal, state and local emergency response nationwide
  30. 30. Lessons LearnedLessons learned show the need for:• Coordination and cooperation among all responding agencies• Standardization of organization, resources and terminology• Interoperability and compatibility
  31. 31. Federal Directive Says• Federal agencies must use NIMS• State, local and tribal governments must comply with NIMS to receive federal (grant) funding• Adopt NIMS by resolution• Train city staff• Integrate NIMS into existing plans NIMS
  32. 32. NIMS ComponentsNIMS incorporates standard emergencymanagement practices and processes, suchas:• Command & Management• Preparedness• Resource Management• Communications & Information Management• Supporting Technologies• Ongoing Management & Maintenance
  33. 33. NIMS StandardsProcesses, procedures and systems for:• Training• Resource Management• Personnel Qualification and Certification• Technology Support• Communications & Information Management• Continuous system improvement to ensure consistency among all responders NIMS
  34. 34. NIMS Integration Center (NIC)• Overall implementation of NIMS• NIMS review and refinement• National-level preparedness standards• Training requirements/approved courses• Approve equipment lists meeting national standards
  35. 35. Preparedness Preparedness is a key phase of the emergency management cycle.Through preparedness, jurisdictions take actions to prevent, mitigate, respond to and recover from emergencies.
  36. 36. Personal Preparedness• Personal Level:  Have a family communications plan  Emergency supplies at home  Insurance and documentation
  37. 37. Government Preparedness• Emergency Planning Committee• Responsibilities:  Plans & protocols  Activities & programs  Interoperability guidelines & protocols  Multi-agency coordination systems  Guidelines, protocols & priorities for resource management
  38. 38. Emergency Plans Describe• How resources will be used• How priorities are set• The integration of entities & functions• Establishment of responder relationships• How systems support incident management activities
  39. 39. Types of Plans• Emergency Operations• Mutual Aid• Procedures (SOPs)• Preparedness• Recovery• Corrective Action  Lessons learned from incidents• Mitigation  Local Hazard Mitigations Plans
  40. 40. Training & Exercises• Facilitate use of:  National standards, guidelines & personnel protection  Modeling & simulation• Define general training requirements• Establish approved courses• Review / approve discipline specific courses
  41. 41. Personnel & Equipment Qualifications & Certifications• Development of national certification and credentialing standards including:  Training  Experience  Currency requirements (how often)  Physical and medical fitness• Equipment certifications: national equipment standards, guidelines and protocols
  42. 42. Supporting Technologies• Standardization of all technologies for emergency and disaster use.• Principles:  Interoperability and compatibility  Technology support  Technology standards  Broad-based requirements  Strategic planning and R&D
  43. 43. Break Time
  44. 44. Incident Command System (ICS)
  45. 45. Why ICS?• Fall 1970 California statewide fires• FIRESCOPE was organized (federal, state and local fire services) and developed ICS• ICS is a proven system• ICS is based on “best” or successful business practices to ensure:  Safety of first responders and others  Achievement of tactical objectives  Efficient use of resources ICS provides the mechanics for coordinated and collaborative incident management
  46. 46. ICS Concepts / PrinciplesAn on-scene, all hazard, flexible framework that provides for:• Responding personnel and organizations working together in a common management structure• Providing logistical and administrative support for meeting tactical objectives• Cost effectiveness (avoiding duplication of efforts)• Development of standard requirements for processes, procedures and systems
  47. 47. How ICS is Used• To manage all types of incidents  Fires, hazmat, earthquakes, acts of terrorism and multi-casualty incidents  Parades, celebrations and concerts (a viable application for ICS)  Private sector emergency programs• Works well for:  Small, large and complex incidents  Single or multiple agency or jurisdiction incidents  Wide-area search and rescue
  48. 48. ICS Features• Common Terminology & • Resource Management Clear Text • Integrated• Modular Organization Communications• Management by • Chain of Command & Objectives Unity of Command• Reliance on an Incident • Unified Command Action Plan • Transfer of Command• Manageable Span of • Accountability Control • Mobilization /• Pre-designated Incident Demobilization Locations and Facilities • Information and Intelligence Management
