wood Vernaculer architecture


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  • . Himachal Pradesh here reflects sensitivity to local culture mainly by adopting the locally available materials to provide stability to the entire structure.
  • wood Vernaculer architecture

    2. 2. Vernacular architectureUse of wood in vernacular architecture
    3. 3. Latin word Vernaculus means domestic, native, indigenous. Vernacular architecture is a category of architecture based on localized needs and construction materials, and reflecting local traditions.
    4. 4. Vernacular architecture is influenced by:Localized needs Local construction material Local traditions Hence, varies from
    5. 5. Factors influencing vernacular architecture :•Topography •Climate •Materials and Resources •Users and lifestyle •Construction Technology •Culture and Traditions
    6. 6. There are 3 main types of timber: HARDWOOD SOFTWOOD MANUFACTURED BOARD TIMBER is the general name for wood materials.
    7. 7. Wood Can you name any types of wood? pine, oak, ash, teak, mahogany, maple, sycamore, birch, beech, walnut, cherry, zebrawood, balsa……. pine oak beech walnut maple zebrawood mahogany ash
    8. 8. Can you think of words that describe wood? warm, smooth, strong, flexible, strong, hard, soft, rough, ….
    9. 9. Hardwood This type of timber is produced from broad leaf trees that lose their leaves in winter – a deciduous tree. Uses - Oak is a hardwood and is used to make expensive furniture/flooring and Model aircraft made from balsa
    10. 10. This type of timber is produced from trees that do not lose their leaves Leaves are easily identified as Softwood trees grow much quicker than the hardwood ones, they are therefore cheaper to buy and far more available. Softwood is used for Softwood
    11. 11. Uses of soft furniture building construction packaging
    12. 12. These are manmade boards, which are made by gluing wood layers or wood fibers together. Manufacture d board Plywood is a widely used
    13. 13. LAYER IT … CARVE IT… BEND IT ….. you can ……
    14. 14. Why Specify Wood? Reasons to Specify: Cost Availability Ease of construction Thermal performance Aesthetics Design versatility
    15. 15. Can be used in: Single- and multi-story residential Schools Offices Industrial facilities Recreational centers
    16. 16. Design Flexibility Light weight Workability Adaptable in field Well suited to additions and retrofits Can be dismantled and
    18. 18. When we say Indigenous architecture, what do we mean? •Dwellings and structures that have responded to the topography and local climate of the region •They have been built using locally available resources •They have emerged out of hard necessities of the place and the lifestyle •They are built by user themselves without professional
    19. 19. In the Satluj valley region, the typical house consists of stone and timber walls, constructed in what is known as Kath-Kona style, an indigenous style of construction, In some parts of Himachal Pradesh, there is a popular use of
    20. 20. Kath-khuni An empirical building technique of Himachal Pradesh
    21. 21. A typical house in Himachal Pradesh is built using kath-khuni construction technique and is usually two or three storey high. Examples of kath-khuni houses
    22. 22. Examples of kath-khuni temples
    23. 23. Foundation and plinth Stone plinth is filled up to a meter from the ground level and higher in case of tower temples. The depth of the trench is relative to the height of the structure. For a two storey
    24. 24. 2. Wall (Wood-and-stone walls) The walls are constructed with alternate courses of dry
    25. 25. Typical Kath-khuni wall junction Detail showing layering of wood and stone including a truncated pyramid shaped corner
    26. 26. Two parallel crossbeams held together by a dovetailed member & Carpenter fixing a wooden log in the wall construction in Devidhar Wall construction Dry masonry wood-and-stone wall of a temple construction in Devidhar .
    27. 27. Wall punctures Windows are provided in walls with solid plank shutters on all four sides and are usually very small. The same window has rhythmic floral carvings on the outer face with a small opening
    28. 28. Wall storage units A typical wall storage unit is fixed in the peripheral wall
    29. 29. Projecting wooden balconies A typical two storey house with a cantilevered balcony on the top floor. The wooden members supporting the balcony rest on the wa
    30. 30. Projecting wooden balcony All the vertical posts are connected through a horizontal member on top, on which sit the perpendicular members (connected with a
    31. 31. Projecting wooden balconies
    32. 32. ROOF The roof structure is constructed out of wooden beams followed by purlins and rafters, topped with slate or wooden shingles
    33. 33. STRUCTURE Load Bearing Bhattar Wall ( Bhattar Means Filling of Stone or Brick) Kath Kundi or Kona (Kath means wood
    34. 34. FOUNDATION Stone Foundation In past Reinforcement of timber Beam and It was dry.
    35. 35. WALLS Beams (bhatar) in the walls act as ‘seismic bands’.(Himachal comes under Earthquake Zone – 4 & 5)
    36. 36. ROOF Sloping - Wooden Protects Dead load by falling down snow. Projects less load to the base structure of bhattar Roof frame binds all walls together
    37. 37. OPENINGS Small ( Max 3’0” wide) Height ( Max 6’0”) a bigger window, the beams go through the window.
