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Slides - MELTA 2013 Presentation Topic


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Exploring differences in motivation between students who excelled and under performed in learning English Language

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Slides - MELTA 2013 Presentation Topic

  1. 1. Khoo Hooi Shyan The University of Nottingham Graduate School
  2. 2. The study attempts to answer the following research questions: 1. What are the motivation levels of underperforming students learning English language? 2. What are the motivation levels of students who excel in learning English language? 3. How can the underperformers’ motivation levels be improved? “ Hard to define multi-faceted concept ” (Dörnyei, 2001) “ More researches needed ” (Ushioda, 2008) “ Sharing from teachers would be greatly beneficial ” (Ushioda, 2008)
  3. 3. Theoretical Framework • Based on the tripartite motivation construct of developed by Dörnyei et al. (2006) • Had been tested in the Asian context of China, Japan and Iran by researchers Taguchi, Magid, & Papi in 2009 Learner-internal factor Social psychological milieu Pragmatic Need for achievement Sociocultural Instrumentality Motivational intensity Family orientation Integrativeness Attitudes toward learning English Friendship orientation Perceived group cohesion Anxiety in class English use anxiety Attitudes towards learning English
  4. 4. Methodology • A mixed method approach is chosen questionnaire (quantitative) interview with English Language teachers (qualitative) • This method enables the researcher to get a richer data from the integration of two different perspectives: teachers and students (Creswell, 2003) Pilot study: Survey forms with Chinese translation given to four students from Form 2 and Form 3 Respondents indicate their motivational levels (1 - ‘strongly disagree’ and 6 - ‘strongly agree’) Students list down their English Language marks from their final examination for filtering Researcher will be present during the distribution of questionnaire Students are allowed to take home with them the questionnaires for completion A short dialogue is conducted with the subject teachers
  5. 5. Findings Figure 1 Motivation levels of excellent and underperformed students Indicator: 1 – Low; 2 – Moderately Low; 3 – Slightly Low; 4 – Slightly High; 5 – Moderately High; 6 – High
  6. 6. Excellent students Underperformed students More concerned with the pragmatic benefits of learning the target language Less attentive to the pragmatic objectives of learning More assured of their competence Less confident in succeeding in their learning More intrinsically motivated Less intrinsically motivated Exert more effort into their school work Fewer attempts were exercised in the process of acquisition Possess higher level of enthusiasm and conviction in their learning of English Did not see the point of learning English
  7. 7. • Ratings were tied in orientations of family, sociocultural, need for achievement and perceived group cohesion • Likely explanations: Parents or family members saw little need of exerting pressure to someone who were already internally motivated Underperformers could be ignorant towards the families’ believes of academic achievement Excellent and underperformed students shared the same level of appreciation towards its media products (e.g., movies, television programmes, reading materials, music) They were as equally motivated to learn without feeling the need to succeed, they might not view L2 achievement affecting their perceived overall competence As it was an independent school with a class size of thirty, students were generally satisfied
  8. 8. • Teachers should concentrate on developing skills in motivating learners (Dörnyei, 1998) • Dörnyei et al. (2006) emphasized on the importance of integrative factors in promoting L2 learning: • Teachers should encourage students to have a perceptive mentality towards the L2 and its speakers • Teachers could familiarize students on cross-cultural awareness or share positive L2 related experience • Teachers could expose students to L2 cultural content and supplement lessons with authentic materials • Teachers could invite L2 speakers or organize school trips to L2 community and alike • Imparting intrinsic values in students would improve motivation levels (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990): • Teacher could raise students’ awareness on self-regulating strategies such as having achievable learning goals, planning, monitoring students’ understanding and encouraging persistence in students • Most students’ motivation can be worked on and increased • Teachers do not have to resort to the conventional methods of reward and punishment
  9. 9. • What are the motivation levels of underperforming students learning English language? • They are of slightly high level • The students were showed to be less keen in acquiring target language for pragmatic gains, less concerned with its culture, had a more negative attitude towards learning English and were more anxious in using the language • Their teacher commented likewise that the students needed constant push to learn • What are the motivation levels of students who excel in learning English language? • Students are of moderately high level • They were more welcoming towards the target language, more goal oriented, exhibited better attitude and showed more internal motivation • Their teacher mentioned that they were keen in learning and were frequently pushing themselves to do better • How can the underperformers’ motivation levels be improved? • Teacher could cultivate a positive, cross-cultural interests among students, consciously impart intrinsic value in raising the motivation levels in underperforming students. Students would need to have interest and positive dispositions for increased motivation in learning a second language.
  10. 10. Limitations • There are several limitations to these findings: • It can be recommended that a more elaborate research with all its constituents be carried out in future All the responses were measured with a self- report instrument Unmarked answers where students left the columns blank Sample participants being confined A segmented research
  11. 11. Thank you. Exploring Differences in Motivation between Students Who Excelled and Underperformed in Learning English Language Khoo Hooi Shyan The University of Nottingham Graduate School