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Ch 2 component of computer system


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Ch 2 component of computer system

  1. 1. 11 The parts of a computerThe parts of a computer Keyboard Mouse Speakers Disk drive Visual display unit/VDU/MonitorCentral processing unit (CPU) Hard disk (Backing store) Microphone
  2. 2. 22 Hardware & SoftwareHardware & Software HardwareHardware Physical Component of aPhysical Component of a ComputerComputer We can touch these partsWe can touch these parts Allow user to enter dataAllow user to enter data and information intoand information into computer and retrievecomputer and retrieve Can not perform any taskCan not perform any task without Softwarewithout Software If problem occur inIf problem occur in hardware then it willhardware then it will repaired.repaired. SoftwareSoftware Logical Component of aLogical Component of a ComputerComputer We can not touchWe can not touch These are in form ofThese are in form of instructions that tell theinstructions that tell the computer that what to docomputer that what to do It can not executed withoutIt can not executed without hardware.hardware. If any problem in softwareIf any problem in software then it will reinstall.then it will reinstall.
  3. 3. 33 HardwareHardware TheThe motherboardmotherboard is the main electronicis the main electronic component of the computercomponent of the computer  Circuit boardCircuit board TheThe microprocessormicroprocessor is one of the mostis one of the most important pieces of processing hardwareimportant pieces of processing hardware on the motherboardon the motherboard CardsCards are removable circuit boardsare removable circuit boards
  4. 4. 44 Computer componentsComputer components Logical units of a computerLogical units of a computer  Input unitInput unit  Output unitOutput unit  Memory unitMemory unit  Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)  Central processing unit (CPU)Central processing unit (CPU)  Secondary storage unitSecondary storage unit
  5. 5. 55 The Central Processing UnitThe Central Processing Unit Central Processing Unit Backing store Output devices Input devices Immediate access store Control unit Arithmetic & logic unit Data signals Control signals
  6. 6. 66 WorkingWorking Input Unit CPU Unit Ram / Rom ALU & Logical Unit Control Unit Output Unit Storage Devices
  7. 7. 77 Input & OutputInput & Output The data or instructions you type into theThe data or instructions you type into the computer are calledcomputer are called inputinput The result of the computer processingThe result of the computer processing your input is referred to asyour input is referred to as outputoutput Peripheral devicesPeripheral devices accomplish input andaccomplish input and output functionsoutput functions
  8. 8. 88 Input DeviceInput Device You use anYou use an input deviceinput device, such as a keyboard or a, such as a keyboard or a mouse, to input data and issue commandsmouse, to input data and issue commands  KeyboardKeyboard ErgonomicErgonomic  Pointing devicePointing device Controls the pointerControls the pointer MouseMouse  Scroll wheelScroll wheel TrackballTrackball Touch padTouch pad Pointing stickPointing stick  ScannerScanner
  9. 9. 99 Output DevicesOutput Devices Output devicesOutput devices show you the results ofshow you the results of processing dataprocessing data  MonitorMonitor Flat panelFlat panel LCDLCD CRTCRT  PrinterPrinter LaserLaser InkjetInkjet Dot matrixDot matrix
  10. 10. 1010 Memory UnitsMemory Units Random Access Memory ( RAM )Random Access Memory ( RAM ) Read Only Memory ( ROM )Read Only Memory ( ROM )
  11. 11. 1111 Backing StorageBacking Storage Which consists of the disk driversWhich consists of the disk drivers used to store data when the powerused to store data when the power is switched switched off. Magnetic mediaMagnetic media  Hard diskHard disk  TapeTape  Floppy diskFloppy disk Optical storage deviceOptical storage device  CDCD  DVDDVD  CD-RCD-R  CD-RWCD-RW  CD-ROMCD-ROM
  12. 12. 1212 Brain of ComputerBrain of Computer Central Processing UnitCentral Processing Unit CPU Control Unit Arithmetic Unit Logical unit
  13. 13. 1313 Control UnitControl Unit Responsible for coordinating the input andResponsible for coordinating the input and output Devices.output Devices.
  14. 14. 1414 ArithmeticArithmetic In which all the calculations are Involve.In which all the calculations are Involve. AdditionAddition SubtractionSubtraction MultiplicationsMultiplications DivisionsDivisions ModulusModulus
  15. 15. 1515 Logical unitLogical unit It contains the logical decisionsIt contains the logical decisions Greater thanGreater than Less thanLess than Equal toEqual to Not equal toNot equal to Greater than equal toGreater than equal to Less than equal toLess than equal to And operationsAnd operations Or OperationsOr Operations Not operationsNot operations
  16. 16. 1616 Why use Computer?Why use Computer? AdvantagesAdvantages Computers are extremely fastComputers are extremely fast Computers are very accurateComputers are very accurate Computers can keep large amount ofComputers can keep large amount of information in a small spaceinformation in a small space Computers can work continuously for 24 hours aComputers can work continuously for 24 hours a Computers can do some jobs that would beComputers can do some jobs that would be impossible without them.impossible without them.
  17. 17. 1717 DrawbacksDrawbacks Computers can replace peopleComputers can replace people Computers holds personal informationComputers holds personal information which may be misused.which may be misused. Problems arise when computers cannotProblems arise when computers cannot be used. Staff need to be trainedStaff need to be trained
  18. 18. 1818 SignalSignal That pass between the main processorThat pass between the main processor and the other hardware.and the other hardware. Control SignalControl Signal :: include signals sent out by the maininclude signals sent out by the main processor and the other hardware.processor and the other hardware. Data Signals:Data Signals: These are the groups of binaryThese are the groups of binary digits that are used to representdigits that are used to represent characters.characters.