    38. 38. FLOORING AND FLOOR Wooden Structure for I floor
    39. 39. Wood - the forests of the deodar wood and other mixed forests were easily available. Wood is used to impart stability to tall structures
    40. 40. KASHMIR VALLEY
    41. 41. SETTLEMENT Permanent Dhajji House Semi permanent Donga( House Boat Temporary Kacchi Huts
    42. 42. Permanent Structure Dhajji House
    43. 43. ‘DHAJJ’ MEANS
    44. 44. A Dhajji house is a patchwork of DHAJJI CONSTRUCTION For one and two storey earthquake resistant houses
    45. 45. Dhajji Walls Load Bearing Structure
    46. 46. Why is a Dhajji wall strong? In a usual house, an earthquake first makes: • ONE BIG crack, •then TWO BIG cracks, • then the walls fall out
    47. 47. Small panels distribute the energy evenly In a Dhajji house, there are: many SMALL cracks, and only small parts fall out. BUT THE WALLS REMAIN
    48. 48. A Dhajji wall is strong because: The small panels distribute the earthquake energy evenly. The friction between all the small elements and their in- fills breaks down the energy.
    49. 49. Dasa (plinth beam) Anchoring the Dasa to the foundation Protecting the Dasa against water and insects
    50. 50. Wall Finish Mud Plaster - Cow dung Plaster - Whitewash
    51. 51. OPENINGS Less openings Maximum 3’0” opening span Mainly in south and South-west Directions
    52. 52. Material Deodar Wood imparts stability to tall structures insect and termite resistant even when untreated, can withstand long periods of weather corrosion. It is used in making posts, beams, window and door frames, shutters, roofs etc.
    53. 53. ofing on timber and stone masonry wall ofing on timber and burnt brick masonry wallsheet roofing on stone masonry and tim sheet roofing on timber and burnt brick ma
    54. 54. House with timber balconies and two sided pi Taaq type construction Unbaked brick wall with timber element
    55. 55. Taq construction in Kashmir The typical ladder bands of timber runners and crosspieces embedded in masonry walls in traditional taq construction at
    56. 56. Bhatar construction in Pakistan Bhatar is a pashtoo word for beam. Wood is the main structural member and the crosspieces tying the parallel wooden beams
    57. 57. Temporary House Boat ( Donga)
    58. 58. HOUSE BOAT Donga Well planned Fully Wooden Delicate Kashmiri Wooden carving Modern Resources
    59. 59. Vertical members (‘shear keys’) attached to the outer façade to prevent out-of-plane failure of the walls.
    60. 60. Ladders made of a single trunk used for access to upper floors
    61. 61. uses in Trabzon turkey vernacular architecture eastern black sea region in turkey
    62. 62. Building materials Wood and stone are the major and common traditional building materials Wood issued for walls (bearing, strut, filler, partition walls and coating), floors (Beam and coating), frames (doors, windows and balcony balustrades), roofs (all
    63. 63. Use of wood in vernacular architecture in the ruler areas of Nepal Now mostly wood used for construction in hilly areas because it is easily locally available in hilly areas which fulfill the purpose of vernacular Architecture
    64. 64. The vernacular architecture of wood draws on environmental and cultural sources to create unique designs In the Carpathian Mountains near Ukraine , Slovakia and the surrounding foothills, wood and clay are the primary traditional building materials.
    65. 65. tor And Cribbage Construction Of Northern Pakistan
    66. 66. Timber lacing for strengthening walls The use of timber lacing is perhaps first described by emperor Julius Caesar, as A technique used by the celts in the walls of their fortifications.
    67. 67. Altit Fort Tower, Hunza, Showing ‘Cator And Cribbage’ Construction The Shikari Tower Is Around 1100 Years Old
    68. 68. Use of wood in vernacular Architecture of Ziarat Baluchistan (PAKISTAN) As ziarat is famous for junipers forest in the early time and even today local people use juniper wood for local construction
    69. 69. Use of wood in hilly areas of Pakistan
    70. 70. TEMPLES
    71. 71. THE PALACES
    75. 75. "Folk building growing in response to actual needs, fitted into environment by people who knew no better than to fit them with native feeling" FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
    76. 76. It is the architecture of the people, and by the people, but not for the people.” PAUL OLIVER defines in his book „Dwellings,‟
    77. 77. “It is a building designed by an amateur without any training in design………… The function of the building would be the dominant factor, aesthetic considerations, though present to some small degree, being quite minimal…………… Local materials would be used as a matter of course,
    78. 78. Histor y In 24 BC, the Roman emperor  Egnatius Rufus  The department was composed of 600 slaves. They were stationed around the city to watch for and extinguish fires
    79. 79. Conclusion •Vernacular structures - by empirical builders without the intervention of professional architects •In vernacular architecture - culture and climate play a vital role
    80. 80. REFERENCES LINKOGRAPHY: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_CijcaA9yq 58/TO_EfE03HhI/AAAAAAAAIHg/NSo 3geqzeYY/s1600/Mies%253B %2BBarcelon