Management Process


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Management Process

  1. 1. REC 375: Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services Jim Herstine, Ph.D., CPRP, CPSI Assistant Professor Parks and Recreation Management UNC-Wilmington
  2. 2. Management and the Management Process REC 375—Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services
  3. 3. Why is it important to learn and understand leisure service management principles and practices? <ul><li>To get the most out of our time and performance </li></ul><ul><li>To get the most out of our employees </li></ul><ul><li>To have our organization run effectively and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>To compensate for any reduction in tax support, investments and consumer spending </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is it important to learn and understand leisure service management principles and practices?, continued <ul><li>To increase our ability to compete for the remaining tax dollars, investment dollars and consumer dollars </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain our personal and organizational goals and objectives </li></ul>
  5. 5. What do we mean by a “Leisure Service Organization?” <ul><li>Public Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Private/Membership Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Private/Non-Profit Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial/Entrepreneurial </li></ul>
  6. 6. Goals of Leisure Service Organizations will vary accordingly to meet the needs, desires and expectations of the organization’s constituents and customers
  7. 7. Types of Leisure Service Organizations <ul><li>Service Organizations—Scouts, YMCA, YWCA </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Organizations—Spas, Resorts, Health Clubs, Bowling Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Organizations—Church Camps, Church Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental Organizations—Local, State and Federal Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Social Organizations—Country Clubs, Tennis Associations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Small Group Exercise <ul><li>Define “Management” </li></ul><ul><li>Define “Administration” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the primary purpose/duty of a manager? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it that successful managers do? </li></ul><ul><li>What roles do managers play? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Defining Management <ul><li>Working with and through individuals, groups, and other resources to accomplish organizational goals and objectives </li></ul>
  10. 10. Defining Management, continued <ul><li>A process of planning , organizing , directing and controlling organizational behaviors to accomplish a mission through division of labor and utilization of resources </li></ul>
  11. 11. Successful Managers Are Able To: <ul><li>Provide direction </li></ul><ul><li>Make and implement decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify trends </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize problems </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Manage and Resolve conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Audit poor performance </li></ul><ul><li>Reward excellent performance </li></ul><ul><li>Lead the organization to its goals </li></ul>
  12. 12. Managerial Functions <ul><li>The essence of management and managerial work is to make decisions and see that they are carried out!!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DECISION-MAKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFLUENCING </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Available Resources <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Informational Resources </li></ul>
  14. 14. Available Resources, continued <ul><li>A manager must use human resources in the best interest of the organization, without creating dissatisfied employees and customers. The achievement of this dual goal is difficult to obtain—why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different skills and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different physical characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different interests and aptitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different levels of aspiration and motivation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. In accomplishing his/her duties, a manager performs four (4) basic tasks—makes 4 types of decisions about the organizational resources
  16. 16. Types of Decisions <ul><li>Planning Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Directing Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Decisions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Planning Defined <ul><li>A systematic process of reaching a desired state by establishing goals and formulating strategies to achieve them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Planning Decisions <ul><li>Anticipates the future, sets goals and objectives and identifies the actions necessary for the organization to attain these goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Determining where you want to go and how and when you’re going to get there </li></ul><ul><li>It involves specifying a target, a path or route to be followed and a time schedule for achieving that target </li></ul>
  19. 19. Planning Decisions, continued <ul><li>SETTING GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>DETERMINING PATHS </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING </li></ul><ul><li>Effective managers set clear-cut plans, realistic time schedules and allow for contingencies </li></ul>
  20. 20. Organizing Defined <ul><li>The process of structuring and coordinating an organization’s resources to carry out the strategies formulated in the planning phase effectively and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Stated simply, determining what needs to be done and who is to do it </li></ul>
  21. 21. Organizing Decisions <ul><li>Develops a structure of interrelated tasks and allocates resources within this structure which leads to the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives </li></ul>
