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8.2 system analysis and design

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8.2 system analysis and design

  1. 1. 1 - 1 Systems AnalysisSystems Analysis and Designand Design
  2. 2. 1 - 2 Key Ideas  Many failed systems were abandoned because analysts tried to build wonderful systems without understanding the organization.  The primarily goal is to create value for the organization.
  3. 3. 1 - 3 Key Ideas  The systems analyst is a key person analyzing the business, identifying opportunities for improvement, and designing information systems to implement these ideas.  It is important to understand and develop through practice the skills needed to successfully design and implement new information systems.
  4. 4. 1 - 4 THE SYSTEMSTHE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFEDEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLECYCLE
  5. 5. 1 - 5 Major Attributes of the Life Cycle  The project -- Moves systematically through phases where each phase has a standard set of outputs Produces project deliverables Uses deliverables in implementation Results in actual information system Uses gradual refinement
  6. 6. 1 - 6 Project Phases  Planning (Why build the system? How should the team go about building it?)  Analysis (Who uses system, what will it do, where and when will the system be used?)  Design (How will the system work?)  Implementation (System delivery)
  7. 7. 1 - 7 A simple process for making lunch
  8. 8. 1 - 8  Identifying business value  Analyze feasibility  Develop work plan  Staff the project  Control and direct project Planning
  9. 9. 1 - 9  Analysis strategy  Gathering business requirements  Requirements definition use cases  Process modeling  Data modeling Analysis
  10. 10. 1 - 10  Design selection  Architecture design  Interface design  Data storage design  Program design Design
  11. 11. 1 - 11  Construction Program building Program and system testing  Installation Conversion strategy Training plan Support plan Implementation
  12. 12. 1 - 12 Processes and Deliverables Process Product Planning Analysis Design Implementation System Request Feasibility Analysis Workplan System Proposal System Specification New System and Maintenance Plan
  13. 13. Why systems fail?  Did not support business strategies  Poor planning and project management  Failure to understand user requirements  Poor cost estimating and benefit analysis  Design defects  Incompatible or inadequate technology  Lack of adequate controls  Unstructured, unmaintainable software
  14. 14. What makes successful systems?  User involvement  Systems planning and project management  Developing alternative designs  Functional design guides detailed design  Complete, concise, and clear documentation  Using a coordinated, planned approach  Post implementation reviews  Designing for systems maintenance
  15. 15. 1 - 15 SDLC MODELSSDLC MODELS  Waterfall model: has well-defined, linear stages of systems development and support.  Spiral model: shows that software is developed using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a linear approach.  Prototyping model: used for developing prototypes to clarify user requirements.
  16. 16. 1 - 16 Waterfall Model
  17. 17. 1 - 17 Pros and Cons of the Waterfall Model Pros Cons Identifies systems requirements long before programming begins Minimizes changes to requirements as project progresses Design must be specified on paper before programming begins Long time between system proposal and delivery of new system
  18. 18. 1 - 18 Prototype Model
  19. 19. 1 - 19 Pros and Cons of Prototype Model Pros Cons Reduces Schedule Time Less Chance of Rework Still Uses Paper Documents Sub-projects May Be Difficult to Integrate
  20. 20. 1 - 20 Spiral Model
  21. 21. 1 - 21 Pros and Cons of Spiral Model Pros Cons High amount of risk analysis Software is produced early in the software life cycle Can be a costly model to use Doesn’t work well for smaller projects
  22. 22. 1 - 22 Criteria for Selecting the Appropriate Methodology  Clear user requirements  Familiarity with technology  Complexity of system  Reliability of system  Time schedule  Schedule visibility
  23. 23. 1 - 23 TEAM ROLES AND SKILLSTEAM ROLES AND SKILLS
  24. 24. 1 - 24 Information Systems Roles  Business Analyst  Database Administrator  Systems analyst  Technical Lead/Architect  Application Developers  Software Quality Assurance Analyst  Technical Support
  25. 25. 1 - 25 Summary  The Systems Development Lifecycle consists of four stages: Planning, Analysis, Design, and Implementation  There are six major development methodologies: the waterfall method, the parallel development method, the phased development method, system prototyping, design prototyping, and agile development.  There are five major team roles: business analyst, systems analyst, infrastructure analyst, change management analyst and project manager.
  26. 26. 1 - 26 The End

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