  19. 19. 1919 Types of computers by SizeTypes of computers by Size Micro computersMicro computers Mainframe ComputersMainframe Computers Super ComputersSuper Computers Mini ComputersMini Computers Embedded ComputersEmbedded Computers
  20. 20. 2020 Micro ComputersMicro Computers Are the computers that you are most likely toAre the computers that you are most likely to encounter at home or in school and colleges.encounter at home or in school and colleges. It consist of one or more input device ,outputIt consist of one or more input device ,output device, memory and processor.device, memory and processor. ExamplesExamples PCsPCs ApplesApples
  21. 21. 2121 Types of Micro ComputersTypes of Micro Computers Desktop ComputersDesktop Computers Laptop and notebookLaptop and notebook ComputersComputers Personal Digital AssistantsPersonal Digital Assistants (PDA)(PDA) Palmtop ComputersPalmtop Computers
  22. 22. 2222 Mainframe computersMainframe computers Thousands of terminals attached to it.Thousands of terminals attached to it. Larger mainframe computers carry outLarger mainframe computers carry out 250 million instructions per second.250 million instructions per second. It Consist of multiple processors.It Consist of multiple processors. Used large organizations such as banks,Used large organizations such as banks, insurance companies, airlines andinsurance companies, airlines and government department.government department. Disadvantage:Disadvantage: Due to immense power they produceDue to immense power they produce large amount of heat so its require airlarge amount of heat so its require air conditioned.conditioned.
  23. 23. 2323 ExamplesExamples IBM43810IBM43810 NEC610NEC610 DEC 10 etcDEC 10 etc
  24. 24. 2424 SupercomputersSupercomputers Largest category of computer, costingLargest category of computer, costing millions of pounds.millions of pounds. It is complex, large storage and advancedIt is complex, large storage and advanced computers.computers. They are mostly used by scientific andThey are mostly used by scientific and industrial research departments.industrial research departments.
  25. 25. 2525 UsesUses NASANASA Weather centreWeather centre Stock ExchangeStock Exchange Weapon designWeapon design Mapping the surface of planets.Mapping the surface of planets. Studying the neural network of brainStudying the neural network of brain Preparing models of chemical systems.Preparing models of chemical systems.
  26. 26. 2626 ExamplesExamples CRAY-XPCRAY-XP ETA-10ETA-10 Blue skyBlue sky ASCI WhiteASCI White
  27. 27. 2727 Mini computersMini computers Have a size , power and cost somewhereHave a size , power and cost somewhere between those of microcomputers andbetween those of microcomputers and mainframes.mainframes. It is much powerful then some of theIt is much powerful then some of the mainframes still in use.mainframes still in use. It is used by business institutes andIt is used by business institutes and departments.departments.
  28. 28. 2828 ExamplesExamples Vax-8800Vax-8800 MV-1500MV-1500
  29. 29. 2929 Embedded Computers orEmbedded Computers or MicroprocessorsMicroprocessors Is a single chip that perform the functions of aIs a single chip that perform the functions of a central processing unitcentral processing unit Many microprocessors makes areMany microprocessors makes are Microcontrollers also called embedded.Microcontrollers also called embedded. Embedded computers serve as the brain of aEmbedded computers serve as the brain of a larger piece of machine.larger piece of machine. Their software is stored in the computer’s own.Their software is stored in the computer’s own. They serve as a personal computer but notThey serve as a personal computer but not have a monitor, keyboard and mousehave a monitor, keyboard and mouse
  30. 30. 3030 UsesUses Microwaves programmable ovensMicrowaves programmable ovens Blood pressure monitorsBlood pressure monitors Air bag sensorsAir bag sensors Washing machinesWashing machines Video recordersVideo recorders AlarmsAlarms Digital camerasDigital cameras MP3 playersMP3 players Car engine ControllersCar engine Controllers
  31. 31. 3131 Types of Computer by shapeTypes of Computer by shape Types Analog Digital Hybrid
  32. 32. 3232 Analog computersAnalog computers It provides continuous valueIt provides continuous value It represents physical quantities in theIt represents physical quantities in the form of wavesform of waves It has no stateIt has no state It has low memoryIt has low memory It is difficult to useIt is difficult to use It is used in engineering and scienceIt is used in engineering and science
  33. 33. 3333 ExamplesExamples ThermometerThermometer Analog ClocksAnalog Clocks Speed of the carSpeed of the car Petrol StationsPetrol Stations
  34. 34. 3434 Digital computersDigital computers It provides us discrete valuesIt provides us discrete values It represent physical values with help ofIt represent physical values with help of symbols or numberssymbols or numbers It has two states ON and OFFIt has two states ON and OFF It has big memoryIt has big memory These are easy to useThese are easy to use It is used in all field of lifeIt is used in all field of life
  35. 35. 3535 ExamplesExamples Digital clocksDigital clocks CalculatorsCalculators Laptop computersLaptop computers Score boardScore board
  36. 36. 3636 Hybrid ComputersHybrid Computers These are combination of analog andThese are combination of analog and digital computersdigital computers Some part of processing is done in digitalSome part of processing is done in digital and some part is done in analog.and some part is done in analog. The measurement may then be convertedThe measurement may then be converted into numbers and display in digital form.into numbers and display in digital form.
  37. 37. 3737 ExamplesExamples Patient Heart functionPatient Heart function TemperatureTemperature Blood pressureBlood pressure