Intro to-anatomy-powerpoint-1227697925069712-8


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Intro to-anatomy-powerpoint-1227697925069712-8

  1. 1. Human AnatomyIntroduction
  2. 2.  Anatomical position – a common visual reference point  Person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward  Palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body
  3. 3.  Regional terms – names of specific body areas  Axial region – the main axis of the body  Appendicular region – the limbs Directional terminology  Refers to the body in anatomical position  Standardized terms of directions are paired terms
  4. 4. Orientation and DirectionalTerms
  5. 5. Orientation and DirectionalTerms
  6. 6. Orientation and DirectionalTerms
  7. 7. Regional Terms
  8. 8. Regional Terms
  9. 9. Body Planes and Sections
  10. 10. Body Planes and Sections Coronal (frontal) plane - Lies vertically and divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts Sagittal plane – lies vertically and divides the body into left and right sides.  Median (midsagittal) plane - Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline Transverse plane - runs horizontally and divides body into superior (up) and inferior (down) parts
  11. 11. Body Planes and Sections  Oblique section through the trunk Figure 1.6
  12. 12. Body Cavities and Membranes Dorsal body cavity Cavity subdivided into the cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity.  Cranial cavity houses the brain.  Vertebral cavity runs through the vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord
  13. 13. Body Cavities and Membranes Ventral body cavity – subdivided into:  Thoracic cavity – divided into three parts  Two lateral parts each containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity  Mediastinum – contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac
  14. 14. Body Cavities and Membranes Ventral body cavity  Abdominopelvic cavity – divided into two parts  Abdominal cavity – contains the liver, stomach, kidneys, and other organs  Pelvic cavity – contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum
  15. 15. Body Cavities and Membranes Serous cavities – a slit-like space lined by a serous membrane  Pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum  Parietal serosa – outer wall of the cavity  Visceral serosa covers the visceral organs
  16. 16. Body Cavities and Membranes
  17. 17. Other Body Cavities Oral cavity Nasal cavity Orbital cavities Middle ear cavities Synovial cavities
  18. 18. Abdominal Regions and Quadrants Abdominal regions divide the abdomen into nine regions
  19. 19. Abdominal Quadrants Abdominal quadrants divide the abdomen into four quadrants  Right upper and left upper quadrants  Right lower and left lower quadrants
  21. 21. EPITHELIAL TISSUE(COVERING) Tightly-joined closely-packed cells One side of epithelium exposed to air or internal fluid, other side attached to a basement membrane, a dense mat of extracellular matrix (connective tissue) Covers the outside of the body and lines the internal organs and cavities Barrier against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss Provides surface for absorption, excretion and transport of molecules
  22. 22. TYPES OFEPITHELIALTISSUE Cell shape  Squamous (flat & thin)  Cuboidal (box or square)  Columnar (rectangular) Number of cell layers  Simple (one)  Stratified (two or more)  Pseudostratified (one but appears to be two) RELATE STRUCTURE TO FUNCTION!
  23. 23. CONNECTIVE TISSUE(FRAMEWORK) Main function: binding and support other tissues Large amount of extra-cellular matrix with fewer cells Connective tissue cells secrete the extra-cellular matrix Extracellular matrix consists of network of fibers in liquid, jelly- like or solid matrix
  24. 24. MUSCLE TISSUE(MOVEMENT)  Composed of long cells called muscle fibers  Contraction  movement
  25. 25. NERVOUS TISSUE (CONTROL) Senses stimuli and transmits signals called nerve Axon impulses from one part of an animal to another Dendrite Consists of a cell body and long Cell body extensions called dendrites (towards cell body) and axons (towards another cell or an effector)
  26. 26. Tissue Type Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve Cell Shape Flattened, Irregular or round Elongated Cell appendages cuboidal, branched columnar Cell Single  Scattered in In sheets or Isolated or Arrangement multilayered matrix bundles networked Location Body covering or Supports other Lining internal Concentrated in lining organs or organs organs, make brain and spinal cavities skeletal muscles cord + all over the bodySurface Feature Cilia, microvilli - - - of Cells Matrix Type Basement Varied – protein - - membrane fibers + liquid, gelatinous, firm to calcifiedMatrix Amount Minimal Extensive Absent AbsentUnique Feature No direct blood Cartilage has no Can generate Can generate supply, except for blood supply electrical signals, electrical signal glands force and movement