Business Research (Lecture 5) Muhammad Fahid Saleem
Literature Review A body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. A comprehensive survey of publications in a specific field of study or related to a particular line of research. Non-quantitative summary of existing published literature made by experts who select and weigh findings available from the literature. A summary and interpretation of research findings reported in the literature. A process and documentation of the current relevant research literature regarding a particular topic or subject of interest.
Purpose of Literature Review1. Define and Limit Problem Develop familiarity and clarity with the topic Limit the research to a subtopic within the larger body of knowledge.2. Place study in historical perspective Analysis of way in which study relates to existing knowledge3. Avoid unintentional and unnecessary replication Awareness of prior studies so as to avoid unneeded replication Replication is reasonable if it is needed to verify prior results, investigate results that failed to be significant, or relate problem to a specific site
Purpose of Literature Review (Cont.)1. Select promising methods and measures Knowledge of and insight into specific research designs for investigating a problem Awareness of specific instruments, sampling procedures, and data analyses2. Relate findings to previous knowledge and suggest future research needs Relating prior research to what is known places current study in perspective This knowledge allows researcher to focus problem on what is not known3. Develop research hypotheses Suggestions for specific research hypotheses
What is Literature Books Journals Conference Papers Theses Bibliographies Internet Indexes/Abstracts Audio-Visual material Government Reports News Papers Grey Literature The Fourth International Conference on Grey Literature in Washington, DC, in October 1999 defined grey literature as follows: "That which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers”. Grey literature is not a specific genre of document, but a specific, non-commercial means of disseminating information. (Wikipedia)
Three types of literaturePrimary Secondary TertiaryReports Newspapers IndexesThesis Books AbstractsEmails Journals DictionariesConference Reports Internet BibliographiesCompany Reports Some Govt. Publications Catalogues
Boolean OperatorsBoolean operators allow you to join terms together, widen a search or excludeterms from your search results. This means you can be more precise in locatingyour information. AND OR NOT
Phrase Searching It narrows your search down by searching for an exact phrase or sentence. It is particularly useful when searching for a title or a quotation. Usually quotation marks are used to connect the words together. For example “Towards a healthier Pakistan”
Truncation / Wildcard These search techniques retrieve information on similar words by replacing part of the word with a symbol usually a * or ?. However, different databases use different symbols, so check what is used. In truncation the end of the word is replaced. For example physiother* will retrieve physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic, physiotherapist and so on. In wildcard searching, letters from inside the word are replaced. For example wom*n will retrieve the terms woman and women.
Proximity Searching It looks for documents where two or more separately matching term occurrences are within a specified distance, where distance is the number of intermediate words or characters For example Term A NEAR Term B Term A ADJ Term B
Focusing / Limiting a SearchThere are many ways to focus your search and all search tools offer different ways of doing this. Some of the ways of limiting your search are as follows: Date Language Place Publication type Age groups Type of material e.g. you could just need to find case studies
General Search Engines Google Yahoo AltaVista FAST Search MSN Search Lycos Excite
Scholarly Search Engines Google Scholar Infomine Librarians’ Internet Index Intute Pinakes Business Research ISI Web of Science
Subject DirectoriesAlso called Information Gateways and Virtual Libraries Yahoo Directory Google Directory Librarians’ Internet Index About.com Infomine The WWW Virtual Library Specialized Subject Directories Abi Logic Solid Crawler Academic Info SOSIG - Social Science Information Gateway
Electronic Theses and Dissertations - ETDs Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations Catalog of theses and doctoral dissertations contributed by some 176 universities and 27 institutions worldwide British Library EThOS 250,000+ theses of British universities Many are free Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database World’s most comprehensive collection of dissertations and theses with over 2.7 million titles
Online Databases Bibliographic databases ERIC, Agricola, Medline, EconLit, PsychINFO Numeric databases Stat-USA, UN Common Database Full text databases ScienceDirect, Emerald, JSTOR
Free e-books Gigapedia 300,000+ books, the largest e-book repository The Online Books Page 35,000+ books Project Gutenberg 30,000+ books Internet Public Library 20,000+ books
HEC – Online Resources National Digital Library Over 30 databases with over 23,000 journals Accessible by 250 institutions in Pakistan 50,000 e-books Links to open access resources Pakistan Research Repository Full text of over 1800 Pakistani doctoral theses
Evaluating information sources for relevance – Book Skim its index for your key words, then skim the pages on which those words occur. Skim the first and last paragraphs in chapters that use a lot of your key words. Skim introduction, summary chapters, and so on. Skim the last chapter, especially the first and last two or three pages. If the source is a collection of articles, skim the editor’s introduction. Check the bibliography for titles relevant to your topic.