  49. 49. 5 FunctionsThe five primary functions must beprovided for in all organizations at any level:• Command / Management• Operations• Planning (or Planning & Intelligence)• Logistics• Finance / Administration
  50. 50. COMMONRESPONSIBILITIES
  51. 51. Mobilization• Be dispatched from your agency  Do NOT “Self Dispatch” to an incident• Receive a deployment briefing• Bring any specialized supplies or equipment you need to do your job or are requested to bring
  52. 52. Check-In Follow check-in procedures when you arrive Provides accountability for all personnel Helps locate personnel in the event of an emergency Provides a way to track resources Prepares personnel for assignments and reassignments Helps in organizing for demobilization
  53. 53. Briefing• Receive your assignment  Make sure your training, knowledge and skills are appropriate to the assignment• All personnel receive a briefing when reporting to your incident supervisor and the briefing will include:  Current situation assessment  Your specific job responsibility  Co-workers/work area  Eating and sleeping arrangements  Communications  Procedures for getting supplies, etc.  Operational period work shifts
  54. 54. Documentation• Keep a log:  Activities  Decisions made and why  Who you spoke to & their contact info  Resources used• Take pictures:  Before and After  Damages
  55. 55. Individual Accountability• Maintain orderly chain of command, unity of command and take direction from a single supervisor• Communicate potential hazards and changing conditions using clear text and Plain English• Act professionally and avoid or report prohibited activities
  56. 56. SAFETY
  57. 57. Demobilization• Complete all work assignments• Brief subordinates• Complete and file required forms and reports• Evaluate performance of subordinates• Return all non-expendable and unused supplies
  58. 58. Common Terminology• Standard Names & Descriptions  position titles • incident vs. day to day work titles  organizational functions  resources description  incident facilities 10-4 OVER• Use at all levels• Use CLEAR text• Reduces Confusion• Required by ICS
  59. 59. ICS is Flexible • Only those functions required to meet current objectives need to be activated • All elements of the organization can be arranged in various ways within or under these 5 functions. Command/ Management Finance/Operations Planning Logistics Administration Section Section Section Section
  60. 60. Management by Objectives (MBO) Objectives Identified: • Flexible • Measurable • Attainable • Specific time frames Communicated via the Action Plan
  61. 61. Action Planning• Field & EOC• Management By Objectives for response tactics• Establishes accountability• Eliminates redundancy• Led by Planning Section
  62. 62. Incident Action Plan• Verbal or written plan• New one for each operational period• Includes:  Measurable strategic / tactical objectives for operational & support activities in a specified timeframe • Actions based on objectives  Activated elements (organization)• Shared with all supervisors• Flexible
  63. 63. Basically it states…• WHAT needs to be done?• WHO will do it?• WHEN will it get done?• HOW will it get done? (resources to get job done)• HOW do we communicate?• Other “NEED TO KNOW” information
  64. 64. Organizational Unity, ConsistentHierarchy and Chain of Command• Organizational Unity  Every individual within an organization has one designated supervisor• Consistent Hierarchy  Span of Control is used and there are clear lines of authority within the organization• Chain of Command  All elements in each level are linked together to form a single organization within span of control limits
  65. 65. Span of ControlEffective Supervisory Ratio: 3 to 7 = Maximum 1 to 5 = Optimum
  66. 66. INCIDENT FACILITIES
  67. 67. Incident Command Post• The location from which the Incident Commander oversees all incident operations.• There is only one ICP for each incident or event.• Every incident or event must have some form of an Incident Command Post. ICP Symbol The ICP is positioned outside of the present and potential hazard area, but close enough to the incident to maintain command.
  68. 68. Staging Area – Base - Camp SStaging Area• Location at which resources are kept while awaiting tactical assignmentIncident Base B Staging Area• Primary logistics and administrative functions are coordinated and administered at the Base CCamp• Incident locations where resources may be kept to support incident operations if a Base is not accessible to all resources
  69. 69. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  70. 70. Resources IncludeResources include:• Personnel• Facilities• Equipment• SuppliesIncludes resources acquired throughmutual aid and donations.
