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  1. 1. capsicum Made by :Khloud A.Elbasetunder supervision of Prof. Dr. / MOHAMED ELSAYED
  2. 2. IntroductionFamily : capsicum (the name it camefrom )Molecular Formula: C18H27NO3IUPAC Name : 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide Molecular Mass :305.41 g/molAppearance : colorless crystalline orhydrophobic (waxy) compoundMelting point: 62 - 65 °C
  3. 3. Chemical structure : Capsaicin and its analogues:
  4. 4. Uses FoodBecause of the burning sensation causedby capsaicin when it comes in contact withhuman flesh, it is commonly used in foodproducts to give them added spice.Hot sauce is an example of a productcustomarily containing largeamounts of capsaicin and may contain chilipeppers
  5. 5. Medical usesCapsaicin is currently used: 1.In ointments to relieve the pain ofperipheral neuropathy such as post-herpetic neuralgia caused by shingles. Itmay be used in concentrations of between0.025% and 0.075%2.It may also be used as a cream for thetemporary relief of minor aches and painsof muscles and joints associated witharthritis, simple backache.
  6. 6. 3. may cause weight loss :Past researchsuggests that obesity can be reduced bypreventing immature fat cells (adipocytes) fromdeveloping into mature cells. 4. capsaicin is being explored as a cure fordiabetes by researchers in Toronto, Canada.Capsaicin was injected into pancreatic sensorynerves of mice with Type 1 diabetes because ofa suspected link between the nerves anddiabetes, & it is also has a role in controllingtype 11 diabetes …….5. The American Association for Cancer Researchreports studies suggesting capsaicin is able tokill prostate cancer cells by causing them to
  7. 7. Mechanism of actionA. Feeling pain :Capsaicin, as a member of the vanilloid family,binds to a receptor called the vanilloidreceptor(VR1)By binding to the VR1, result in "depolarization"of the neuron stimulates it to release aneurotransmitter signal the brain ( feel pain orburn sensation )…
  8. 8. B. DesensitizationWith chronic exposure to capsaicin, neurons aredepleted of neurotransmitters. This leads toreduction in sensation of pain and blockade ofneurogenic inflammation. If capsaicin isremoved, the neurons recover.
  9. 9. Mech. Of diabetes control :In Type1 diabetes Scientists “Doctor Dosch” found that islet cellsin diabetics were surrounded by an "enormous"number of pain nerves that signaled the brainthat the pancreatic tissue was damaged ; thusthe pancreas fails to produce sufficient levels ofinsulin, causing inflammation and death ofinsulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas.To test their theory, they injected capsaicin intomice that had Type 1 diabetes, to kill theanimals pancreatic pain nerves. Theresearchers said they were stunned to discoverthat the injected mices islet cells beganproducing insulin normally almost immediately.
  10. 10. N.B :Capsaicin "high“The "capsaicin high" is a euphoric: As It is theorized that the pain induced bycapsaicin causes the human body to releaseendorphins. Eventually, enough are releasedto create a sensation that is frequentlycompared to "runners high".
  11. 11. Practical experimentTools :a. Capsaicin extraction: 1) Finely chop/grind the peppers2) Add solvent, allow capsaicin to dissolve in it.3) Filter, evaporate filtrate.b. 4 gps of 5 rats
  12. 12. Method : 1. 4 gps of 5 rats ( control , 3 diabetic ). a. control  with normal BGL eats normally . b. gp2  diabetic rats with diet control . c. gp3 diabetic rats taking insulin treatment d. gp4  diabetic rats taking capsaicin.2. Insulin and capsaicin administration : Two injections daily of a mixture of insulin orcapsaicin 50mg/kg (before breakfast and themain evening meal) Injections by syringe are usually given into thedeep SC tissue through a two-finger pinch ofskin at a 45° angle
  13. 13. Gp 1 gp2 gp3gp4Control diabetic diabeticdiabetic
  14. 14. Tests : 1. blood glucose level : a.fasting blood glucose level b. postprandial glucose level2. HTRF® Insulin assay: The assay is asandwich immunoassay that uses twomonoclonal antibodies, one labeled with Eu3+-Cryptate and one labeled with XL665 thatrecognize distinct epitopes. The assay isperformed in a single step and only requires oneincubation
  15. 15. Results Test Control gp2 gp3 gp4BGL: a. FBG 80mg/dl 180mg/dl 140mg/dl 90mg/dl b. PPGL 110mg/dl 200mg/dl 100mg/dl 115mg/dl + + + +ve -ve + +ve + + +ve Insulin test
  16. 16. Graphs
  17. 17. Conclusion :In case of diabetes type 1 ( insulindependent diabetes ) capsaicin is used fortreatment of pancreatic neuronsinflammation result in producing insulinnormally again .