Evaluating information sources forrelevance – Article Read the abstract. Skim the introduction and conclusion, or if they are not marked by headings, skim the first six or seven paragraphs and the last four or five. Skim for section headings, and read the first and last paragraphs of those sections. Check the bibliography for titles relevant to your topic.
Evaluating information sources forrelevance – Online If it looks like a printed article, follow the steps for a journal article. Skim sections labeled “introduction,” “overview,” “summary,” or the like. If there are none, look for a link labeled “About the Site” or something similar. If the site has a link labeled “Site Map” or “Index,” check it for your key words and skim the referenced pages. If the site has a “search” resource, type in your key words.
Use colour post-its to mark relevance Red - high relevance Blue – medium relevance Yellow – low relevance
Evaluating information sources for reliability Audience Authority Bias Currency Scope
Evaluating information sources forreliability (Cont.) Audience What age group/education level/political affiliation/etc. is the audience? Is this for a person with in-depth knowledge or a layperson? Authority Does the author’s name appear on the Web page? What are his/her credentials? Does the author provide contact information? Bias Is the source objective? Could the writer or the organization’s affiliation put a different spin on the information presented? What is the purpose of the source?
Evaluating information sources forreliability (Cont.) Currency When was the work published? When was the work last updated? How old are the sources or items in the bibliography? How current is the topic? If a Web page, do the links work? Scope What does/doesn’t the work cover? Is it an in-depth study (many pages) or superficial (one page)? Are sources and statistics cited? If a site, does it offer unique info not found in any other source?
Literature Review (How) Points to note & report about any study Main objectives and Sub-objectives Any significant Theory in LR Methodology Population Sample Limitations Nature of Data Dimensions Variables etc. Statistical Test Applied Findings
Structure of review articles Literature reviews are in reality a type of research Should conform to the anatomy of a typical scholarly article Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusion References
Structure of literature review Introduction Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern. Body Contains your discussion of sources. Conclusions/Recommendations Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?
Organization of literature review A general organization looks like a funnel Broader topics Subtopics Studies like yours
How to organize studies Chronological By publication date By trend Thematic A structure which considers different themes Methodological Focuses on the methods of the researcher, e.g., qualitative versus quantitative approaches
Making links between studies Agreements Similarly, author B points to… Likewise, author C makes the case that… Author D also makes this point… Again, it is possible to see how author E agrees with author D… Disagreements However, author B points to… On the other hand, author C makes the case that… Conversely, Author D argues… Nevertheless, what author E suggests…
Summary table It is useful to prepare. Such a table provides a quick overview that allows the reviewer to make sense of a large mass of information. The tables could include columns with headings such as Author type of study Sample Design data collection approach key findings
Citation Sample Environment Method Conclusions Atmospherics in service environmentsSummary table of literature Colour Bellizzi, Crowley and 125 Adults Furniture store Laboratory Warm and cool colours created different emotional Hasty (1983) experiment responses. Customers view red retail environments as Photographic more negative and unpleasant than blue. slide simulations Bellizzi, & Hite 70 Adult women Televisions Laboratory Study based on PAD affect measures and approach- (1992) 107 Students shown with experiments avoidance behaviours. different colour Photographic More positive retail outcomes occurred in blue backgrounds slide environments than red. Furniture stores simulations Music Smith and Curnow 1100 Retail store Field Time in store reduced with loud music but level of sales (1966) Supermarket experiment did not. shoppers Milliman (1982) 216 Shoppers Supermarket Field The tempo of background music influenced the pace at experiment which customers shopped. Slow tempo music slowed customers down but resulted in increased volume of sales. Hui, Dubé and Chebat 116 Students Bank branch Laboratory The positive impact of music on approach behaviours is (1997) - waiting for experiment mediated by an emotional evaluation of the environment service. Video and the emotional response to waiting. Pleasurable music simulation produced longer perceived waiting times. Lighting Areni and Kim (1994) 171 Shoppers Wine store Field The investigation found that brighter in-store lighting experiment influenced shoppers to examine and handle more of the merchandise in the store Summers and Hebert 2367 Customers Hardware store Field Confirmed Areni and Kims (1994) results. Increased (2001) Apparel store experiment levels of lighting will produce arousal and pleasure and increase the approach behaviours of customers. 37
Citation styles Information prominent citation Example: For viscoelastic fluids, the behaviour of the time-dependent stresses in the transient shear flows is also very important (Boger et al., 1974). Author prominent citation Examples: Close (1983) developed a simplified theory using an analogy between heat and mass transfer and the equivalent heat transfer only case. Several authors have suggested that automated testing should be more readily accepted (Balcer, 1989; Stahl, 1989; Carver & Tai, 1991).
