Plastic

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A little presentation about plastic industry and revolution.

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Plastic

  1. 2. <ul><li>The history of plastics goes back more than 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Their usage over the past century has enabled society to make huge technological </li></ul><ul><li>advances to take us towards the new Millennium. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-20th Century Although we think of plastic as a modern invention, there have </li></ul><ul><li>always been &quot;natural polymers&quot; such as amber, tortoiseshell and horn. </li></ul><ul><li>These materials behaved very much like manufactured plastics and were often put </li></ul><ul><li>to similar uses to today's materials - for example, horn, which becomes transparent </li></ul><ul><li>and pale yellow when heated, was used to replace glass in the 18th century. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>It was the game of billiards that provided the unlikely cause for its eventual </li></ul><ul><li>commercial success. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Hyatt brothers were attempting to develop a substitute for the ivory </li></ul><ul><li>billiard ball and in so doing came up with a process for manufacturers using a </li></ul><ul><li>nitrate cellulose composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Celluloid was thus born and was patented in 1870 . </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Bakelite - a hard, dark plastic - was discovered by Leo Baekeland, a Belgian-born </li></ul><ul><li>chemist in 1907 and was the first truly synthetic plastic to be patented. </li></ul><ul><li>Bakelite brought plastics into consumers' lives in a variety of ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Its excellent insulating properties made it an ideal material for hairdryers, radio </li></ul><ul><li>cabinets, ashtrays and cameras. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>In 1922 a German chemist, Hermann Staudinger, made a discovery which would </li></ul><ul><li>change the whole face of the plastics industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Through working with synthesized rubber, he found that plastics are made from </li></ul><ul><li>chains of thousands of molecules linked together, known as &quot;superpolymers&quot; - a </li></ul><ul><li>find which prompted the invention of many new plastics. </li></ul><ul><li>1922 - first spectacles molded in cellulose acetate (in France) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>World War II meant a huge boost for plastics. </li></ul><ul><li>The production of plastics which are still used widely today - such as polyethylene, </li></ul><ul><li>polystyrene, polyester, PET and silicones - all grew during the wartime period. </li></ul><ul><li>Nylon, the first totally man-made fiber, had been discovered at the end of the 20s, </li></ul><ul><li>but was not put to great use until the 40s. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>PVC really took off during this decade and into the 1950s. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1950s The 50s saw the growth of decorative laminates such as Formica, first </li></ul><ul><li>popular in the United States where they were used widely in espresso bars and </li></ul><ul><li>dinettes. </li></ul><ul><li>A first for the car industry: 1956 saw the major use of plastics in car body design </li></ul><ul><li>when the roof of a Citroen DS was made from unsaturated polyester reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>with fiberglass. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>During the 50s plastics became a major force in the clothing industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Polyester, Lycra and nylon were easy to wash, needed no ironing and were often </li></ul><ul><li>cheaper than their natural alternatives and, as a result, were hugely popular with </li></ul><ul><li>consumers tired of the tyranny of housework. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>1960 saw the first use of PVC to bottle mineral water. </li></ul><ul><li>The first domestic items made from molded polypropylene were developed from </li></ul><ul><li>1963 onwards - including combs, lemon squeezers and bottle stoppers. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>The explosion in global communications during the 80s and 90s has been made </li></ul><ul><li>largely possible through the use of plastics. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment such as computers, fiber optic cables and telephones all use plastics </li></ul><ul><li>widely in their design to provide strength, light weight, insulation and flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport also has started using plastics more widely. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Fada Radio model 652, &quot;The Temple&quot;, 1946
  11. 12. Wind-up Toy Baby, 1960s Teddy Bear, 1960s
  12. 13. Olivetti Lettera 31 Typewriter, 1965 Rubik Cube, 1980s

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