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INFO 3013 Summary.doc

  1. 1. INFO3013 : Systems Development Management Introduction Systems development management is about the process of building and delivering a computer-based information system to a customer, whether internal of external. This requires proper planning; an analysis of the project, its potential as an investment, the benefits and risks. The manager should be convinced that the project will succeed, is controllable, that resources will be forth-coming, and should carry out planning (as detailed as possible) before accepting the brief. The success of the project depends on more than just technical issues; commitment from the users, “ownership” of the system, effective communications, clear identification of the benefits and managing the delivery of these – these and other “softer” issues are often the key factors in determining success. Module Overview The nature of the project, its components, risks, success factors and associated politics. Information Systems investment justifications. Approaches to investment appraisal. Identification and management of benefits. Assessing the intangibles. Organisation of systems development. Reporting structures. Project planning and control. Work breakdown structures. Estimation, budgetting, planning methods (PRINCE 2). Project administration. Tracking and reviewing. Configuration management and change control. Staff management, motivation, leadership. Quality Management. Standards and accreditation. Managing software project risks Managing object-oriented projects (reuse). Rapid Application Development (DSDM), Extreme Programming Managing large-scale projects. Implementation and post-implementation review. Key Words : Planning and Control, Development Approaches, Team Management, Quality Management, Risk and Success Factors INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 1
  2. 2. Assessment There are two components : Examination (2 hours) 70% Individual Coursework 30% There is no requirement to pass each component separately. If you are having difficulties get in touch! For the assignment I can authorise a limited extension, subject to reasonable grounds. If you cannot attend the exam, you should submit (timely) mitigating circumstances. Reading List Recommended Text Hughes, B. & Cotterell, M. – Software Project Management (2nd ed.1999) (3rd ed 2002), McGraw Hill Bibliography Yeates, D. & Cadle, J. – Project Management for Information Systems (2nd ed), Pitman, 1996 Bradley, K. – PRINCE : A Practical Handbook, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993 Ince, D. – ISO9001 and Software Quality Assurance, McGraw-Hill, 1994 Farbey, B. Land, F. & Targett, D. – How to Assess Your IT Investment, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993 Londeix, B. – Cost Estimation For Software Development, Addison-Wesley, 1987 Youll, D. – Making Software Development Visible, Wiley, 1990 Journals European Journal of IS Software Quality Journal Journal of Strategic Information Systems INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 2
  3. 3. Particular Sources PRINCE-2 Project Management Method (Appendix A of Hughes & Cotterell) Also – BS 6079 – Guide to Project Management (Appendix B of Hughes & Cotterell) ISO 12207 – Software Lifecycle Data approach (Appendix D of Hughes & Cotterell) DSDM – You are strongly reminded that you are expected to undertake a significant amount of independent background reading. In both assessment components, reference to both academic work and to relevant real-life cases will help your grade. INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 3
  4. 4. INFO3013 Systems Development Management Assignment 2003/04 Issued : Thursday 29th January 2004 (week 1) Due : Thursday 1st April 2004 (week 10) You should choose one of the following titles, and write a report on that title. A range of views and responses may be appropriate – there is no single right answer – but be sure that your work addresses your title. I would expect between 1,500 and 2,000 words, but there will be no penalty for excessive length. The marking scheme below will be used, although the overall mark may not necessarily be a simple weighting of the components. Note that you will be expected to carry out independent research into your chosen area, and this should be reflected in your references/bibliography. Real-world experiences (your own or reported cases) may enhance your report, but do not let this be at the expense of academic sources! Assessment Criteria will include: Understanding of chosen area, identification of important issues. 60% Evidence of useful research 25% Presentation and clarity 15% If you are ill, or have other problems in submitting the assignment on time, let me know, and if you have a good case, we can come to an arrangement. I am able to grant extensions of up to 7 days – longer extensions may have to be approved at a higher level. Submit your report by post to Dr. Ibrahim Elbeltagi at De Montfort University Leicester. Make sure you are familiar with University policies concerning late submission and plagiarism. You should keep the copy of the coursework receipt you get when you hand in the assignment. Also, it is your responsibility to keep a back-up copy (paper or electronic) In case the original is mislaid Report Titles 1. The role of Staff Appraisal in motivating and retaining IT staff. 2. Effective leadership styles in managing the project team. 3. The implications of Object-oriented systems-building for project management. 4. Appropriate management approaches to DSDM projects. INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 4
