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Part #1

  1. 1. Phenomenology <ul><li>Group Research Methods Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Kendra Hartney, Erica Collyer, </li></ul><ul><li>Christine Yeung </li></ul>
  2. 2. Phenomenology <ul><li>It is the study of lived experience, how the phenomenon appears to the consciousness of the person. For example: Person A sees a painting as ugly whereas Person B sees the same painting as beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to get an accurate description of experience as experienced by the individual. The “givenness” of the phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no claim that what is described is the objective “truth” of what really took place </li></ul>(Giorgi, 1997)
  3. 3. Philosophical Foundations <ul><li>Phenomenology challenges “naive realism” in which the existence of things is often taken for granted </li></ul><ul><li>“ Truths” are the objects of consciousness, and “reality” is described through language </li></ul><ul><li>It does not want to achieve certainty and attribute “realness” or “existence” to an object or event. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather phenomenologists want to examine “presence”, and understand how the phenomenon presents itself to the individual. </li></ul>(Giorgi, 1997; Goulding, 1997; Wertz, 1999)
  4. 4. Key Characteristics <ul><li>The Data- the basic datum is the conscious human being and data is obtained by entering into dialogue with others </li></ul><ul><li>The Methods of Understanding- limited analysis or interpretation. The researcher uses empathy to understand the participant’s psychological reality </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature of Knowledge- Phenomenology is not interested in explanation, but rather in what the experience is like, and the features of types of experiences </li></ul><ul><li>The Researcher- must “bracket” past knowledge, put aside all theories and personal experiences, and simply contemplate the description </li></ul>(Bentz & Shapiro, 1998; Giorgi, 1997)
  5. 5. The Phenomenological Research Steps <ul><li>Collection of verbal data- interview with broad, open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Reading of the data- in a holistic global sense </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking of the data into “meaning units” which are still expressed in the subject’s own language </li></ul><ul><li>Organization and expression of the data- the participant’s meanings are transformed from everyday language and the features are re-described in the researchers disciplinary language </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis or summary of the data for communication to the scholarly community </li></ul>(Giorgi, 1997)
  6. 6. Connections with Hermeneutics <ul><li>Like phenomenology, hermeneutics is concerned with human experience as it is lived. However it is the way the experience is explored that differs: </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness and it’s connection to the world- Phenomenology is concerned with the structures of experience, hermeneutics emphasizes context (one’s history or background). </li></ul><ul><li>While phenomenology is descriptive hermeneutics is interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes of Self-reflection of Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>The data in both phenomenology and hermeneutics includes people with lived experience who are willing to talk about it. However in hermeneutics the data also includes anything that is in the context of the phenomenon such as historical records, texts, artworks and objects </li></ul>(Bentz & Shapiro, 1998; Laverty, 2003)
  7. 7. Research Skills Involved <ul><li>Opposing views on the skills involved among phenomenological researchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One view: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenologist has a suspension of belief with an attitude of doubt towards the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ needs to develop specific research skills to enable him/her to get the ‘lived experiences’ without contaminating the data…” (p.1487) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Research Skills Involved <ul><ul><li>Second view: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenologist should have close involvement in the research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ subjective judgment of the researcher is valuable…” (p.1487) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Wimpenny & Gass, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Other General Skills <ul><li>“ ...the use of reflection, clarification, requests for examples and description and the conveyance of interest through listening techniques” (p.1487) </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher interest in the participants’ stories </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled at interviewing techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>begins by establishing the context of the interviewees experience, through to a construction of the experience and finally a reflection on the meaning it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wimpenny & Gass, 2000) </li></ul></ul>

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