  71. 71. Resource Management Concepts• Standardized identification• Classified by type & kind  Typing by capability (performance)  Credentialing system• Requests for items that cannot be obtain locally must be submitted through the multi-agency coordination entity / EOC• Allocation & tracking
  72. 72. Resource Management System• Describing• Inventorying• Requesting• Acquiring• Allocating• Tracking• Dispatching• Activating / Deactivating  (Mobilizing / Demobilizing)
  73. 73. Resource Manager Inventory
  74. 74. Resource Request
  75. 75. Resource Planning• Mutual Aid  WEROC  Cal WARN• Private Vendors  Identify at least 3 per critical resource  Have emergency contact information  Contracts and payment methods pre-identified
  76. 76. Communications/ Information Management• Incident management  Requirements and requests to support activities  Formulate, execute and communicate operational decisions• Common standards, testing and compliance for:  Voice  Data• Integrated communication systems and hardware that:  Allows data to be continuously updated during an incident  Use all frequencies and resources  Include procedures for information transfer: • Internally • Externally• Allows for effective, consistent and timely decisions
  77. 77. WebEOC
  78. 78. ICS Structure
  79. 79. ICS Titles and Positions• Primary ICS responsibilities have distinct titles because it:  Allows for filling ICS positions with the most qualified individuals rather than by rank  Is useful when requesting qualified personnel  Provides a common standard for all users• When personnel are selected for ICS positions, the following is taken into consideration:  Personnel background and experience  Training  Kind and size of emergency  Agency policy  Qualifications and certifications  Disciplines involved
  80. 80. Field Organizational Structure • Everything is in support of an incident. • There will be an on-scene IC/ICP who may modify procedures or organization structure as needed. Command Section Finance /Operations Planning Logistics Administration Section Section Section Section Not all Sections need to be activated at an incident!
  81. 81. Command (Field)• Implements policy on the incident• Oversees all incident activity• Accountable to the EOC Director• Has appropriate on-scene authority
  82. 82. Incident Commander (1)At the Field level:• In charge at the incident until authority is delegated to another person• Decides whether single command (single IC) or unified command is appropriate• Develops incident objectives• Approves the Incident Action Plan (IAP)• Approves all requests for incident resources
  83. 83. Incident Commander (2)• Assigned by responsible agency or jurisdiction• May have one or more Deputy Incident Commanders• Always the most qualified but not always the most senior or highest ranking personnel• May assign personnel for Command and General Staff• The one position that is always staffed in ICS since the IC will perform all duties until duties are delegated
  84. 84. Transfer of Command (1)• Moves the responsibility for incident command from one IC to another• Must include a transfer of command briefing (oral, written or both)
  85. 85. Transfer of Command (2)Transfer of command occurs when:• A more qualified person assumes command• The incident situation changes over time• There is a normal turnover of personnel on extended incidents• The incident response is concluded and responsibility is transferred to the home agency
  86. 86. Command Staff Incident Commander/ EOC DirectorSafety Officer P.I.OLiaison Officer Security Officer
  87. 87. Command / Management StaffAppointed by and reports to the IC / EOC Dir.:• Public Information Officer  Serves as the conduit for information to internal and external stakeholders• Safety Officer  Monitors safety conditions and develops measures for assuring the safety of all assigned personnel• Liaison Officer  Assists the IC / EOC Director by serving as point of contact for supporting agencies assisting at an incident or in the EOC• Assistants / others as determined by the IC / EOC Director
  88. 88. General Staff (1) Planning / Finance /Operations Logistics Intelligence Administration Section Section Section Section General staff are the section chiefs
  89. 89. General Staff (2)• As an incident expands, the IC or EOC Director may need to add Sections to the organizational structure  Operations Section  Planning Section  Logistics Section  Finance / Administration Section• These Section Chiefs become the General Staff and they:  Report to the IC or EOC Director  Develop objectives for their Section  Develop Section organization to support activities
  90. 90. Break Time
  91. 91. Operations• Coordinates inter-agency response• Provides information to all functions regarding tactical activities• Ensures goals of the Action Plan are met• Consists of branch(es), divisions/groups and resources Field: EOC: • Develops and directs all • Operations coordinates tactical activities for: and supports actions  reduction of the immediate which impact field hazard activities  saving lives and property  establishing situational control  restoration of services SEMS-ICS
