From promise to practice: UDL in 21st Century Inclusive Classrooms


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This was a session presented at Destination Innovation, August 2012

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From promise to practice: UDL in 21st Century Inclusive Classrooms

  1. 1. 21st Century Inclusive Education: Moving UDL from Promise to Practice Kathy Howery, PhD (c) University of Alberta Applications Management
  2. 2. Introductions
  3. 3. Destination: Inclusive EducationIn an inclusive education system all studentsbelong and receive a quality educationregardless of their ability, disability, language,cultural background, gender or age. Alberta Education.
  4. 4. Destination: 21st Century
  5. 5. Destination: 21st Century
  6. 6. Innovation is the creation of better or moreeffective products, processes, services,technologies, or ideas that are readily availableto markets, governments, and society. Wikipedia
  7. 7. Where does innovation come from?
  8. 8. Innovation in Teaching & Learning• True innovation occurs at the margins• We are pushed further by: – Disruptive notions – Perspectives that do not fit in – Unpredictable inspirations that burst our neat categories 21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  9. 9. Change comes from the Margins
  10. 10. What assistive technology do you use?
  11. 11. • Yesterday’s Special Tech = Today’s Tech
  12. 12. Today’s Conversation:Universal Design for Learning
  13. 13. UDL in a Can…
  14. 14. Something new?“The new challenge of inclusion is to createschools in which our day-to-day efforts nolonger assume that a particular text, activity,or teaching mode will “work” to support anyparticular students’ learning” Ferguson, 1995
  15. 15. Who are we designing learning for?
  16. 16. The Illusory Average Student
  17. 17. Our current system?Combining the medical model (to be abnormal is to beunhealthy) and the statistical model (abnormally largeor abnormally small amounts of measuredcharacteristic)… turns behavior patterns intopathological signs. (Skrtic, 1986)
  18. 18. Changing our ThinkingFrom DIS-ability to VARI-ability
  19. 19. Social construction of (Dis) Ability • The social model suggests it is society that causes the individual with (physical or psychological) differences to be disabled. In other words individuals with impairments are not disabled by their impairments but by the barriers that exist in society constructed for the “norm”. • ModelofDisabilityText.html
  20. 20. Ableism• An ableist society is said to be one that treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of “normal living”, which results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve standard people, thereby inherently excluding those with various disabilities. Wikipedia21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  21. 21. Aimee Mullen’s on Dis-abled
  22. 22. Ableism in Education (Hehir, 2008)Applied to schooling and child development… the devaluation of disability results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that:• It is better for a child to walk than roll• Read print than read braille• Spell independently than use a spell checker• Hang out with with non-disabled children rather than only with other disable children. 21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  23. 23. The Illusory Average Student?
  24. 24. Let’s think about dis-ability KHOWERY 21/08/2012
  25. 25. Dis-abling barriers.
  26. 26. What about in the Educational Environment? Disability = a Mismatch between learner needs and education offered Disability is artifact of lack of appropriate relationship between the learner and the learning environment or education delivery. Jutta Treviranus
  27. 27. Think of a time you have been disabled by Barriers.
  28. 28. What is our Model for Design?
  29. 29. Enter Universal Design for Learning
  30. 30. What do you think of when you think of UDL?
  31. 31. Enter Universal Design for Learning• An educational approach that aims to increase access to learning for all students by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, organizational and other barriers.
  32. 32. Dis-abled Curriculum• The traditional, one-size-fits-all curriculum is proving to be an entirely inadequate solution for problems that plague our schools in this era of standards-based reform. CAST
  33. 33. Curriculum?•How do you define curriculum?
  34. 34. The Curriculum Programs of Study Provincial AssessmentResources Instruction & Classroom Assessment
  35. 35. UDL Beginnings• Publishers should prepare and teachers should select instructional materials that are supportive and inclusive of students who have wide disparities in their ability to see, hear, read, etc… to achieve that end, we recommend that all developers of instructional materials adopt the concept of universal design and implement it in their products.• Furthermore, we recommend that teacher training programs prepare teachers for teaching in environments where the goals, methods, and materials are universally designed. (Orkwis & McLane, 1998, p.14)
  36. 36. UDL provides a blueprint (framework) for creatingflexible goals, methods, materials, andassessments CAST, 2002
  37. 37. Learning Resources (Materials)
  38. 38. Promise of Digital MediaIn our view, what is of most significance to the future of education, especially for students with disabilities, is the unequaled flexibility and transformability of digital media. Rose & Meyer 2002
  39. 39. Digital Media can Flexible and Transformable
  40. 40. Digital Media can Flexible and Transformable
  41. 41. Flexible Means of Representation You Tube Comics
  42. 42. Flexible Means of Expression
  43. 43. Accessible Digital Materials!
  44. 44.
