∞Isconsidered the “essence of life” because the uncontrolled loss of it can result in death. ∞Also thought to define character and emotions.∞Is a type of connective tissue, consisting of cells and cell fragments surrounded by liquid matrix.
Transport of gases, nutrients, and waste products Transport of processed molecules Transport of regulatory molecules Regulation of pH and osmosis Maintenance of body temperature Protection against foreign substances Clot formation
Is a pale yellow fluid that consist of about 91% water; 7% proteins; and 2% other substances, such as ions, nutrients, gases, and waste products
Albumin – makes up 58% of the plasma proteins Globulins – account for 38% of the plasma proteins Fibrinogen – is a clotting factor that constitutes 4% of plasma proteins
Red blood cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Hematopoiesis – process of blood cell production Stem cells or hemocytoblats – stem cells differentiate to give rise to different cell lines, each of which ends with the formation of a particular type of formed element Growth factors – development of each cell line is regulated by specific proteins
1. Red blood cells are biconcave discs containing hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase •A hemoglobin molecule consists of four heme and four globin molecules. The heme molecules transport oxygen. Iron is required for oxygen transport •The globin molecules transport carbon dioxide2. Carbon dioxide is transported dissolved in plasma (7%), bound to hemoglobin (23%), and as bicarbonate ions (70%)3. Carbonic anhydrase in red blood cells promotes the formation the formation of bicarbonate ions
Erythropoiesis is the production of red blood cells •Stem cells in red bone marrow give rise to proerythroblasts. Through a series of cell division and diffetiation, cells accumulate hemoglobin, lose their nuclei, and are released into the blood as reticulocytes, which become red blood cells. •In response to low blood oxygen, the kidneys produce erythroproietin, which stimulates erythropoiesis 5. Worn-out red blood cell are phagocytized by macrophages in the spleen or liver. Hemoglobin is broken down, iron and amino acids are reused, and heme becomes bilirubin that is secreted in bile.
1.White blood cell protect the body against microorganism and remove dead cell and debris.2.Five types of white blood cell exist. •Neutrophils are small phagocytic cells. •Eosinophils reduce infalmmation. •Basophils release histamine and are involved with increasing the inflammatory response. •Lymphocytes are important in immunity, including the production of antibodies. •Monocytes leave the blood, enter tissues, and become large phagocytic cells called macrophages
Neutrophils are small phagocytic cells. Eosinophils reduce inflammation. Basophils release histamine and are involved with increasing the inflammatory response. Lymphocytes are important in immunity, including the production of antibodies. Monocytes leave the blood, enter tissues, and become large phagocytic cells called macrophages
Are cell fragments involved with preventing blood loss. This prevention is accomplished in two ways:1. The formation of platelet plugs, which seal holes in small vessels2. The formation of clots, which help seal off lager wounds in the vessels
Vascular Spasm Is an immediate but temporary constriction of blood vessel resulting from a contraction of smooth muscle within the wall of the vessel.
1.Platelets repair minor damage to blood vessels by forming plate plugs. •In platelets adhension, platelets bind to collagen in damaged tissues. •In the platelets release reaction, platelets release chemicals that activate additional platelets. •In the platelets aggregation, platelets bind to one another to form a platelet plug.2.Platelets also release chemicals(ADP and thromboxanes) involved with blood clotting
1.Blood clotting, of coagulation, is the formation of a clot2.Blood cltting begins with the extrinsic of intrinsic pathway. Both pathways end with the production of activated factor X. •The extrinsic pathways begins with the release of thromboplastin from damage tissues •The intrinsic pathway begins with the activation of afctorXII3.Activated factor X, factor V, phospholipids, and Ca form prothrombinase.4.Prothrombin is converted to thrombin by prothrombinase.5.Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin by thrombin. The insoluble fibrin forms the clot.
- Anticoagulants in the blood, such as antithrombin and heparin, prevent clot formation. Clot Retraction and fibrinolysis1. Clot retraction results from the contraction of platelets, which pull the edges of damages tissue closer togather.2. Serum, whish is plasma minus fibrinogen and some clotting factors, is squeezed out of the clot.3. Thrombin and tissue plasminogen activator activate plasmin, which dissolves fibrin.
1. Blood groups are determined by antigens on the surface of red blood cells.2. In transfusion reactions, antibodies can bind to red blood cell antegens, resulting in agglutination or hemolysis of red blood cells.
N dIz Xtory, U wiLl kNow WhAt coLor meanS in Our Life… Tke a DiP braetH… Inhale …Inhale..exHAle …ExhaLE… hoooHH… Don’t v fOOledd,,
Once upon a time the colors of the world started to quarrel: all claimed that they were the best, the most important, the most useful, the favorite.GREEN said: “Clearly I am the most important. I am the sign of life and of hope. I was chosen for grass, trees, leaves - without me, all animals would die. Look over the countryside and you will see that I am in the majority.”
BLUE interrupted: “Youonly think about the earth,but consider the sky andthe sea. It is the water thatis the basis of life and,drawn up by the clouds,forms the deep sea. Thesky gives space and peaceand serenity. Without mypeace, you would all benothing.” YELLOW chuckled: “You are all so serious. I bring laughter, gaiety, and warmth into the world. The sun is yellow, the moon is yellow, the stars are yellow. Every time you look at a sunflower, the whole world starts to smile. Without me there would be no fun.”
ORANGE started next to blow her trumpet: “I am the color of health and strength. I may be scarce, but I am precious for I serve the needs of human life. I carry the most important vitamins. Think of carrots, pumpkins, oranges, mangoes, and pawpaws. I don’t hang around all the time, but when I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset, my beauty is so striking that no one gives another thought to any of you.”RED could stand it no longer. Heshouted out: “I am the ruler of all ofyou - I am blood - life’s blood! I am thecolor of danger and of bravery. I amwilling to fight for a cause. I bring fireinto the blood. Without me, the earthwould be empty as the moon. I am thecolor of passion and of love, the redrose, the poinsettia and the poppy.”
PURPLE rose up to his full height.He was very tall and spoke withgreat pomp: “I am the color ofroyalty and power. Kings, chiefs,and bishops have always chosenme for I am the sign of authorityand wisdom. People do notquestion me - they listen andobey.” Finally, INDIGO spoke, much more quietly than all the others, but with just as much determination: “Think of me. I am the color of silence. You hardly notice me, but without me you all become superficial. I represent thought and reflection, twilight and deep water. You need me for balance and contrast, for prayer and inner peace.”
And so the colors went on boasting, each convinced of his or her own superiority. Their quarreling became louder and louder. Suddenly there was a startling flash of bright lightening - thunder rolled and boomed. Rain started to pour down relentlessly. The colors crouched down in fear, drawing close to one another for comfort.In the midst of the clamor, rain began to speak: ” Youfoolish colors, fighting amongst yourselves, eachtrying to dominate the rest. Don’t you know that youwere each made for a special purpose, unique anddifferent? Join hands with one another and come tome.”
Doing as they were told, the colors united and joined hands. The rain continued: “From now on, when it rains, each of you will stretch across the sky in a great bow of color as a reminder that you can all live in peace. The RAINBOW is a sign of hope for tomorrow.”And so, whenever a good rain washes the world, and a rainbow appears in thesky, let us remember to appreciate one another.