  92. 92. Operations Section ChiefField: EOC:• Ensures objectives and • Ensures objectives and goals of the Action Plan goals of the Action Plan are implemented are implemented• Develops tactical • Develops strategic objectives objectives to support• Develops organization to field activities support tactical activities • Supports and• Directs all tactical coordinates all tactical activities and resources activities and resources
  93. 93. Single Resource• Any discipline, any type
  94. 94. Strike Team• Same kind and type of a single resource• Each team will have a leader
  95. 95. Task Force• A multi-discipline team• Each task force will have a leader
  96. 96. Planning Section• Collects, analyzes, displays and disseminates information from all sources• Develops reports, including Situation Reports and Demobilization Plan• Prepares the Action Plans  Field and EOC levels• Maintains and documents resource status
  97. 97. Planning (2)• Documents decisions, policies and activities• Conducts Advance Planning activities until transition to recovery occurs• Technical Specialists usually are assigned from the Planning Section• In the Field, there are 4 units in Section: Resources, Situation, Demobilization and Documentation – as well as Technical 083 Log 0 C Specialists 090 0 B heck riefi -in ng
  98. 98. Planning Section Chief• Ensures information is collected, analyzed, disseminated• Conducts the Action Planning meeting• Ensures timely preparation, development and distribution of the Action Plan and other reports• Ensures accurate and timely documentation of the incident (policies, decisions, etc.) is maintained• ICS requires tracking and maintenance of resource status
  99. 99. Logistics• Provides for:  Personnel Feeding Medical Support Sleeping/Sanitation Needs  Equipment & Supplies  Communication Support  Transportation and Facilities  Purchasing  Ground Support (field)• Units can be established to coordinate specialized resources• There may be a different structure for the Logistics Section in the field and EOC
  100. 100. Logistics Section Chief• Ensures personnel are fed, have communications, medical support, transportation and lodging• Works with Finance/Admin to ensure resources are procured
  101. 101. Finance and Administration• Cost Recovery & Documentation• Procurement / Purchasing• Compensation & Claims• Cost Analysis• Time Records• Contract NegotiationsField incidents may not requireactivation of this function
  102. 102. Finance & Admin Section Chief• Manages costs related to the incident and provides:  accounting  procurement  time recording  cost analyses• Processes claims• Handles contract negotiations• Works with Logistics to ensure resources are procured
  103. 103. Unified Command• Two or more entities with authority (Hazmat)• Incidents cross jurisdiction lines (Flood)
  104. 104. Unified Command cont.• Does not change other features of ICS• Only one Operations Section Chief• Incident Action Plan (IAP) approved by UC• Does not affect individual agency authority, responsibility, or accountability La Conchita Landslide
  105. 105. Area Command• Multiple incidents within a jurisdiction• Large incidents that cross jurisdictions  Oversees management that involves multiple ICS organizations• Not site-specific or is geographically disbursed  Ex: (Public health emergency); Exotic Newcastle Disease• No Operations Section  Ops Section is on-scene at Incident Command Post• Helps maintain span of control• Ensures ICS organizations are not competing for same resources
  106. 106. What Do Unified & Area Commands Do?• Set overall strategy & priorities• Identify and allocate resources• Ensure proper management• Ensure objectives are met• Ensure strategies are followed• Establish a collaborative process
  107. 107. What is a Multi-agency Coordination (MAC) System?• A combination of resources• Organizational structures integrated into a common framework• Used to coordinate and support incident management activities
  108. 108. MAC Primary Functions• Support incident management policies and priorities• Facilitate logistics support and resource tracking• Make resource allocations based on incident priorities• Coordinate incident-related information• Coordinate inter-agency and intergovernmental issues regarding incident management policies, priorities and strategies
  109. 109. MAC Elements• Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)  Locations from which the coordination of information and resources to support the incident activities takes place• Multi-agency Coordination Entities  Typically consist of principals from organizations with direct incident management responsibilities or with significant incident management support or resource responsibilities • i.e., Area Commands, Unified Command, IC, etc.
