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  1. 1. TRAINING Training 1
  2. 2. Importance of training• Training helps new employees how to do their jobs.• Training helps experienced employees to keep up with jobchanges and to improve performance. Developing an effective training program Needs Set Design Deliver EvaluatingAssessment Objectives training training training Training 2
  3. 3. 1. Need AssessmentA need assessment is conducted to determine: 1) which employees need training 2) what the content of the training should beNeeds assessment focus on three levels: 1) Organization 2) Job 3) Person Training 3
  4. 4. Organization level is concerned with: 1. objectives of the organization 2. how the objectives are addressed by the performance of the employees.The job level is concerned with: the nature of tasks involved in each Job. Job analysis Training 4
  5. 5. The person level is concerned with:How well job applicants or present employeesare able to do the job tasks.• It assesses the KSAO levels of people rather than jobs.• The KSAOs of the job and people are compared to determine theareas where training is needed. 2. Objectives The objectives of training are based on criteria. Criterion is a statement of how achievement of training objectives can be assessed. Training 5
  6. 6. 3. Training DesignTraining is conducted with the expectation that employees willapply what they have learned on the job.This is called transfer of training.Transfer of training is affected by: 1) Trainee characteristics 2) Training design factors 3) Work environment Training 6
  7. 7. 1) Trainee characteristics focus on:i) Ability: Not everyone has the same ability to learn a given task.ii) Attitudesiii) Motivation2) Training design factors:i) FeedbackFeedback should be built into the training asappropriate so that the trainee can tell if he orshe is learning the correct material. Training 7
  8. 8. ii) General principles.Training should teach why something is done as well as how itshould be done.iii) Identical elementsTrainees can easily apply what has been learned in training to thejob setting if the responses in the training situation are identical tothose in the job situation. Training 8
  9. 9. iv) OverlearningOverlearning refers to giving thetrainee practice beyond thatnecessary to reach a criterion forsuccess in training so that he orshe can use what has beenlearned with little thought. Through overlearning a person achieves automaticity.Tasks can be done smoothly, without the person having to mentallymonitor or pay attention to how he or she is performing. Training 9
  10. 10. v) Sequencing of Training Sessions:Training sessions can be sequenced into two ways: a) Part versus whole b) Massed versus spacedPart training refers breaking a task into components, which arelearned at one time.Whole training occurs when the entire task is taught at one time. Part training is preferred over whole training when tasks are toocomplex to be learned at once. Training 10
  11. 11. Massed training means that the training sessions are long induration and take place over a relatively short period of time.Spaced training means that training sessions are relatively shortand are spread out over time.• Massed training can be very efficient• Spaced training can be more effective than massed training in thelong term and produces better learning. Training 11
  12. 12. 3) Work Environment1. The work environment must be supportive where supervisorsand other people encourage the application of learned principles.2. On the job the trained employees must get the opportunity touse the new training. Training 12
  13. 13. Training Methods1. Audiovisual InstructionMaterials are presentedelectronically using audiotape,videotape, DVD, or computer.2. AutoinstructionThe training which is self-paced and does not use an instructor iscalled autoinstruction. Training 13
  14. 14. 3. ConferenceA conference is a meeting oftrainees and a trainer whereparticipants can discuss thematerial and ask questions.4. LectureA lecture is a presentation by a trainerto a group of trainee. Training 14
  15. 15. 5. ModelingIn modeling trainees watch someoneperform a task and then having themmodel what they have seen.6. On-the-Job TrainingAny method used to show employeeshow to do the job while they aredoing it is called on the job training. Training 15
  16. 16. 7. Role PlayingA role play is a type of simulation inwhich the trainee pretends to bedoing a task.8. SimulationsIn simulation specializedequipments or materials are usedto portray a task situation. Training 16
  17. 17. ConclusionEach training method has its advantages and limitations, so thereis no one best way to train. Rather, the methods can be used incombination. 4. Delivery of a Training ProgramTo be effective the training program must be delivered properly bythe specialists who are skilled in training. Training 17
  18. 18. 5. EvaluationAn evaluation is a piece of research to see whether or not theprogram had its intended effects. Training 18