Venice Decline

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Venice Decline

  1. 1. Decline of Venice Factors for the decline of Venice:  Foreign Threats  Maritime Competition  Political Challenges  Social Challenges  Eventual fall of Venice by surrendering to the French under Napoleon Bonaparte
  2. 2. Which of these factors was the most important reason for the decline of Venice?
  3. 3. Factors that led to the decline of Venice: Foreign Threats Maritime Competition b. Involvement in mainland c. The Ottoman Empire d. The League of Cambrai Social Challenges Political Challenges
  4. 4. Decline of Venice 1) Foreign Threats b) Involvement in the Mainland Description:  Venice created alliances with larger and more powerful states in Mainland Europe against other rival states  Venice tried to take advantage of rivalry among the mainland states by taking sides.
  5. 5.  To overcome the possibility that negotiations could put Venetians at risk, the only way was to build own strong army by recruiting mercenaries to fight the wars. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)?  By switching alliances with different opposing states, Venice was creating fragile relations with larger states – putting Venice at risk. Venice could be attacked should negotiations fail.  The rivalry among the mainland states also made the overland trade route unsafe as constant battles were fought in the region.
  6. 6. Decline of Venice 1) Foreign Threats b) Ottoman Empire Description: - Expanding power of the Ottoman Empire over the control of the Adriatic Sea. - The Ottomans attacked Venetian territories - Venice fought a 7-year war against the Ottoman for the control of the Aegean Sea and the Adriatic Sea.
  7. 7. • The Venetians tried to strike a balance of power with the Ottomans and their European neighbours. •Conflicting actions such as concessions made to the Ottomans, and military aid sent to European states to fight the Ottomans in defence of their territories led to a deep hostility for Venice. •In 1463, the European states launched a military campaign against the Ottomans. Due to resentment, Venice fought the Ottomans on their own and lost Negroponte, an important Eastern trade outpost.
  8. 8. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)?  resulted in Venice losing some territories  poor relations with other European states left Venice to defend against the Ottoman Empire alone.  This severely weakened Venice, and trade in the Adriatic Sea was disrupted.  The galleys were used to fight off attacks by the Ottomans in the 7-year sea-campaigns. This disrupted its use of galleys for trading purposes.
  9. 9. Decline of Venice 1) Foreign Threats c) League of Cambrai Description: - The League of Cambrai was formed by Mainland states to reduce power of Venice. - In the battle of Agnadello, the Venetian mercenary army was defeated. - The defeat at Agnadello stretched Venice’s political and military capabilities.
  10. 10. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)? - Venice lost more territories. - Venice weakened due to the high cost of wars - Resulted in the drain of resources - She had to raise taxes to finance the employment of its mercenary armies - replenish supply of weaponry.
  11. 11. Factors that led to the decline of Venice: Maritime Competition b. Discovery of new sea routes Foreign Threats c. New trade rivals Social Challenges Political Challenges
  12. 12. Decline of Venice 2) Maritime Competition a) Discovery of New Sea Routes Description: - Vasco da Gama (Portuguese explorer) discovered a new sea route to India – - broke Venice’s monopoly in spice trade - made Portuguese stronger and more powerful. - They were now able to buy spices directly from India and greatly reduced the large profits of the Venetian traders.
  13. 13. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)? • Venice lost monopoly in spice trade • suffered losses in their economy. - Although Venice’s traditional route to the East by the Mediterranean was shorter, it was time-consuming. The overland route to Hormuz was also considered risky because of robbers and plunderers. • Despite losing its middleman role, Venice continued to function as a trade centre in western Mediterranean Sea • Persian silk, Mediterranean wine, glassware. • Venice also expanded its trade to the North Sea region and maintained trade links with England.
  14. 14. Decline of Venice 2) Maritime Competition: b) New Trade Rivals Description: - Dutch EIC & English EIC with better designed ships - Larger states such as England and Holland were more successful in negotiating for favourable trading rights in new ports.
  15. 15. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)? - Venice lost trade as a middleman as European countries no longer use Venice a source of goods from the East - Venice became economically irrelevant.
  16. 16. Factors that led to the decline of Venice: Maritime Competition Foreign Threats Political Challenges Social Challenges b. Incapable leadership c. Corruption in government d. Over-dependence on mercenaries
  17. 17. Decline of Venice 3. Political Challenges: a) Incapable Leadership Description: - From 16th century, many of the military leaders were not competent . - policies focused on preserving power, prestige and wealth of nobles rather than for the good of the city-state.
  18. 18. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)? - shrinking pool of nobility > choice of able leaders was thus limited > weak military leaders > Venice could not compete with enemies > led to many losses and the decline of Venice. - Nobles > retain their family wealth, property and power > domination of a small group of rich nobles in the government > corruption in the higher offices.
  19. 19. Decline of Venice 3) Political Challenges b) Corruption in the Government Description: - Nobility lost their source of incomes  suspended salaries to finance the wars with Ottoman Empire and the large European states  disruption of trade . - Nobles bought votes to gain position - Nobles also sold positions to raise funds
  20. 20. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)? Key members of government - made policies - Find means - to serve their own interests more than for the interests of the city- state > decline of city-state.
  21. 21. Decline of Venice 3) Political Challenges: c) Overdependence on Mercenaries Description: - employed French and Dutch mercenaries to fight battles - dependent on mercenaries after population declined.
  22. 22. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)? - Mercenaries turned against Venice and fought for the larger and richer states. Venice became weaker when the mercenaries left or turned against them – led to easy defeats of Venice.
  23. 23. Factors that led to the decline of Venice: Maritime Competition Foreign Threats Political Challenges Social Challenges
  24. 24. Decline of Venice 4) Social Challenges Description: - Nobles became richer and less interested in security matters. - Nobles and citizens pursued entertainment and pleasures, with lavish parties and celebrations. - Nobles also became more distant from commoners.
  25. 25. How (was this a reason for the decline of Venice)? - Leaders became complacent. No renewal of defence and economic resources. - Not alert to political changes eg. France’s rise under Napoleon Bonaparte. - Few capable nobles to lead an army against France. - When Napoleon confronted Venice, Doge Ludovico Manin surrended the city-state without a single shot fired. The decline of Venice was complete.

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