Mastitis in dairy cows a case study of public health hazard in Sau Pharsatikar; Rupandehi, by Bijay Khanal
MASTITIS IN DAIRY COWS : A CASE STUDY OF PUBLIC
HEALTH HAZARD IN SAU-PHARSATIKAR; RUPANDEHI
IAAS, Rampur, TU
Bijay Khanal1,Gandhi Raj Upadhyay2
1, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences,Rampur,Chitwan;
2Senior Veterinary Officer , Animal Quarantine Office, Bhairahawa
The milk is considered as almost complete food which
is consumed by children to elders.
Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland
and udder tissue, and is a major endemic disease of
Mastitis is Characterized by Physical, Chemical and
Usually Bacteriological changes in milk and by
Pathological changes in the Udder.
It usually occurs as an immune response to bacterial
invasion of the teat canal by variety of bacterial sources
present on the farm, and can also occur as a result of
chemical, mechanical, or thermal injury to the cow's
Mastitis is well recognized as being a major problem as
it causes a serious wastage and undesirable milk quality.
Mastitis remains a major challenge to the worldwide
dairy industry despite the widespread implementation of
mastitis control strategies(A.J.Bardley,…..).
EFFECTS OF MASTITIS
• Direct losses due to mastitis.
• Treatment cost.
• Discarded milk.
• Repeated cases of mastitis.
• Decrease in milk yield.
• Milk quality changes.
• Decreased hygienic quality of milk and public
For each case of clinical mastitis in a herd population
there will usually be 15 to 40 subclinical cases (Philpot
and Nickerson 1991), and most clinical cases are
preceded by infection at the subclinical level.
The milk which is produced from the cattle suffering
from the mastitis is highly dangerous in human
consumption at raw stage.
There is high chance of getting infection with bacteria
from such milk on consuming milk products, where milk
may not be safe.
EFFECTS OF MASTITIS…..
To determine the prevalence and Causative agent of
mastitis and its importance to public health.
To know the Prevalence of Mastitis.
To know the situation of Mastitis Ward wise.
To know the management system of Farmers.
1. Site of Study
• This study was conducted in Sau-Pharsatikar VDC of
Rupandehi district, August 2013.
2. Questionnaire Survey
• To assess the management aspects and its possible risks on
Mastitis, questionnaire survey was conducted with each
farmer. Individual cattle from farmers’ shed were selected
and other relevant information was recorded.
Methods and Methodology
The Laboratory analysis of the collected milk samples
was carried out at Bacteriology unit of the Microbiology
Lab and Veterinary Teaching Hospital(VTH) Rampur,
Result and Discussion
• Table 1. CMT scores on milk of cows
CMT Scores Number Percentage
Negative 452 58.78
Trace 66 8.74
1+ 108 14.29
2+ 68 8.99
3+ 62 8.2
Level of infection
Others* Pasturella multocida, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Actinomyces bovis
, Actinobacillus liniereesi, Cryptococcus neoformans etc.
Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples:
Cultured in Blood agar
Incubated for 24 hours
Grams positive sub-cultured in
Pure colony in Nutrient agar
Grams positive samples were
subjected to Catalase test
Catalase positive were subjected to
Coagulase positive identified as
Fig. Coagulase Test
Method of isolation of E coli
culture in Mac conkey agar
pink colony obtained after 24 hours
incubated at 37oC
pure colony was then obtained
then was put in Brain Heart Infusion broth
various Biochemical test performed(Indole, Methyl
Red, Voges proskauer and Citrate utilization)
TABLE FOR BIOCHEMICAL TEST OF E. coli:
SHOWN BY E.coli
MR test +ve
VP test -ve
CU test -ve
TSI test y/y
EMB Green Metallic Sheen
Ward Wise Prevalence of Mastitis
It was found that , the difference in Prevalence of
mastitis in ward wise was -
• High in the society where people are poor,
uneducated and no care by VDC.
• Low in the society where VDC regularly launch
training on Agriculture and Animal Husbandry.
Result and Discussion……..
The prevalence of Mastitis in cattle of Sau-
Pharsatikar was 40.21% during examination.