Active or passive voice You should use, where appropriate, both active and passive voice As a general rule, use active voice unless there is good reason not to
Verb tenses – Present A statement about what the thesis, chapter or section does Examples: This thesis presents a report of an investigation into ……. This chapter thus provides a basis for the next. In this section, the results from the first set of experiments are reported. A statement of a generally accepted scientific fact Examples: There are three factors that control the concentration of aluminum in seawater. The finite rate coefficients have an effect on heat transfer through a horizontal porous layer.
Verb tenses – Present A review of current research work, or research work of immediate relevance to your study. Example: Schulze (2002) concludes that hydraulic rate has a significant effect on future performance. Comments, explanations and evaluative statements made by you when you are reviewing previous studies. Examples: Therefore, this sequential approach is impractical in the real world where projects are typically large and the activities from one stage may be carried out in parallel with the activities of another stage. The reason for this anomalous result is that the tests were done at low hydraulic rates at which the plastic packing was not completely wetted.
Verb tenses – Past Report the contents, findings or conclusions of past research Examples: Haberfield (1998) showed that the velocity of many enzyme reactions was slowed down if the end product had an increased paramagnetism. Allington (1999) found that the temperatures varied significantly over time.
Verb tenses – Present perfect In citations where the focus is on the research area of several authors Examples: Several studies have provided support for the suggestion that the amount of phonological recoding that is carried out depends on orthographic depth (Frost, 1994; Smart et al, 1997; Katz & Feldman, 2001, 2002). Joint roughness has been characterized by a number of authors (Renger, 1990; Feker & Rengers, 1997; Wu & Ali, 2000). To generalize about the extent of the previous research Examples: Many studies have been conducted in this field. Few researchers have examined this technique. There has been extensive research into.........
The Writing Process Rough Draft Final Draft Edit Edit Again
Show others Have someone else look at your literature review for Clarity Can they understand what you’re trying say? Flow Does the organization make sense? Completeness Are there areas left out? Questions left unanswered? Statements without citations?
A Good Literature Review is: Focused - The topic should be narrow. You should only present ideas and only report on studies that are closely related to topic. Concise - Ideas should be presented economically. Don’t take any more space than you need to present your ideas. Logical - The flow within and among paragraphs should be a smooth, logical progression from one idea to the next Developed - Don’t leave the story half told. Integrative - Your paper should stress how the ideas in the studies are related. Focus on the big picture. What commonality do all the studies share? How are some studies different than others? Your paper should stress how all the studies reviewed contribute to your topic. Current - Your review should focus on work being done on the cutting edge of your topic
Pitfalls Vagueness due to too much or inappropriate generalizations Limited range Insufficient information Irrelevant material Omission of contrasting view Omission of recent work
Common errors in reviewing literature Hurrying through review to get started could mean that you will miss something that will improve your research. Relying too heavily upon secondary sources. Concentrating on findings rather than methods. Overlooking sources other than academic journals. Don’t forget newspaper articles, magazines, blogs, etc. Searching too broad or too narrow of a topic. Inaccuracy in the compiling of bibliographic information.
When should I cite (Other than literatureReview)? Is it your idea? Yes NO Is it common knowledge? Do not cite No Cite it!!50
Performance Appraisal (Sequence) Introduction (Introductory remarks about) History and philosophy of ….. Reasons for (Importance) ……… Trends in (Global & Subcontinent) History & Trends in Punjab (Pak) The Act or Policy of…… Problems and Issues in …… Gaps in the Literature Your Objective