ECO-Tex in relation to worldtextile marketKhaled Ebrahim El-NagarNational Institute of the ArtsTersa St., Haram, Giza , Egypt.P.O. Box 136 Giza, Code No. 12211
What is Eco-friendly material?• Dictionary: describes a product that has beendesigned to do the least possible damage to theenvironment• US EPA – EPP program defines as:"...products or services that have a lesser or reducedeffect on human health and the environment whencompared with competing products or services thatserve the same purpose..."
Properties of Eco-Friendly MaterialsECO-FRIENDLYMATERIALS& TECHNIQUESRenewable SourceReuse of WasteproductEmbodied EnergyLocal AvailabilityReduction in air, landand water pollutionDurability & LifespanAids EnergyEfficiency inbuildingsReuse/recycleBiodegradable
What is Textile Processing..?It has four basic processPreparatoryDyeingPrintingFinishingTesting
Preparation•The ultimate goal of any preparation process is toproduce fabric that is clean and rid of all impurities thatinterfere with dyeing and finishing.•Fabric preparation is the first of the wet processingstepsDesizingScouringBleaching
What Is “Dyeing”…..?The pleasure derived from imparting colour to clothing has existedsince the time of the earliest civilizations;A world of fashion without colour is impossible to imagine. Colorationprocesses produce the most visible results of all the finishingoperations carried out during the preparation of textile goods
What Is Printing….?Textile printing is the most versatile and important of themethods used for introducing colour and design to textilefabrics.Considered analytically it is a process of bringing together adesign idea, one or more colorants, and a textile substrate(usually a fabric), using a technique for applying thecolorants with some precision.
What is finishing…..?This facilitates production of attractive ready-to-sell textiles intended to fulfilrequirements for specific use.This includes all processes which help to maintain the value or increase the value ofthe textile material.Textile finishing therefore makes textile raw material usable by creating propertieswith a useful effect.
Digital Printing• Digitalprinting,themostadvancedtechnologyintextileprintingisanemergingnewtechnique.• Digitalprintinginsimpletermsistheprocessofcreatingprintsgeneratedanddesignedfromacomputer,asopposedtoanalogprinting,whichrequiresprintingscreens.• Amongthevariousapproachesfordigitalprintingincludingelectrophotography,inkjethasgainedaverysignificantplaceinthefieldofinnovativeprintingtechniques.
The concept of Nanotech was first developed in 1930, that time it Iscalled as bottom science.ThetermNanoarisefrom1970 sonly.‟The term Nano comes from a Greek word Nanos which means‟ ‟Dwarf .‟Dwarf means abnormally small.1nm=10-9mIt is about 75000 to 100000 times smaller than the diameter of thehuman hair.This technology that can work at the molecular level, atom by atomto create large structures with improved molecules organization bycontrolling shape and size at the Nano scale.Nano Technology……
Application of Nano Technology in processing NanoNano dyeingNano finishing
Characteristics of Nano finished Textile materialsTheir protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye.Saving time and laundering.This technology embraces environmental friendly properties.The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat.Nano processed products are toxic freeGarments are good looking and more durable than ordinary materialManufacturing cost is low, adding value to the products.
EnzymesEnzymes come from a Greek word “Enzymos” which means„in the cell or „from the cell .‟ ‟Enzymes are proteins, composed of amino acids, which areproduced by all living organisms. These are responsible fornumber of reactions and biological activities.Enzymes not only work efficiently and rapidly alsobiodegradable.
Enzymatic DesizingDesizing using enzymes is the most effective and widelyused method for the removal of Starch.Starch liquefying enzymes are directly used in requiredquantity under controlled condition of pH and temperature.Amylase enzyme from Malt extract were first used todegrade starch-based sizes for cheap and effectivedesizing. Two categories of amylasei.α-amylaseii.β-amylase
Cotton scouring using alkaline which requires harshchemicals and high temperature leads to high cost.Bio-scouring is an effective alternative to chemicalscouring.Cottonase T enzyme is widely used for scouring whichreduces the need for high energy consumption.It is versatile, economically viable and eco-friendly tocotton scouring.Bio-scouring
In bleaching, especially with hydrogen peroxide, thereactive dyes are very much sensitive to residual peroxide.The residual peroxides are converted into water andOxygen by using the enzymes which shows better resultsthan traditional method.Reaction takes place at 30-400C and pH 5.5-7.5 for 15 minEnzymes like Peroxidases, Glucose oxidases, etc are used.Bleach Killing
This process is removal of surface dyes from fabrics.Neutral stable cellulase enzyme is used for bio-washing.This enzymes replaces the pumice stones .It is produced from humicola isolans.It is leading to decolourisation without loss in fabricstrength.This enzyme acts at pH of 6Bio-washing
It is a finishing process of cellulosic fabrics andgarments.This process is improving surface of the material .This process is also called enzymatic singeing .Bio-polishing with acid cellulose effectively reducesfabric fuzz and pilling on denim materials.Bio-polishing
Plasma Technology…?Plasma is often called the "Fourth State of Matter," theother three being solid, liquid and gas.A gas becomes a plasma when the addition of heat orother energycauses a significant number of atoms torelease some or all of their electrons.The remaining parts of those atoms are left with a positivecharge, and the detached negative electrons are free tomove about.Those atoms and the resulting electrically charged gasare said to be "ionized." When enough atoms are ionizedto significantly affect the electrical characteristics of thegas, it is a plasma.
ApplicationsThe plasma modification of polymeric material susedastextiles, membranes, non-woven, composites, and soon, isable to optimize a lot of interesting properties.Mechanical PropertiesElectrical PropertiesWetting (hydrophilic)HydrophobicUv-protectionFlame-retardancy
ConclusionThus the Ultrasonic, Digital Printing , Bio ,Nano & Plasma technologyreplaces traditional method with more advantages such as:Replacing harmful chemicalsRequire less effluent treatmentsLow cost and less energy consumptionNo damages to materialssuperior quality of the productIn feature , one can expect to see many more developments in textiles ,based on above technologys