Similar result was reported by Karimuribo et al.,
(2006)at Tanzania, in which out of 400 randomly
selected samples 46.2 % were found to be SCM
positive in CMT test.
Result and Discussion……..
• The higher prevalence recorded was not
surprising in this study since the farmers were
not applying recommended milking and hygiene
• There is high risk of infection from the mastitis
infected milk, if we consume raw milk or any
types of milk products.
• In the present context, We are haphazardly
using such product without thinking anything.
• The public health hazard of E. coli has been
emphasized by many authors, because these
bacteria have been implicated in human cases of
gastroenteritis, epidemic diarrhea in infants,
sporadic diarrhea in children as well as in cases of
food poisoning [Marier et al. 1973, Mossel 1982].
• S aureus is probably the most infectious agent in
the mammary glands that is extremely difficult to
cure,(Miles et.al. 1992)
• S aureus and E coli has been found as the major
bacteria causing Mastitis.
• The most extensive antimicrobial resistance
studies involving mastitis isolates have
investigated S aureus.( Jones et. al.)
• S aureus is not only a killing machine, it is also
hard to kill.
• Besides being antibiotic resistance, it has its
own way of defense system.
Symptoms of E coli infection
• Little or no Fever developed.
• RBCs are destroyed.
• Kidney Fails
• Hemolytic Uremia Syndrome (HUS).
- Main cause of Kidney Failure in Children. 29
Common Effects Of E coli
1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
• E coli is the most common uropathogen
isolated from persons with acute UTIs
accounting for 75-90% of cases(Ronald A. 2003).
Symptoms of S aureus infection
• Loss of appetite
• Sever abdominal pain
• Mild Fever
- A hair root (Follicle) is infected, causing slightly painful, tiny
pimple at base of hair.
• For the pooled data of mastitis the frequency
of samples containing
- S. aureus 17.3% and
- E. coli has 9.5% .
• The Prevalence of Mastitis found was 40.21%.
• Level of Mastitis was found higher (52.6%) in
Ward no. 9 & lower (29.4%) was found in Ward
• Hygienic control measures should be applied
during milk production.
• Farmers should be inspired for mastitis
management, udder health management, shed
management and nutrition management.
• VDC must regularly launch the trainings in the
field of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry.
• It is imperative that government provide
Financial support and subsidy to Farmers.
• Workshops, tours, Farmer's school should run
for better livestock management and healthy
• A.J. Bradley, Division of Animal Health and Husbandry, Department of Clinical
Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, pg no 116—128
• Karimuribo ED, TL Fitzpatric, CE Bell, DM Kambarage, NH mOgden, MJ
Bryant, and NP French, 2006. Clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in smallholder
dairy farms in Tanzania: Risk, intervention and knowledge transfer. Prev. Vet.
Med., 74: 84-98.
• MARIER R., WELLS J G., SWANSON R C., CALLAHAN W., MEHLAN I J.,
1973 − An outbreak of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli foodborne disease traced
to imported French cheese. Lancet ii 1376-1378.
• Miles, H.,W., Lesser and P. Sears.,1992. The economic implications of
bioengineered mastitis control. J Dairy Sci. 75.
• MOSSEL D.A.A., 1982 − Microbiology of Food. 3rd Ed., University of Utrecht,
The Netherlands ISBN.
• Philpot W.N. and Nickerson S.C. 1991. Mastitis: Counter Attack. A Strategy to
Combat Mastitis. Babson Bros. Co., Illinois, USA.
• Ronald A. The etiology of Urinary tract infection ; traditional and emerging
pathogens. Dis Mon 2003; 49; 71-82.
• Jones, A. T. M Higgs, F. K. Neave, et al 1967. The sensitivity of bovine
Staphylococci and Corynebacterium to cloxacilin and various other antibiotics. J
Dairy Res. 34: 249-255.
Dr. Dipesh Chhetri
Dr. D. K. Singh
Dr. Hom Bahadur Basnet
Dr. Anil Tiwari
Dr. Sikesh Manandher, Bhojan Dhakal, Dr.
Shatrughan Shah, Dr. Krishna Acharya, Dr. Ganga
Prasad Yadav, Dr. Ram Krishna Yadav, Dr. Surendra
Kanu, Dr. Manoj Kr. Mahato.