  22. 22. Organizing Decisions, continued <ul><li>Organizing decisions involve two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions made to set up the structure and design of the organization (Formal Organizational Chart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions made to assign resources </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Organizing Decisions, continued <ul><li>Organizing decisions affecting structure and design include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the number and type of departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the number and type of management levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue of accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue of scope of responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Organizing Decisions, continued <ul><li>Organizing decisions affecting the assignment of resources include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Organizing Decisions, continued <ul><li>DETERMINING STRUCTURE AND DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOCATING RESOURCES </li></ul>
  26. 26. Directing Defined <ul><li>The process of directing and motivating all involved parties to help achieve the organization’s goals effectively and efficiently </li></ul>
  27. 27. Directing Decisions <ul><li>Provide encouragement and guidance of employee’s efforts toward attaining the organizational goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be called “staffing decisions” or “motivating decisions” or “leading decisions” </li></ul><ul><li>Involve personnel issues or human resource issues </li></ul>
  28. 28. Directing Decisions, continued <ul><li>Directing/Staffing/Motivating/Leading decisions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages and Salaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health and Retirement Benefits </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Directing Decisions, continued <ul><li>LEADERSHIP STYLES </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION AND INCENTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>COACHING AND COUNSELING </li></ul>
  30. 30. Controlling Defined <ul><li>The process of monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations </li></ul>
  31. 31. Controlling Decisions <ul><li>Evaluates the performance of an organization and its units to see whether the organization is progressing in the desired direction, and taking corrective action when and where necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Making sure what you want to happen does indeed happen! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Controlling Decisions, continued <ul><li>Effective managers control without being oppressive </li></ul><ul><li>Effective managers instill a spirit of self-control in subordinates so that the burden of preying managerial eyes does not rest heavily on the shoulders of the subordinates </li></ul>
  33. 33. Controlling Decisions, continued <ul><li>THE QUALITY AND QUANITY OF CONTROLLING DECISIONS DEPENDS A GREAT DEAL ON THE QUALITY OF PREVIOUSLY MADE PLANNING, ORGANIZING AND DIRECTING DECISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>The better the planning, organizing and directing, the better will be controlling! </li></ul>
  34. 34. Controlling Decisions, continued <ul><li>Ineffective managers obtain short-term compliance through control at the expense of long-term commitment, which can only be obtained by planning, organizing and directing!!!!! </li></ul>
  35. 35. Controlling Decisions, continued <ul><li>MONITORING AND FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION AND ADJUSTMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECTIVE DISCIPLINE </li></ul><ul><li>PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL </li></ul>
  36. 36. Managerial Skills Mix <ul><li>Human Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Skills </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally agreed that there are three primary areas of skills, knowledge and ability that a manager must process in order to successfully carry out the process of management </li></ul>
  37. 37. Human Skills <ul><li>Ability and judgment in working with and through people, including an understanding of motivation and an application of effective leadership, in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conceptual Skills <ul><li>Ability to understand the complexities of the overall organization and where one’s own operation fits into the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Involves an understanding as to the manner in which each of the organization’s components fit together, in order to meet its goals and objectives </li></ul>
  39. 39. Conceptual Skills, continued <ul><li>Permits the manager to act according to the objectives of the total organization rather than only on the basis of the goals and objectives of one’s own immediate group </li></ul><ul><li>Further implies that the manager has an understanding of how his organization is affected by and relates to broader environmental factors </li></ul>
  40. 40. Technical Skills <ul><li>Ability to use knowledge, methods, techniques and equipment necessary for the performance of specific tasks acquired from experience, education and training </li></ul>
  41. 41. Managerial Skills Mix, continued <ul><li>According to a report by the American Management Association, the most important single skill of an executive is his or her ability to get along with people </li></ul>
  42. 42. Quote From John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>“ I will pay more for the ability to deal with people than any other ability under the sun”!!!!! </li></ul>
  43. 43. Managerial Skills Mix Matrix
  44. 44. Management Is: <ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SKILLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Management Is:, continued <ul><li>RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DECISION-MAKING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. The Management Process <ul><li>Inputs Throughputs Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Resources Decision-making Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Human Planning Profits </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Organizing Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Directing Satisfied Clients </li></ul><ul><li>Informational Controlling Products/Service </li></ul>
  47. 47. Managerial Skills Mix Exercise
  48. 48. Management Decision-Making Exercise
  49. 49. Management and the Management Process Jim Herstine, Ph.D., CPRP, CPSI UNCW [email_address] 910.962.3283