  5. 5. INFO3013 Systems Development Management Session 99/00 Level Final Time allowed 2 hours Instructions to and Information for Candidates Answer all questions in Section A and two questions in Section B Section A This section is worth 40% of the marks. Answer all questions in this section. Some questions in Section A refer to the following brief. Students are encouraged to use either background reading or personal experience or both to make further reasonable assumptions about the project described below. A multi-national Reprographics company has recently agreed to the development of a £5 million on-line Sales and Marketing system, using client server technology, in its UK operation. The company is considering introducing a Rapid Development approach for this project. The system is to be implemented at the company’s headquarters and also throughout its independent dealer network of some seventy small companies. The investment evaluation for the project had the backing of both the UK company’s Chief Accountant and Sales and Marketing Head. The system is to be developed by an external software house although the Project Manager will be one of the company’s own employees. This external company has carried out projects for the company in the past and their managing director and the Software Development Manager have both expressed willingness to work with the company on management of the project. The Sales and Marketing Head knows that there will be some resistance from Sales staff to the system as they view it as an administrative issue that detracts from their main role of selling. There are also concerns around preparing the dealers for the new system as few of these have more than a basic I.T. infrastructure. The Software Development Manager has highlighted the rapidly changing nature of the client server tools market that may have an impact on the system development. A1 (a) Discuss how the PRINCE 2 project management methodology might be applied to the project outlined above. Ensure your answer addresses: INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 5
  6. 6. • The aspects of project management covered by the methodology. • The major processes involved and examples of key outputs from each. • The possible advantages and disadvantages of using PRINCE 2 for this project. (12 marks) (b) Identify THREE potential board members for the project above and outline the expected role of the Project Board in PRINCE 2. (6 marks) A2 (a) Identify THREE potential risks that might affect the success of the project above and suggest strategies for dealing with each of them. (6 marks) (b) Explain the functions you would expect a project planning software package to support. (6 marks) A3 Briefly outline a suitable set of Change control procedures for Software Configuration management that could be implemented on the project outlined above. Comment on the potential importance of these in this project. (10 marks) INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 6
  7. 7. Section B This section is worth 60%. Answer TWO questions in this section B1. (a) There is a perception amongst IT staff that activities to assure quality in systems development are a hindrance to meeting targets. Discuss how this perception could be challenged, stating the arguments you might employ. (6 marks) (b) Explain how software quality can be addressed in systems development, taking into account both the customer’s view and the technical view, commenting on how the nature of software makes assessment of quality more difficult. (12 marks) (c) Discuss how estimation of the time and cost of programming work can be undertaken, noting the usefulness of previous experiences. (12 marks) B2. (a) You have been given approval to recruit up to five new IT staff, to act as the nucleus of a project team to develop an application employing an Object-Oriented approach, of which your organisation has no prior experience. Discuss how you would undertake the recruitment of these staff, how you would integrate them into the team with existing staff, commenting on related issues such as staff development and motivation. (20 marks) (b) Discuss why regular appraisal of staff is beneficial for both the organisation and staff. (10 marks) B3. (a) Placing a value to the business of expenditure on Information Systems is something which many business managers find problematic. Explain why pure Return on Investment (ROI) methods are limited, and what other frameworks might be helpful to business managers in deciding how to assess their IS/IT expenditure. (18 marks) (b) Describe the benefits a business might hope to gain by outsourcing, and state what it should do to manage this successfully. (12 marks) INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 7
  8. 8. B4. (a) Discuss why IS/IT staff should understand the dynamics of the business, and need to be aware of the role of IT in the business, over and above purely technical issues, and how this might be encouraged. (15 marks) (b) Compare and contrast the BS6079 approach to project management with the PRINCE 2 methodology. (15 marks) B5. (a) Describe the Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), why it may be a better approach to systems development than traditional methodologies such as SSADM. (18 marks) (b) Discuss the activities an Object Technology Centre might carry out, with particular reference to the management of Reusable Assets. (12 marks) INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 8