  45. 45. The Future is in the MarginsWhen new technologies move beyond their initial stage of development, innovations in curriculum design, teaching strategies and policies will be driven by the needs of students “at the margins”, those for whom present technologies are least effective- most prominently, students with disabilities.The beneficiaries of these innovations will be ALL students. Rose & Meyer, 2000
  46. 46. The promise of new technologies
  47. 47. Universal Design in Technology
  48. 48.
  49. 49. SMART solutions for promotingaccessibility
  50. 50. CAST:Center for Applied Special TechnologyUniversal Design for Learning is a set of principles forcurriculum development that give all individualsequal opportunities to learn.
  51. 51. How do we get there?• Designing an educational system to teach all students that will also support individualized and flexible instruction designed to teach each studentExpected Learner Variability
  52. 52. WHO are these diverse studentsin Alberta schools?
  53. 53. In an Alberta school of 500 students,we might expect to see…
  54. 54. •25 students with learning disabilities•40 studentswith AD/HD
  55. 55. •45 students who live belowthe poverty line•40 students whose firstlanguage is not English or French•25 students who are First Nations, Métis or Inuit (FNMI)
  56. 56. •7 studentswith autism •5 students with FASD
  57. 57. • At least 1 studentwith a physical disability • 15 students with cognitive disabilities
  58. 58. •7 students requiringsupport for mental healthissues •8 students with severe behavioural/emotional disabilities
  59. 59. • 100 students who will not finish high school within 5 years
  60. 60. Diversity could also mean …Differences in: – background knowledge and experience – learning preferences – learning strengths – personal interests and motivation – levels of engagement
  61. 61. Diversity could also mean…
  62. 62. Think Different• Expected Learner Variability• Proactive Reduction of Barriers
  63. 63. UDL Universal Design for Learning calls for ... * Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, * Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, * Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  64. 64. UDL GuidelinesFrom the three principles, nine guidelines havebeen developed that form the primaryfoundation of UDL.The guidelines articulate the principles but theirmain purpose is to guide educators andcurriculum developers in using evidence-based means of addressing the range ofvariability that any classroom typicallyexperiences.
  65. 65. 21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  66. 66. Principle 1: Representation• Students differ in the ways that they perceive and comprehend information that is presented to them.• For example, those with sensory disabilities (e.g., blindness or deafness), learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia), language or cultural differences, and so forth may all require different ways of approaching content. Others may simply grasp information better through visual or auditory means rather than from printed text.
  67. 67. What are ways you are currently providing Multiple Means of Representation?
  68. 68. Principle 1: RepresentationGuideline 1: Provide options for perceptionGuideline 2: Provide options for language and symbolsGuideline 3: Provide options for comprehension
  69. 69. Wikipedia
  70. 70. More ideas for Representation• Digital resources –• Book Rags –• 60 Second Recap –• YouTube – eature=related
  71. 71. Options for ComprehensionJen: The Tiered Web Page Generator• Online Automatic Text Summarization Tool
  72. 72. EditionsBookBuilder
  73. 73. Principle 2: Action & ExpressionStudents differ in the ways that they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know.• For example, individuals with significant motor disabilities (e.g., cerebral palsy), those who struggle with strategic and organizational abilities (e.g., executive function disorders, ADHD), those who have language barriers, and so forth approach learning tasks very differently. Some may be able to express themselves well in writing text but not oral speech, and vice versa.
  74. 74. What are ways you are currently providing Multiple Means of Expression?
  75. 75. Principle 2: Action & ExpressionGuideline 4: Provide options for physical actionGuideline 5: Provide options for expressive skills and fluencyGuideline 6: Provide options for executive functions
  76. 76. Physical ActionWriting Tools Manipulatives
  77. 77. Strategies and Scaffolds
  78. 78. Principle 3 : EngagementStudents differ markedly in the ways in which they can be engaged or motivated to learn.Some students are highly engaged by spontaneity and novelty while other are disengaged, even frightened, by those aspects, preferring strict routine.
  79. 79. The Why of Learning!!
  80. 80. What are ways you are currently providing Multiple Means of Engagement?
  81. 81. Principle 3 : EngagementGuideline 7: Provide options for recruiting interestGuideline 8: Provide options for sustaining effort and persistenceGuideline 9: Provide options for self- regulation
  82. 82. Strategy Support• Strategy Tutor
  83. 83. University of Buffalo –• AT Training Online
  84. 84. Front end loadingUsing digital materials & “assistive” technologies into the classroom we can create a more accessible and flexible environment for all students.
  85. 85. There’s an app for that?
  86. 86. There’s an App for that!• Apple• Free Tech 4 Teachers e-ipad-apps-for-special-education.html
  87. 87. There’s an App for that!Scribed
  88. 88. There’s an App for that!
  89. 89. Freeware, Shareware, Everywhere!
  90. 90. Sounds easy, right?
