Reproductive system physiologyPlacenta  <br />By<br />Khorrami  Ph.D.<br />http://khorrami1962.spaces.live.com<br />khorra...
Estrogens<br />Estrone (E1)<br />Estradiol (E2)<br />Estriol (E3)<br />Estetrol (E4) <br />
Estrogen <br />100mg/day before pregnancy<br />300mg/day in late pregnancy<br />85-90% is related to estriol(E3) or its co...
Fetoplacental-maternal unit<br />Liver <br />Adrenal <br />acetate<br />fetus <br />16-a-DHA-S<br />E4<br />DHA-S<br />sul...
Progesterone<br />At term 250mg/day<br />Excreted as Pregnandiol<br />End of first trimester:10mg/day <br />At term: 40mg/...
HCG<br />Found in urine of pregnant women (1927)<br />Detectable in maternal plasma 7-10 days after implantation<br />Doub...
HCG<br />a subunit:<br />92 AA common with LH<br />by single gene (ch.6)<br />In cyto and syncytiotrophoblast cells<br />b...
Placenta <br />Lack of MHC-I and MHC-II in trophoblast cells<br />Presence of Fas-ligand in placenta<br />Apoptosis of act...
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Placenta.tutor

  1. 1. Reproductive system physiologyPlacenta <br />By<br />Khorrami Ph.D.<br />http://khorrami1962.spaces.live.com<br />khorrami4@yahoo.com<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Estrogens<br />Estrone (E1)<br />Estradiol (E2)<br />Estriol (E3)<br />Estetrol (E4) <br />
  4. 4. Estrogen <br />100mg/day before pregnancy<br />300mg/day in late pregnancy<br />85-90% is related to estriol(E3) or its conjugate<br />
  5. 5. Fetoplacental-maternal unit<br />Liver <br />Adrenal <br />acetate<br />fetus <br />16-a-DHA-S<br />E4<br />DHA-S<br />sulfatase<br />16-a-DHA<br />DHA<br />Isomerase<br />placenta<br />E3<br />E1<br />E2<br />DHA-S<br />E3-G<br />Mother <br />urine<br />E4: Estetrol<br />
  6. 6. Progesterone<br />At term 250mg/day<br />Excreted as Pregnandiol<br />End of first trimester:10mg/day <br />At term: 40mg/day<br />Maternal cholesterol<br />In syncytiotrophoblast: preg…..progesteron<br />Most passes to fetal circulation<br />Fetal adrenal……corticosteroid sulphate<br />Remainder to maternal circulation<br />
  7. 7. HCG<br />Found in urine of pregnant women (1927)<br />Detectable in maternal plasma 7-10 days after implantation<br />Doubling each 48hrs<br />Peak at 8-10th week<br />Synthesized by:<br />More by syncytiotrophoblast<br />Less by cytotrophoblast<br />
  8. 8. HCG<br />a subunit:<br />92 AA common with LH<br />by single gene (ch.6)<br />In cyto and syncytiotrophoblast cells<br />b subunit:<br />134 AA<br />By 7 genes ( ch.19)<br />In cytotrophoblast cells<br />
  9. 9. Placenta <br />Lack of MHC-I and MHC-II in trophoblast cells<br />Presence of Fas-ligand in placenta<br />Apoptosis of activated T cells<br />

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