  9. 9. INFO3013 Systems Development Management Session 2000/2001 Section A This section is worth 40% of the marks Attempt ALL questions in this section. Questions in Section A refer to the case study in Appendix A. Students are encouraged to use both background reading and personal experience to make further reasonable assumptions about the project. A1. Draw up draft Terms or Reference (ToR) for the IPFMS project. (6 marks) A2. Identify the risks which the IPFMS project might face, and describe what you might do to minimise their impact. (10 marks) A3. (a) Discuss whether PRINCE-2 or RAD would be more appropriate for the management of the IPFMS project. (10 marks) (b) With reference to PRINCE 2, describe a suitable organisation structure for the IPFMS project, where possible recommending individuals for key roles. (8 marks) A4. Explain how delivery of the IPFMS system could be managed. (6 marks) INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 9
  10. 10. Appendix A : Case Study : The IPFMS Project An international banking and financial services group intends to develop an internet-based personal finance management system (“IPFMS”), to allow high-worth individuals to better manage their affairs, by integrating their current account, savings, credit card, mortgage and personal loans to reduce interest payable. This will involve three divisions of the company (banking, mortgage and credit card), each of which operates autonomously, and is responsible for meeting its own performance targets, and are based in Leeds, Chester, and London. The banking and mortgage divisions run their own IT applications in Oracle and C++ respectively, while the credit card division outsources its operations to a third party, Hyperion, specialising in financial applications, using DB2 on IBM mainframes. IPFMS should allow individuals to access all their accounts under one umbrella over the internet, so that a full range of functions are supported, including viewing of balances, recent transactions, direct debits and standing orders, interest, etc., as well as inter-account transfers. The new application will integrate the existing systems with a new front-end (which will involve technologies new to the group, including HTML, ASP, Java,), and must address security issues as a top priority, to gain and retain customer confidence. The product will go live on 1st June 2002, in 8 months time, and has already been announced to the financial press; an extensive advertising campaign is due to begin in mid-September. It is intended that distribution of software to customers by direct download will start one month before the system goes live. The main board of the group sees this as a means to catch up on rivals who have already gone down this route, and hope that IFPMS will be a strategic mainstay of the group for years to come. The group Finance Director has overall responsibility for the success of the project, and has appointed one of his senior executives to liaise with the project leader, to monitor progress, and set priorities for the development team. At present, the final management structures for the new system has to be finalised. The team will be composed of 12 staff from the banking and mortgage divisions (database specialists, programmers and analysts), 15 new staff to develop the front end using the new technologies, 4 DB2 contractors to work closely with Hyperion on the credit card application, 2 staff seconded full-time from Hyperion, a communications expert, a security specialist, and 4 business analysts. Recruitment of the new staff and contractors is already in progress. Financial and marketing executives from both group headquarters and the divisions will be involved on short-term secondments. The project leader is an experienced IT manager from the banking division. INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 10
  11. 11. INFO3013 Systems Development Management Examination January 2002 Section B Answer TWO questions from this section. B1. (a) The manager of a systems development department has become convinced that his estimation of the work involved in new projects will be more realistic if he adopts an appropriate technique in estimating the programming workload. All development will continue to be in COBOL, which has been used in the department for the last 20 years. Prepare a briefing for the manager, noting the management issues involved. Propose a suitable method for estimation to be employed, describing the main features of this method. (15 marks) (b) Explain how the Critical Path Method (CPM) can be used to rigorously plan and control a project. Comment particularly on : - - the calculation of the total project duration - identification of the critical path - activity float Also note what may happen as the project proceeds. (15 marks) B2. (a) Explain why Configuration Management is important in the administration of systems development and maintenance. (10 marks) (b) A software house specialising in stock-trading systems has sold the standard first release of its system to ten traders in the City of London. In addition, it has created a unique version for a major German Bank trading in Frankfurt. Work is under way on second version to be released in 18 months time. The software house has made a firm commitment to fix any errors on customers’ machines, within 6 hours for critical errors where the system is unavailable, within 24 hours for serious errors, and within 7 days for minor errors. Describe the components of a Configuration Management Plan, which the software house could use. (20 marks) B3. As IT manager in a knitwear company in Leicester, employing 3 analysts, 8 programmers, and 2 end-user support staff, you have been given approval to recruit 2 people to replace an analyst and a programmer who have given notice of their intention to leave in 3 months time. You have not yet made up your mind as to the skills, experience and qualifications of the new staff, but you feel the department might benefit from the abilities and enthusiasm of a couple of recent computer science graduates. Also, it may be time to consider promoting one or possibly two people already in the team. Systems INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 11