  91. 91. The Steve Jobs Model for Educational Reform"If you read the front pages of the New YorkTimes, they will tell you that technologys promisehas not yet been realized in terms of studentperformance. My answer is, of course not. If wesimply attached computers to leeches, medicinewouldnt be any better today than it was in the19th century either. You dont get change byplugging in computers to schools designed for theindustrial age. You get it by deploying technologythat rewrites the rules of the game." • -RUPERT MURDOCH
  92. 92. Flexibility still requires Pedagogy!• Flexible MATERIALS• Flexible instructional METHODS• Clear Accessible GOALS• Accessible & Authentic ASSESSMENT
  93. 93. Diversity Profile• What is the diversity of students you can expect in your classrooms?• What might be barriers to their learning success?
  94. 94. Clearly Defined Goals• You need to know what your goal is to understand and set up how this will work!• Goals the reduce barriers for expected student diversity
  95. 95. UDL Goals• Separating the means from the ends
  96. 96. Examples from the Program of Studies: UDL? Grade 10 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 - Comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively 2.1 Construct meaning from text and context Grade 7 Science Unit D: Structures and Forces (Science and Technology Emphasis) Skill Outcome : Analyzing and Interpreting Students will: Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line graphs and scatterplots (e.g., plot a graph, showing the deflection of different materials tested under load)21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  97. 97. Separating the Goal from the Means: Writing Goals and Objectives that Increase Access*Goals/Objectives that LIMIT Access: Goals/Objectives that ALLOW Access:Instead of … Try …The student will write… The student will express… The student will generate…The student will read… The student will receive information…The student will spell… The student will select…The student will compute… The student will solve…The student will define… The student will show… * From Gargiulo & Metcalf (2010) p. 270
  98. 98. Instructional MethodsThere is no universal medium of instruction
  99. 99. Medium of Instruction• Auditory - Listening / Speaking• Text - Reading / Writing• Visual - Viewing / Representing
  100. 100. Qualities of Speech• Natural speech has expressive power.• Speech is transitory.
  101. 101. Qualities of Text• Representational - permanent record• Reduces memory demands
  102. 102. Qualities of Images• A picture is worth a thousand words…• But do you see what I see?
  103. 103. Instructional Methods
  104. 104. UDL DI RTIApproach Proactive Responsive Interventionistis…Focus is Environment/ Groups of Individualon… Curriculum Learners/ Learner Needs InstructionSolution Eliminating Instructional Specializedinvolves… barriers Strategies interventions
  105. 105. Assessment• Do we know what we are assessing?
  106. 106. Universally Designed Assessment• Must clearly understand what we are assessing!• Reduce Construct Irrelevant Variance!• Multiple pathways to demonstrating success.• Be authentic!
  107. 107. Expert Learners• In UDL we are seeking to create expert learners, individuals who- whatever the particular strengths and weaknesses are know themselves and know how to learn.
  108. 108. Assistive Technologies
  109. 109. “For people without disabilities, technology makes things easier. For people with disabilities, technology makes things possible …” National Council on Disability21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  110. 110. Will UDL eliminate the need for assistive technology?21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  111. 111. Assistive technologies will always have a role in the education of some learners. Children with physical disabilities need properly designed wheelchairs, adaptive switches to control devices, or speech synthesizers.UDL will not eliminate the need for such devices. But such devices will be used for the same reasons we use eyeglasses; that is, to enhance our abilities rather than to compensate for inadequately designed learning materials.
  112. 112. AT in the iWorldChallenges to Using Apps as AssistiveTechnology challenging the billion dollar assistivetechnology market
  113. 113. Goal of UDLCreating learning and learning environments whichprovide meaningful access for every learner Support Challenge
  114. 114. • If I were asked to …. summarize my reading of centuries of wise reflection on what is required of an environment for it to facilitate the growth of its members, I would say this: people grow best where they are continuously experiencing an ingenious blend of support and challenge; the rest is commentary. Robert Kegen, In Over our Heads
  115. 115. Amplification of Differences• In the 21st Century – the goal of education to recognize the diversity and amplify it not reduce it!
  116. 116. So where to from here?
  117. 117. Strategic Planning• At the District Level – What role should the district play in UDL implementation? – What needs be done at the district level?• At the School Level – How do schools need to be structured and supported to design for diversity?• At the Classroom Level – How can teachers be supported to bring UDL to life in their instructional practices?
  118. 118. Thoughts?
  119. 119. Stay Tuned!• UDL-iRN• ERLC – Making Connections
  120. 120. IMAGINE…21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  121. 121. Change is not quick or easyWe have found that developing an inclusive program isalways harder that stakeholders initially think it will be.Indeed, successful programs are dynamic and ever-changing, presenting continuing challenges to teachersand administrators as they create classrooms to meet abroad range of student needs. McLeskey & Waldron, 200021/08/2012 KHOWERY
  122. 122. But change is possible…21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  123. 123. And potentially TRANFORMATIONAL21/08/2012 KHOWERY
  124. 124. “The success of technology has more to do with people than machines. All theright parts and pieces together won’t work miracles by themselves. It is people who make technology powerful by creatively using it to fulfill their dreams.” Alliance for Technology Access, 1996
  125. 125. Kathy