  110. 110. MAC Responsibilities• Ensure that each involved agency is sharing information• Establish priorities between incidents and/or Area Commands• Acquire and allocate resources required• Coordinate and identify future resource requirements• Coordinate and resolve policy issues• Provide strategic coordination
  111. 111. Public InformationNIMS standards for publicinformation:• Timely• Accurate• Coordinated What YOU need to know: Refer all inquiries to the PIO or to the JIC.
  112. 112. Components of Public Information• Public Information Officer (PIO)• Joint Information System (JIS)• Joint Information Center (JIC)
  113. 113. Public Information Officer (PIO)• Member of command staff• PIO advises and supports Incident Commander & EOC management on all public information matters:  Media  Public inquiries  Warnings & emergency public information  Rumor control• Keeps decision makers & the public informed• PIO team should have one lead PIO• All incident related information must have approval of IC, UC or EOC Director• On-scene PIO provides a link to the JIC / JIS / EOC
  114. 114. Joint Information Center (JIC) (1)• Physical (or virtual) location• PIOs from all involved agencies work together to provide:  critical emergency information  crisis communications  public affairs support• On-scene PIOs link to the JIC which is typically collocated with EOCs at all levels• If the JIC is a part of a Unified Command, each agency retains its organization’s independence
  115. 115. Joint Information Center (JIC) (2) • Focal point for coordination and dissemination of information to the public and the media • Dept. of Homeland Security (DHS) will be the lead PIO in an Incident of National Significance • All JICs works in close coordination with other JICs to provide information using JIS protocols
  116. 116. Joint Information System (JIS)• Policies, procedures & protocols used to coordinate public information at all levels  Includes private sector and non-governmental organizations• JIC uses JIS protocols• PIO follow JIS protocols
  117. 117. Facilities• Emergency Operations Centers (EOC)• Department Operations Centers (DOC)• Joint Field Office (JFO)• Local Assistance Centers (LAC)• Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC)• Point of Dispensing, Point of Distribution (PODs)
  118. 118. Emergency Operations Center (EOC) • An EOC is a location from which centralized emergency management can be performed • The EOC may support multi-agency coordination and joint information activities • An EOC is the central point for:  Coordination of all the jurisdictions emergency operations.  Information gathering and dissemination.  Coordination with other local governments and the operational area. • EOC Staffing will vary depending on the type of emergency • Department Operating Centers (DOCs) (optional)  Discipline specific and coordinates with the EOC
  119. 119. Joint Field Office• The JFO is a multi-agency coordination center established locally• It provides a central location for coordination of federal, state, local, non- governmental, and private-sector organizations• The JFO enables coordination of federal incident-related actions• The JFO does not manage on-scene operations but provides operational support
  120. 120. Local Assistance Center (LAC)• LACs are:  Managed by local government  Staffed by Private/Non-Profits (PNPs), local, state and federal government agencies  A centralized location for information, services, resources and program referrals for disaster victims  LACs are very useful for recovery efforts in a community• State funding may be available for eligible LAC operations
  121. 121. Disaster Recovery Center (DRC)• Activated by federal agencies to provide information to victims and private non-profit organizations about FEMA and SBA programs• Fixed site or mobile• Managed by the federal government and staffed by FEMA, OES, SBA and other federal, state and local agencies as appropriate• Often collocated with LACs
  122. 122. PODs and PODsPOD (Point of Dispensing) POD (Point of Distribution)for public health emergencies for disaster recovery Location where medications Location where general are given to the public supplies such as food and water are given to the public On the fly” terminology: • Be prepared for names of places and facilities to be created or changed with each disaster
  123. 123. Questions?Time for the Test!

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