  12. 12. development is currently in C++, following an Object-Oriented approach to analysis, design and programming. (a) Describe the issues, which you might consider in approaching this recruitment exercise. (10 marks) (b) Explain how you could carry out the recruitment process. (15 marks) (c) Outline the main reasons for carrying out appraisal of the existing staff at this time. (5 marks) B4. (a) The IT Director of a financial services group has decided that all new systems development will be object-oriented, so as to gain maximum benefits from software reuse. Discuss the issues to be considered in ensuring that this is successful, commenting on - organisational acceptance of reuse, assessment of reusable assets, and funding reuse. (15 marks) (b) Explain why traditional Return on Investment (ROI) techniques are of limited relevance in justifying the development of a new Information System. Particularly take note of the type of application to be developed, the accuracy of projected costs and benefits, the rate of return used, and the perception of general management that IS/IT expenditure is an overhead. (15 marks) 5. (a) The management of quality in software development presents particular problems to the project manager. Explain what the issues in quality are, addressing both the users’ viewpoint and the technical perspective, and recommend an approach, which might assist the project manager. (20 marks) (b) PRINCE 2 recommends guidelines for most project management areas, including – “Controlling a Stage”. Briefly describe the actions that the project manager might have to carry out while the Stage is being executed. (10 marks) INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 12
  13. 13. INFO3013 Systems Development Management Session 02/03 Level Final Time allowed 2 hours Instructions to and Information for Candidates Answer all questions in Section A and two questions in Section B The Case Study on which Section A is based has already been circulated to you, and is reproduced here in an Appendix Section A Answer all questions in this section A1. Briefly explain PRINCE 2’s recommendations for roles on the project board, and recommend THREE members for the EBA project. (6marks) A2. Identify up to FOUR major risks facing the development of the EBA system. (8 marks) A3. Using an appropriate framework, explain how the EBA system could be appraised financially. (6 marks) A4. Propose an outline Configuration Management system for the EPA project. (8 marks) A5. Identify FOUR major technical quality issues in the EBA system. (8 marks) A6. Discuss how the personnel on the project could become an effective team. (4 marks) INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 13
  14. 14. INFO3013 Examination Case Study January 2003 A copy of this Case Study will be provided with the examination paper. You may not bring this copy into the examination room with you. The NHS Electronic Booking Admissions (EBA) System Introduction Electronic booked admissions to hospitals operating in the public sector of health care in the UK, managed by the Department of Health (DoH) overall, is scheduled to be fully implemented by March 2005. The National Health Service (NHS) Plan (“A Plan for Investment, a Plan for Reform”) presented to Parliament in July 2000, says that “by the end of 2005, waiting lists for hospital appointments and admission will be abolished and replaced with booking systems giving all patients choice and convenience”. Electronic booking is designed to provide a system for doctors and other health professionals to refer patients to clinical specialists in hospital electronically, before they leave their local surgery. The General Practitioner (GP) will be able to book the appointment “there and then” at a time and place convenient for the patient. Requirements of Electronic Booking The targets for electronic booked admissions - that all bookings from GPs to outpatients or from outpatients to day case or inpatients should be made electronically by March 2005 - are considered to be achievable and an outline strategy has been prepared. The NHS Modernisation Agency has been closely involved in the production of the outline business case which provides a framework for local communities to use in implementing this. Work to implement electronic booking systems will be taken forward alongside the fourth wave of the NHS Plan. The Outline Business Case (OBC) has been developed, in the light of consultation with key individuals and organizations, and explains the role of electronic bookings and justifies it, and additionally addresses how the system will be sensitive to cultural norms within the NHS. The EBA project is run by the National Patient Access Team based in Leicester, under the guidance of Dr. Thomas Grafton, a practicing clinician who has been seconded for the duration of the project for 25 hours a week. He would not take the post unless he was also able to continue some professional clinical practice. INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 14
