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Chapter 2 Method in Java OOP

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Chapter 2 Method in Java OOP

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Chapter 2 Method in Java OOP

  1. 1. 1Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Chapter 2 Methods
  2. 2. 2Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Motivations A method is a construct for grouping statements together to perform a function. Using a method, you can write the code once for performing the function in a program and reuse it by many other programs. For example, often you need to find the maximum between two numbers. Whenever you need this function, you would have to write the following code: int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; If you define this function for finding a maximum number between any two numbers in a method, you don’t have to repeatedly write the same code. You need to define it just once and reuse it by any other programs.
  3. 3. 3Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Objectives To define methods, invoke methods, and pass arguments to a method. To develop reusable code that is modular, easy-to-read, easy-to- debug, and easy-to-maintain. To determine the scope of variables.
  4. 4. 4Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Defining Methods A method is a collection of statements that are grouped together to perform an operation. public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } modifier return value type method name formal parameters return value method body method header parameter list Define a method Invoke a method int z = max(x, y); actual parameters (arguments) method signature
  5. 5. 5Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Method Signature Method signature is the combination of the method name and the parameter list. public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } modifier return value type method name formal parameters return value method body method header parameter list Define a method Invoke a method int z = max(x, y); actual parameters (arguments) method signature
  6. 6. 6Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Formal Parameters The variables defined in the method header are known as formal parameters. public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } modifier return value type method name formal parameters return value method body method header parameter list Define a method Invoke a method int z = max(x, y); actual parameters (arguments) method signature
  7. 7. 7Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Actual Parameters When a method is invoked, you pass a value to the parameter. This value is referred to as actual parameter or argument. public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } modifier return value type method name formal parameters return value method body method header parameter list Define a method Invoke a method int z = max(x, y); actual parameters (arguments) method signature
  8. 8. 8Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Return Value Type A method may return a value. The returnValueType is the data type of the value the method returns. If the method does not return a value, the returnValueType is the keyword void. For example, the returnValueType in the main method is void. public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } modifier return value type method name formal parameters return value method body method header parameter list Define a method Invoke a method int z = max(x, y); actual parameters (arguments) method signature
  9. 9. 9Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Calling Methods Listing 2.1 Testing the max method This program demonstrates calling a method max to return the largest of the int values TestMaxTestMax
  10. 10. 10Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Calling Methods, cont. public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } pass the value of i pass the value of j animation
  11. 11. 11Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } i is now 5 animation
  12. 12. 12Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } j is now 2 animation
  13. 13. 13Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } invoke max(i, j) animation
  14. 14. 14Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } invoke max(i, j) Pass the value of i to num1 Pass the value of j to num2 animation
  15. 15. 15Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } declare variable result animation
  16. 16. 16Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } (num1 > num2) is true since num1 is 5 and num2 is 2 animation
  17. 17. 17Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } result is now 5 animation
  18. 18. 18Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } return result, which is 5 animation
  19. 19. 19Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } return max(i, j) and assign the return value to k animation
  20. 20. 20Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Trace Method Invocation public static void main(String[] args) { int i = 5; int j = 2; int k = max(i, j); System.out.println( "The maximum between " + i + " and " + j + " is " + k); } public static int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } Execute the print statement animation
  21. 21. 21Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 CAUTION A return statement is required for a value-returning method. The method shown below in (a) is logically correct, but it has a compilation error because the Java compiler thinks it possible that this method does not return any value. To fix this problem, delete if (n < 0) in (a), so that the compiler will see a return statement to be reached regardless of how the if statement is evaluated. public static int sign(int n) { if (n > 0) return 1; else if (n == 0) return 0; else if (n < 0) return –1; } (a) Should be (b) public static int sign(int n) { if (n > 0) return 1; else if (n == 0) return 0; else return –1; }
  22. 22. 22Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Reuse Methods from Other Classes NOTE: One of the benefits of methods is for reuse. The max method can be invoked from any class besides TestMax. If you create a new class Test, you can invoke the max method using ClassName.methodName (e.g., TestMax.max).
  23. 23. 23Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 void Method Example This type of method does not return a value. The method performs some actions. TestVoidMethodTestVoidMethod
  24. 24. 24Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Scope of Local Variables A local variable: a variable defined inside a method. Scope: the part of the program where the variable can be referenced. The scope of a local variable starts from its declaration and continues to the end of the block that contains the variable. A local variable must be declared before it can be used.
  25. 25. 25Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Scope of Local Variables, cont. You can declare a local variable with the same name multiple times in different non- nesting blocks in a method, but you cannot declare a local variable twice in nested blocks.
  26. 26. 26Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Scope of Local Variables, cont. A variable declared in the initial action part of a for loop header has its scope in the entire loop. But a variable declared inside a for loop body has its scope limited in the loop body from its declaration and to the end of the block that contains the variable. public static void method1() { . . for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) { . . int j; . . . } } The scope of j The scope of i
  27. 27. 27Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Scope of Local Variables, cont. public static void method1() { int x = 1; int y = 1; for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) { x += i; } for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) { y += i; } } It is fine to declare i in two non-nesting blocks public static void method2() { int i = 1; int sum = 0; for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) { sum += i; } } It is wrong to declare i in two nesting blocks
  28. 28. 28Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Scope of Local Variables, cont. // Fine with no errors public static void correctMethod() { int x = 1; int y = 1; // i is declared for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) { x += i; } // i is declared again for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) { y += i; } }
  29. 29. 29Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 Scope of Local Variables, cont. // With no errors public static void incorrectMethod() { int x = 1; int y = 1; for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) { int x = 0; x += i; } }

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