  15. 15. Currently there are only just over 50 hospitals that are able to facilitate electronic booking either within the hospital or between the GP and hospital, or both. There are already a number of sub-systems, products from the healthcare services division of XL Systems, a major American software house, which are being used already in some UK hospitals, and it is intended that the EBA system will interface with these. These include : - referral protocols; these control access to services to ensure only appropriate referrals are made, avoiding clinicians’ time being wasted, and providing significant potential for cost savings. - electronic referral forms; these simplify the usage of patient systems and allows integration with server-based databases to assist with searches and data entry. - GP appointment booking; this can allow the booking to be completed within 3 minutes, but can also make patient-based queries, update patient details, and view waiting list information for a specific patient. These 3 systems are designed to work together to allow the GP to book and confirm appointments whilst the patient is in the surgery. Rather than being a “first come first served” facility, access is controlled based on clinical protocols, so that only appropriate referrals are made. Some hospitals see this as a way of controlling demand as well as improving the service offered to patients. However, the 3 systems may also be implemented separately. EBA will add functions to allow : - complementary Booking Management Services - web-based enquiry facilities for comparative information about services, waiting times, etc. The technical team for the project is planned to comprise 10 analysts and 20 programmers, supplemented by 2 staff seconded from XL Systems, and a clerical staff of 5. It is expected that about 50% of the in-house staff will have to be recruited externally; the other staff are to be transferred within the NHS. A liaison officer will be appointed to ensure full engagement of other interested parties within the NHS – this is likely to be a person already working in hospital administration. The team will be based at a hospital administration building in North London. The technical environment is based on Microsoft© Windows© NT® Servers with a SQL Server 7.0 database. INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 15
  16. 16. It has to be emphasized that the EBA system must develop in line with NHS standards for Information Management, and that it will be part of the foundation for the next wave of development, under the leadership of the Modernisation Agency. The system is to be developed with, and tested in, a hospital in Manchester, which is already using the 3 XL Systems applications (referral protocols, referrals forms, appointment booking) with the General Practices in its area. A senior clinician at the hospital and several GPs from the area, have agreed to commit time to helping the project team specify the detail of the EBA system. Funding for the EBA project comes directly from the DoH, and the budget for the next year has already been agreed, and will support the current planned activities, although there is little likelihood of additional funds being made available for unforeseen eventualities. The funding for the following year is still under negotiation with the DoH. The NHSIA The NHS Information Authority (NHSIA) is a special health authority tasked with building the information core – developing the essential infrastructure on which hospital trusts, general practices, etc will operate. Connectivity through the NHS secure intranet, NHSNet, should allow local health communities the freedom to implement locally based solutions within a common national framework. It also builds on the national information and IT infrastructure. The NHSIA sets standards, or adopts standards in common with other government departments (on such areas as e-government and interoperability) and is implementing the roll-out of NHSNet. All general practices are now connected, The NHS Modernisation Agency This body was set up in 1999, to support NHS clinicians and managers in their efforts to deliver improvements to their services. The Agency’s two main roles are : - to modernise services, ensuring they meet the needs and convenience of patients, as outlined in the NHS Plan - to develop current and future NHS leaders and managers at all levels in the NHS, and all health professions The Agency will act as the “centre for excellence” in identifying and celebrating good practice in the NHS, and demonstrating how “know how” can be spread across the whole service. INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 16
  17. 17. Glossary Clinician – a specialist medical doctor (or Consultant) who operates out of a hospital, to whom the GP will send patients who require more expert diagnosis of their condition, or who require specialist treatment, often as a resident patient in the hospital. Examples of specialisms might include cardiology, cancer, hip replacement. Day Case – patient requiring specialist hospital treatment, who does require a bed in a ward for a few hours after treatment, but who do not need to stay in overnight. General Practitioner (GP) – the local doctor who works in a surgery or health centre, and is the person local people turn to for general health-care (minor ailments, vaccinations, etc.). Inpatient – patient who requires to be kept in hospital due to their serious condition, or for observation. Outpatient – patient requiring specialist hospital treatment, but who does not require a bed in a ward, and returns home after treatment. INFO3013 Systems Development Management – Module Overview 17